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ARIANS cal notary, apostolical brief, apostolical chamber, mind by which we apply the blessings of the Gos apostolical vícar, &c.

pel to ourselves. This appropriation is real when APOSTOLÍCAL CONSTITUTIONS, a we are enabled to believe in, feel, and obey the collection of regulations attributed to the apostles, truth; but merely nominal and delusive when and supposed to have been collected by St. Cle- there are no fruits of righteousness and true holiment, whose name they likewise bear." It is the ness. See ASSURANCE. general opinion, however, that they are spurious, AQUARIANS, those who consecrated water and that St. Clement had no hand in them in the eucharist instead of wine. Another branch They appeared first in the fourth century, but of them approved of wine in the sacrament, when have been much changed and corrupted since. received at the evening: they likewise mixed There are so many things in them different from water with the wine. and even contrary to the genius and design of ARABICI, erroneous Christians, in the third the New Testament writers that no wise man century, who thought that the soul and body would believe, without the most convincing and died together, and rose again. It is said that Oriirresistible proof, that both could come from the gen convinced them of their error, and that they sime hand. Grabe's Answer to Whiston ; Sau- then abjured it. Tin's dr. vol. ï. p. 185; Lardner's Cred, vol. iii. ARCHANGEL, according to some divines, p. 11. ch. ult.; Doddridge's Lect. lec. 119. mears an angel occupying the eighth rank in the

APOSTOLIC FATHERS, an appellation celestial hierarchy; but others, not without irausually given to the writers of the first century, son, reckon it a title only applicable to our Sa. who employed their pens in the cause of Chris- viour. Compare Jude ix, with Dan. xii. 1. 1 tuinity. Of these writers, Cotelerius, and after Thes. iv. 16. him Le Clere, have published a collection in two ARCHBISHOP, the chief or metropolitan volumes, accompanied both with their own anno- bishop, who has several suffragans under him. tations, and the remarks of other learned men. Archbishops were not known in the East till See also the genuine epistles of the apostolic about the year 320 ; and though there were some fatners by Abp. Wake. APOSTOLIC SUCCESSION. See Suc-only a personal honour, by which the bishops of

saan after this who had the title, yet that was CESSION.

considerable cities were distinguished. It was APOTACTITÆ, an ancient sect, who af- not till of late that archbishops became metropofected to follow the example of the apostles, and litans, and had suffragans under them. The ecrenounced all their effects and possessions. It clesiastical government of England is divided into does not appear that they held any errors at first; two provinces, viz. Canterbury and York. The but afterwards they taught that the renouncing first archbishop of Canterbury was Austin, apof all riches was not only a matter of counsel and pointed by king Ethelbert, on his conversion to alrice, but of precept and necessity.

Christianity, about the year 598. His grace of APPLICATION is used for the act whereby Canterbury is the first peer of England, and the our Saviour transfers or makes over to us what next to the royal family, having precedence of all he had earned or purchased by his holy life and dukes, and all great officers of the crown. It is death. Accurlingly it is by this application of his privilege, by custom, to crown the kings and the merits of Chrisi that we are to be justified queens of this kingdom. The archbishop of and entitled to grace and glory.

York has precedence of all dukes not of the royal Application is also used for that part of a ser- blood, and of all officers of state, except the lord mon in which the preacher brings home or ap- high chancellor. The first archbishop of York plies the truth of religion to the consciences of was Paulinus, appointed by pope Gregory about his bearers. See SERMON.

the year 622. APPROBATION, a state or disposition of ARCHDEACON, a priest invested with authe mind, wherein we put a value upon, or be thority or jurisdiction over the clergy and laity, come pleased with, some person or thing. Mo- next to the bishop, either through the whole dio ralists are divided on the principle of approbation, cese, or cnly a part of it. There are sixty in or the motive which determines us to approve or England, who visit every two years in three disapprove. The Epicureans will have it to be when they inquire into the reparations and only self-interest : according to them, that which moveables belonging to churches; reform abuses ; determines any agent to approve his own action, suspend; excommunicate; in some places prove is its apparent tendency to his private happiness; wills; and induct all clerks into benefices within and even the approbation of another's action their respective jurisdictions. tows from no other cause but an opinion of its ARCHONTICS, a sect about the year 160 or tendency to the happiness of the approver, either | 203. Among many other extravagant notions, immediately or remotely. Others resolve appro- they held that the world was created by archanbation into a moral sense, or a principle of be- gels; they also denied the resurrection of the body. nevolence, by which we are determined to ap ARCH.PRESBYTER, or ARCH-Priest, a prove every kind allection either in ourselves or priest established in some dioceses with a supeabers, and all publicly useful actions which we riority over the rest. He was anciently chosen imagine to tlow from such affections, without out of the college of presbyters, at the pleasure of any view therein to our own private happiness. the bishop. The arch-presbyters were much of

But may we not add, that a true Christian's the same nature with our deans in cathedral approbation arises from his perception of the will churches. of Gind? See OFLIGATION,

ARIANS, followers of Arius, a presbyter of APPROPRIATION, the annexing a bene- the church of Alexandria, about 315, who mainfice to the proper and perpetual use of some reli- tained that the Son of God was totally and essengious house. It is a terni also often used in the tially distinct from the Father; that he was the


ARK OF THE COVENANT created—the instrument, by whose subordinate | ment whatever in the divine dispensations. In operation he formed the universe; and, therefore, molern times, the term Arian is indiscriminately inferior to the Father both in nature and dignity : applied to those who consider Jesus simply subalso, that the Holy Ghost was not God, but ordinate to the Father. Some of them believe created by the power of the Son. The Arians Christ to have been the creator of the world; but owned that the Son was the Word; but denied they all maintain that he existed previously to that Word to have been eternal. They held that his incarnation, though in his preexistent state Christ had nothing of man in him but the flesh, they assign him ditlerent degrees of dignity. to which the xogos, or word, was joined, which Hence the terins High and low Arian. See was tne same as the soul in us. The Arians PRE-EXISTENCE. Some of the more recent vintwere first condemned and anathematized by a dicators of Ariarism have been H. Taylor, in his council at Alexandria, in 320, under Alexander, Apology of Ben Vordecai to his friends for bishop of that city, who accused Arius of impiety, einbracing Christianity; Dr. Haruord, in his and caused him to be expelled from the commu Five Dissertations ; Dr. Price, in his Sermons nion of the church; and afterwards by 380 fathers on the Christian Doctrine. See also the 4th vol. in the general council of Nice, assentbled by Con- of the Theological Repository, p. 153–163, stantine, in 3:25. His doctrine, however, was not and Cornishi's Tract on the Pre-existence of extinguished; on the contrary, it became the Christ. reigning religion, especially in the east. Arius On the opposite side, Bogue and Bennett's was recalled from banishment by Constantine in Hist of Dissenters, vol. iii. Abbadie, Waterland, two or three years after the council of Nice, and Guyse, Hey, Robinson, Ereleigh, Hauker on the the laws that had been enacted against him were Divinity of Christ ;-Culamy, Taylor, Gill, repealed. Notwithstanding this, Athanasius, Jones, Pike, and Simpson on the Trinity. then bishop of Alexandria, refused to admit him ARISTOTELIANS. The followers of Aris and his followers to communion. This so entotle. They believed in the cternity of the world, raged them, that, by their interest at court, they and represented the Deity as somewhat similar procured that prelate to be deposed and banished; to a principle of power giving motion to a machine; but the church of Alexandria still refusing to ad- and as happy in the contemplation of himself, but mit Arius into their communion, the emperor regardless of human affairs. They were uncer sent for him to Constantinople; where upon de- tain as to the immortality of the soul.- As this livering in a fresh confession of his faith in terms was rather a philosophical than religious sect, we less offensive, the emperor commanded him to be shall not enlarge on it. received into their communion; but that very ARK, or Noah's Ark, a floating vessel built evening, it is said, Arius died as his friends by Noah for the preservation of his family, and were conducting him in triumph to the great the several species of animals, during the deluge. church of Constantinople. Arius, pressed by The form of the ark was an oblong, with a tlat a natural want, stepped aside, but expired on the bottom, and a sloped roof, raised to a cubit in the spot, his bowels gushing out. The Arian party, middle; it had neither sails nor rudder; por however, found a protector in Constantius, who was it sharp at the ends for cutting the water. succeeded his father in the East. They under- This form was admirably calculated to make went various revolutions and persecutions under it lie steady on the water, without rolling, which succeeding emperors; till, at length, Theodosius might have endangered the lives of the animals the Great exerted every effort to suppress them. within. Their doctrine was carried, in the fifth century, The length of this ark was 300 cubits, which, into Africa, under the Vandals; and into Asia according to Dr. Arbuthnot's calculation, amount under the Goths.-Italy, Gaul, and Spain, were to a little more than 517 feet; its breadth, 50 cualso deeply infected with it; and towards the bits, or 91-2 feet ; its height, 30 cubits, or 54-72 commencement of the sixth century, it was tri- feet: and its solid contents 2,730-782 solid feet, umphant in many parts of Asia, Africa, and Eu- sufficient for a carriage for 81,062 tons. It conrope: but it sunk almost at once, when the Van- sisted of three stories, each of which, abating the dals were driven out of Africa, and the Goths out thickness of the floors, might be about 18 feet of Italy by the arms of Justinian. However, it high, and no doubt was partitioned into a great revived again in Italy, under the protection of the many rooms or apartments. This vessel was Lombards, in the seventh century, and was not doubtless so contrived, as to admit the air and the extinguished till about the end of the eighth. light on all, though the particular construction of Arianism was again revived in the West by Ser- the windows be not mentioned. vetus, in 1531, for which he suffered death. After ARK OF THE COVENANT, a small this the doctrine got footing in Geneva, and in chest or cofler, three feet nine inches in length, Poland ; but at length degenerated in a great two feet three inches in breadth, and two feet measure into Socinianism. Erasmus, it is thought, three inches in height, in which were contained aimed at reviving it, in his commentaries on the the golden pot that had manna, Aaron's rod, and New Testament; and the learned Grotius seems the tables of the covenant. The ark was repositto lean that way. Mr. Whiston was one of the ed in the holiest place of the tabernacle. It was first divines who revived this controversy in the taken by the Philistines, and detained twenty eighteenth century. He was followed by Dr. (some say forty) years at Kirjath-jearim; but, the Clarke, who was chiefly opposed by Dr. Water- people being alllicted with emeror's on account of land. Those who hold the doctrine which is it, returned it with divers presents. It was afterusually called Low Arianism, say that Christ wards placed in the temple. The lid or covering pre-existed; but not as the eternal Logos of the of the ark was called the propitiatory or mercy, Father, or as the being by whom he made seat ; over which two figures were placed, called the worlds, and had intercourse with the patri- cherubims, with expanded wings of a peculiar


ARMINIANS Lahernacle and temple in a visible cloud: hence persevere unto the end; and to inflict everlasting were issued the Divine oracles by an audible punishments on those who should continue in voice; and the high priest appeared before this their unbelief, and resist bis divine succours; so merey-seat once every year on the great day of that election was conditional, and reprobation in expiation ; and the Jews; wherever they worship- like manner the result of foreseen infidelity and ped, turned their faces towards the place where persevering wickedness. ibe ark stood.

II. That Jesus Christ, by his sufferings and In the second temple there was also an ark, death, made an atonement for the sins of all manmade of the same shape and dimensions with the kind in general, and of every individual in par tirst, and put in the same place, but without any ticular; that, however, none but those who be of its contents and peculiar honours. It was used lieve in him can be partakers of divine benefits. u a representative of the former on the day of III. That true faith cannot proceed from the expiation, and a repository of the original copy of exercise of our natural faculties and powers, nor the holy Scriptures, collected by Ezra and the from the force and operation of free will; since men of the great synagogue after the captivity ; inan, in consequence of his natural corruption, is and, in imitation of this, the Jews, to this day, incapable either of thinking or doing any good have a kind of ark in their synagogues, wherein thing; and that, therefore, it is necessary, in order their sacred books are kept.

to his conversion and salvation, that he be regeARMENIANS, the inhabitants of Armenia, nerated and renewed by the operations of the Holy whose religion is the Christian of the Eutychian Ghost, which is the gift of God through Jesus sect; that is, they hold but one nature in Jesus Christ. Christ. See EUTYCHIANS. They assert also the IV. That this divine grace or energy of the procession of the Holy Ghost from the Father Holy Ghost begins and perfects every thing that only. They believe that Christ, at his descent can be called good in man, and, consequently all into hell freed the souls of the damned from good works are to be attributed to God alone ; thence, and reprieved them to the end of the that, nevertheless, this grace is offered to all, and world, when they shall be remanded to eternal does not force men to act against their inclinations, flames. They believe that the souls of the righte- but may be resisted and rendered ineffectual by ous shall not be admitted to the beatific vision till the perverse will of the impenitent sinner. Some after the resurrection, notwithstanding which they modern Arminians interpret this and the last arpray to departed saints, adore their pictures, and ticle with a greater latitude. burn lamps before them. The Armenian clergy V. That God gives to the truly faithful, who consist of patriarchs, archbishops, doctors, secular are regenerated by his grace, the means of prepriests, and monks. The Armenian monks are serving themselves in this state. The first Arof the order of St. Basil; and every Wednesday minians, indeed, had some doubt with respect to and Friday they eat neither fish, nor eggs, nor the closing part of this article; but their followoil

, nor any thing made of milk; and during Lent ers uniformly maintain that the regenerate may they live upon nothing but roots. They have lose true justifying faith, fali from a state of grace, seven sacraments; baptism, confirmation, pe- and die in their sins.” nance, the eucharist, extreme unction, orders, and After the appointment of Arminius to the theo matrimony.—They admit infants to the commu- logical chair at Leyden, he thought it his duty to nion at two or three months old. They seem to avow and vindicate the principles which he had place the chief part of their religion in fastings embraced ; and the freedom with which he puband abstinences; and, among the clergy, the higher lished and defended them, exposed him to the the degree, the lower they must live; insomuch, resentment of those that adhered to the theologithat it is said the archbishops live on nothing but cal system of Geneva, which then prevailed in pulse. They consecrate holy water but once a Holland; but his principal opponent was Gomar, fear; at which time every one fills a pot, and his colleague. The controversy which was thus carnes it home, which brings in a considerable begun became more general after the death of revenue to the church.

Arminius, in the year 1609, and threatened to ARMINIANS, persons who follow the doc- involve the United Provinces in civil discord. trines of Arminius, who was pastor at Amster. The Arminian tenets gained ground under the dam, and afterwards professor of divinity at Ley- mild and favourable treatment of the magistrates den. Arminius had been educated in the opinions of Holland, and were adopted by several persons of Calvin; but, thinking the doctrine of that great of merit and distinction. 'The Calvinists or Goman with regard to free will, predestination and marists, as they were now called, appealed to a grace, too severe, he began to express his doubts national synod; accordingly, the synod of Dort concerning them in the year 1591; and, upon was convened, by order of the states-general, in further inquiry, adopted the sentiments of those 1618; and was composed of ecclesiastic deputies whose religious syetem extends the love of the from the United Provinces as well as from the Supreme Being and the merits of Jesus Christ to reformed churches of England, Hessia, Bremen, all mankind. The Arminians are also called Re- Switzerland, and the Palatinate. The principal monstrants, because, in 1611, they presented a advocate in favour of the Arminians was Episcoremonstrance to the states-general, wherein they pius, who at that time was professor of divinity state their grievances, and pray for relief. at Leyden. It was first proposed to discuss the

The distinguishing tenets of the Arminians principal subjects in dispute, that the Arminians may be comprised in the five following articles should be allowed to state and vindicate the relative to predestination, universal redemption, grounds on which their opinions were founded; the corruption of man, conversion, and perseve but, some difference arising, as to the proper mode rance, viz.

of conducting the debate, the Arminians were I. That God, from all eternity, determined to excluded from the assembly, their case was triod bestow salvation on those who be foresaw would in their absence, and they were pronounced guilty


ANATHEMA and related a number of visions and revelations, the mind, not only to the knowledge of divine with which they pretended to have been favoured things, but of divine things in the next life. The from above: but, when they found that this word is seldom used, but with regard to the difwould not avail, and that the ministry of Luther ferent senses of the Scripture. The anagogical and other reformers was detrimental to their sense is when the sacred text is explained with cause, they then madly attempted to propagate regard to eternal life, the point which Christians their sentiments by force of arms. Munzer and should have in view; for example, the rest of the his associates, in the year 1525, put themselves at sabbath, in the anagogical sense, signifies the rethe head of a numerous arıny, and declared war pose of everlasting happiness. against all laws, governments, and magistrates of ANALOGY OF FAITH, is the proportion every kind, under the chimerical pretext, that that the doctrines of the Gospel bear to each other, Christ himself was now to take the reins of all or the close connection between the truths of regovernment into his hands : but this seditious vealed religion, Rom. xii. 6. This is considered as crowd was routed and dispersed by the elector of a grand rule for understanding the true sense of Saxony and other princes, and Munzer, their Scripture. It is evident that the Almighty doth leader, put to death.

not act without a design in the system of ChrisMany of his followers, however, survived, and tianity, any more than he does in the works of propagated their opinions through Germany, nature. Now this design must be uniform; for Switzerland, and Holland. In 1533, a party of as in the system of the universe every part is prothem settled at Munster, under two leaders of the portioned to the whole, and made subservient to names of Matthias and Bockholdt. Having it, so in the system of the Gospel all the various made themselves masters of the city, they deposed truths, doctrines, declarations, precepts, and prothe magistrates, confiscated the estates of such as mises, must correspond with and tend to the end had escaped, and deposited the wealth in a public designed. For instance, supposing the glory of treasury for common use. They made prepara- God in the salvation of man by free grace be the tions for the defence of the city; invited the grand design; then, whatever doctrine, assertion, Anabaptists in the Low Countries to assemble at or hypothesis, agree not with this, is to he conMunster, which they called Mount Sion, that sidered as false.-Great care, however, must be from thence they night reduce all the nations of taken, in making use of this method, that the in the earth under their dominion. Matthias was quirer previously understand the whole scheme, soon cut off by the bishop of Munster's army, and and that he harbour not a predilection only for a was succeeded by Bockholdt, who was proclaimed part; without attention to this, we shall be liable by a special designation of heaven, as the pretended to error. If we come to the Scriptures with any king of Sion, and invested with legislative powers preconceived opinions, and are more desirous to like those of Moses. The city of Munster, how- put that sense upon the text which quadrates ever, was taken, after a long siege, and Bockholdt with our sentiments, rather than the truth, it bepunished with death.

comes then the gy of our faith, rather than It must be acknowledged that the true rise of that of the whole system. This was the source the insurrections of this period ought not to be of the error of the Jews, in our Saviour's time. attributed to religious opinions. The first insur. They searched the Scriptures; but, such were gents groaned under severe oppressions, and took their favourite opinions, that they could not, or up arms in defence of their civil liberties; and of would not discover that the sacred volume testithese commotions the Anabaptists seem rather to fied of Christ. And the reason was evident; for have availed themselves, than to have been the their great rule of interpretation was, what they prime movers. That a great part were Anabap- might call the analogy of faith, i. e. the system tists seems indisputable; at the same time, it ap of the Pharisean scribes, the doctrine thenin vogue, pears from history, that a great part also were and in the profound veneration of which they Roman Catholics, and a still greater part of those had been educated. Perhaps there is hardly any who had scarcely any religious principles at all. sect but what has inore or less been guilty in this Indeed, when we read of the vast numbers that respect. It may, however, be of use to the serious were concerned in these insurrections, of whom it and candid inquirer; for, as some texts may seem is reported that 109,000 fell by the sword, it ap to contradict each other, and difficulties present pears reasonable to conclude that they were not themselves, by keeping the analogy of faith in all Anabaptists.

view, he will the more easily resolve those ditliculIt is but justice to observe also, that the Bap-ties, and collect the true sense of the sacred oratists in England and Holland are to be considered cles. What "the aphorisms of Hippocrates are in a different light from those above mentioned: to a physician, the axioms in geometry to a mathey profess an equal aversion to all principles of thematician, the adjudged cases in law to a coun. rebellion on the one hand, and to enthusiasm on sellor, or the maxims of war to a general, such is the other. See Robertson's Hist. of Charles V.; the analogy of faith to a Christian.” Of the Enc. Brit. vol. i. p. 644; and articles Baptists analogy of religion to the constitution and course and MENNONITES.

of nature, we must refer our readers to Bishop ANACHORETS, or ANCHORITEs, a sort of Butler's excellent treatise on that subject. monks in the primitive church, who retired from ANATHEMA, imports whatever is set apart, the society of mankind into some desert, with a separated, or divided; but is most usually meant view to avoid the temptations of the world, and to to express the cutting off of a person from the be more at leisure for prayer, meditation, &c. communion of the faithful. It was practised in Such were Paul, Anthony, and Hilarion, the the primitive church against notorious otlenders first founders of monastic life in Egypt and Pa- Several councils also have pronounced anathelestine.

mas against such as they thought corrupted the ANAGOGICAL, signifies mysterious, trans purity of the faith. Anaihema Ålaranatha, menporting: and is used to express whatever elevatestioned by Paul, (1 Cor. xiv. 22,) imports that he



ANGELS who lyrps not the Lord Jesus will be accursed at tion, and we dare not indulge a spirit of conjechis coming. Anathema signifies a thing devoted ture. It is our happiness to know tnat they to destruction, and Maranatha is a Syriac word, are all ministering spirits, sent forth to minister signifying the Lord comes. It is probable in this to them who are heirs of salvation. passage there is an allusion to the form of the As to the nature of these beings, we are told that Jews whe, when unable to inflict so great a they are spirits; but whether pure spirits, divested of punishment as the crime deserved, devoted the all matter, or united to some thin bodies, or corpoculprit to the immediate vindictive retribution of real vehicles, has been a controversy of long standdisine vengeance, both in this life and in a future ing; the more general opinion is, that they are sub

stances entirely spiritual, though they can at any ANDRONA, a term used for that part in time assume bodies, and appear in human shape, churches which was destined for the men. An. Gen. xviii. xix, and xxxi. Matt. xxviii. Luke i. ciently, it was the custom for the men and women &c. The Scriptures represent them asendued with to have separate apartments in places of worship, extraordinary wisdom and power, 2 Sam. xiv. 20. where they performed their devotions asunder, Ps. ciii. 20; holy and regular in their inclinations; which method is still religiously observed in the zealous in their employ, and completely happy in Greek church.

their minds, Job xxxviii. 7. Heb. i. 7. Matt. ANGEL, a spiritual intelligent substance, the xviii. 10. Their number seems to be great, Ps. first in rank and dignity among created beings. Ixviij. 17. Heb. xii. 22; and perhaps have disThe word angel (x9 79205) is Greek, and signifies tinct orders, Col. i. 16, 17. 1 Pet. ii. 22. 1 Thes. 1 messenger. The Hebrew word 78 hos signi-jiv. 16. Dan. x. 13. They are delighted with the fies the same. Angels, therefore, in 'the proper grand scheme of redemption, and the conversion signification of the word, do not import the na- of sinners to God, Luke ii. 12. 1 Pet. i. 12. Luke ture of any being, but only the office to which xv. 10. They not only worship God, and exethey are appointed, especially by way of message cute his commands at large, but are attendant on or intercourse between God and his creatures. the saints of God while here below, Ps. xci. 11, Hence the wond is used differently in various 12. Heb. i. 13. Luke xvi. 22. Some conjecture parts of the Scripture, and signifies, 1. Human that every good man has his particular guardian messengers, or agents for others. 2 Sam. ii. 5. ange!, Matt. xviii. 10. Acts xii. 15; but this is " David sert messengers (Heb. angels) to Jabesh easier to be supposed than to be proved; nor is Gilead.” Prov. xüi. 17. Mark 1. 2. James ü. it a matter of consequence to know. “What 25.-2. Officers of the churches, whether pro- need we dispute," says Henry, "whether every phets or orlinary ministers, Hag. i. 13. Rev. i. particular saint has a guardian angel, when we 2.-3. Jesus Christ, Mal. ii. 1. Is. lxiii. 9.- are sure he has a guard of angels about him?" 4. Some add the dispensations of God's provi- They will gather the elect in the last day, attend dence, either beneficial or calamitous, Gen. xxiv. the final judgment, Matt. xxv. 31. Rev. xiv. 18. 7. Ps. xxxiv. 7. Acts xü. 23. 1 Sam. xiv. 14; but Matt. xii. 39; and live for ever in the world of I must confess, that, though I do not at all see the glory, Luke xx. 36. impropriety of considering the providences of Although the angels were originally created God as his angels or messengers for good or for perfect, yet they were mutable: some of them evil, yet the passages generally adduced under sinned, and kept not their first estate; and so, this head do not prove to me that the providences of the most blessed and glorious, became the most of God are meani in distinction from created an- vile and miserable of all God's creatures. They gels.-5. Created intelligences, both good and were expelled the regions of light, and with heabad. Heb. i. 14. Jude vi. ; the subject of the pre- ven lost their heavenly disposition, and fell into sent article.- As to the time when the angels a settled rancour against God, and malice against were created, much has been said by the learned. men. What their offence was is difficult to deSome wonder that Moscs, in his account of the termine, the Scripture being silent about it. Some creation, should pass over this in silence. Others think envy, others unbeliet'; but most suppose it suppose that he did this because of the proneness was pride. As to the time of their fall, we are of the Gentile world, and even the Jews, to idola- certain it could not be before the sixth day of the try: but a better reason has been assigned by creation, because on that day it is said, "God saw others, viz. that this first history was purposely every thing that he had made, and behold it was and principally written for information concerning very good;" but that it was not long after, is very the visible world; the invisible, of which we probable, as it must have preceded the fall of our know but in part, being reserved for a better life. first parents. The number of the fallen angels Some think that the idea of God's not creating seems to be great, and, like the holy angels, perthem before this world was made, is very con- haps, have various orders among them, Matt

. tracted. To suppose, say they, that no creatures xii. 24. Eph. ii. 2. vi. 12. Col. i. 15. Rev. xii, whatever, neither angels nor other worlds, hau 7. Their constant employ is not only doing evil been created previous to the creation of our themselves, but endeavouring by all arts to secluce world, is to suppose that a Being of infinite and pervert mankind, 1 Pet. v. 8. Job. i. 6. It pet, wiselom, and goodness, had remained is supposed they will be restrained during the intally inactive from all eternity, and had per- millennium, Rev. xx.2; but afterwards again, for milud the infinity of space to contin a perfect a short time, deceive the nations, Rev. XX. 8; and varuum till within th se 600) years; that such then be finally punished, Matt. xxv. 41. The ap ilea only tends to discredit revelation, instead authors who have written on this subject have of serving it. On the other hand it is alleged, been very numerous; we shall only refer to a that they must have been created within the six tew: Reynolds's Inquiryinto the Sluie and Eco days; because it is said, that within this space nomy of the Angelical World; Cudworth's In Gud made heaven and earth, and all things that tellectual System ; Doddridge's Lech p. 10. leot. are therein. It is, however, a needless specula- 210 to 214; Millon's Paradise Lost, Bp. Nera

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