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ARMINIANS Lahernacle and temple in a visible cloud: hence persevere unto the end; and to inflict everlasting were issued the Divine oracles by an audible punishments on those who should continue in voice; and the high priest appeared before this their unbelief, and resist his divine succours ; so mercy-seat once every year on the great day of that election was conditional, and reprobation in expiation; and the Jews, wherever they worship like manner the result of foreseen infidelity and ped, turned their faces towards the place where persevering wickedness. the ark stood.

II. That Jesus Christ, by his sufferings and In the second temple there was also an ark, death, made an atonement for the sins of all manmade of the same shape and dimensions with the kind in general, and of every individual in par first, and put in the same place, but without any ticular; that, however, none but those who be of its contents and peculiar honours. It was used lieve in him can be partakers of divine benefits. as a representative of the former on the day of III. That true faith cannot proceed from the expiation, and a repository of the original copy of exercise of our natural faculties and powers, nor the holy Scriptures, collected by Ezra and the from the force and operation of free will; since men of the great synagogue after the captivity; man, in consequence of his natural corruption, is and, in imitation of this, the Jews, to this day, incapable either of thinking or doing any good have a kind of ark in their synagogues, wherein thing; and that, therefore, it is necessary, in order their sacred books are kept.

to his conversion and salvation, that he be regeARMENIANS, the inhabitants of Armenia, nerated and renewed by the operations of the Holy whose religion is the Christian of the Eutychian Ghost, which is the gift of God through Jesus sect; that is, they hold but one nature in Jesus Christ. Christ. See EUTYCHIANS. They assert also the IV. That this divine grace or energy of the procession of the Holy Ghost from the Father Holy Ghost begins and perfects every thing that only. They believe that Christ, at his descent can be called good in man, and, consequently all into hell freed the souls of the damned from good works are to be attributed to God alone ; thence, and reprieved them to the end of the that, nevertheless, this grace is offered to all, and world, when they shall be remanded to eternal does not force men to act against their inclinations, flames. They believe that the souls of the righte- but may be resisted and rendered ineffectual by ous shall not be admitted to the beatific vision till the perverse will of the impenitent sinner. Some after the resurrection, notwithstanding which they modern Arminians interpret this and the last arpray to departed saints, adore their pictures, and ticle with a greater latitude. burn lamps before them. The Armenian clergy V. That God gives to the truly faithful, who consist of patriarchs, archbishops, doctors, secular are regenerated by his grace, the means of prepriests, and monks. The Armenian monks are serving themselves in this state. The first Arof the order of St. Basil ; and every Wednesday minians, indeed, had some doubt with respect to and Friday they eat neither fish, nor eggs, nor the closing part of this article ; but their followoil, nor any thing made of milk; and during Lent ers uniformly maintain " that the regenerate may they live upon nothing but roots. They have lose true justifying faith, fali from a state of grace, seven sacraments; baptism, confirmation, pe- and die in their sins.” nance, the eucharist, extreme unction, orders, and After the appointment of Arminius to the theo matrimony.—They admit infants to the commu- logical chair at Leyden, he thought it his duty to mion at two or three months old. They seem to avow and vindicate the principles which he had place the chief part of their religion in fastings embraced ; and the freedom with which he puband abstinences; and, among the clergy, the higher lished and defended them, exposed him to the the degree, the lower they must live; insomuch, resentment of those that adhered to the theologithat it is said the archbishops live on nothing but cal system of Geneva, which then prevailed in pulse. They consecrate holy water but once a Holland; but his principal opponent was Gomar, year; at which time every one fills a pot, and his colleague. The controversy which was thus carries it home, which brings in a considerable begun became more general after the death of fevenue to the church.

Arminius, in the year 1609, and threatened to ARMINIANS, persons who follow the doc- involve the United Provinces in civil discord. trines of Arminius, who was pastor at Amster- The Arminian tenets gained ground under the dam, and afterwards professor of divinity at Ley. mild and favourable treatment of the magistrates den. Arminius had been educated in the opinions of Holland, and were adopted by several persons of Calvin; but, thinking the doctrine of that great of merit and distinction. 'The Calvinists or GoIman with regard to free will, predestination and marists, as they were now called, appealed to a grace, too severe, he began to express his doubts national synod; accordingly the synod of Dort concerning them in the year 1591 ; and, upon was convened, by order of the states-general, in further inquiry, adopted the sentiments of those 1618; and was composed of ecclesiastic deputies wbose religious syetem extends the love of the from the United Provinces as well as from the Supreme Being and the merits of Jesus Christ to reformed churches of England, Hessia, Bremen, all inankind. The Arminians are also called Re- Switzerland, and the Palatinate. The principal monstrants, because, in 1611, they presented a advocate in favour of the Arminians was Episcoremonstrance to the states-general, wherein they pius, who at that time was professor of divinity state their grievances, and pray for relief. at Leyden. It was first proposed to discuss the

The distinguishing tenets of the Arminians principal subjects in dispute, that the Arminians may be comprised in the five following articles should be allowed to state and vindicate the relative to predestination, universal redemption, grounds on which their opinions were founded; the corruption of man, conversion, and perseve- but, some difference arising, as to the proper modo rance, viz.

of conducting the debate, the Arminians were I. That God, from all eternity, determined to excluded from the assembly, their case was triod bestow salvation on those who be foresaw would in their absence, and they were pronounced guilty


ATONEMENT stant prayer, consulting the sacred oracles, Chris- carries in the very face of it all the arguments tian communication, attendance on the divine and characters of a wise design and contrivance. ordinances, and perseverance in the path of duty; Was ever any considerable work, in which there without which all our assurance is but presump- was required a great variety of parts, and a regution, and our profession but hypocrisy. lar and orderly disposition of those parts, done

Assurance may be lost for a season through by chance? Will chance fit means to ends, ani balily diseases which depress the spirits, unwatch- that in ten thousand instances, and not fail in fulness, falling into sin, manifold temptations, any one? How often might a man, after he ha worldly cares, and neglect of private duty. He jumbled a set of letters in a bag, ting them out therefore, who would wish to enjoy this privilege, upon the ground before they would fall ito an let him cultivate communion with God, exercise a exact poem; yea, or so much as make a good diswatchful spirit against his spiritual enemies, and course in prose? And may not a little book be give himself unreservedly to him whose he is, and as easily made by chance as the great volume of whom he professes to serve. See Sıurin's Ser. the world? How long might a man be in sprink. vol. iii, ser. 10, Eng. ed.; Case's Sermons, ser. 13.; ling colours upon canvass with a careless handy Lambert's Ser.on John ix. 35; Herrey's Theron before they would happen to make the exact picand Aspasio, dialogue 17; Howe's Works, vol. i. ture of a man? And is a man easier made p. 312, 318; Brooks, Burgess, Roberts, Baxter, by chance than his picture? How long might Polhill

, and Durye on Assurance; Horac Sol. twenty thousand blind men who should be sent vol. ii. p. 269.

out from several remote parts of England, wan ASSURITANS, a branch of the Donatists, der up and down before they would all meet upon who held that the Son was inferior to the Father, Salisbury plain, and fall into rank and file in the and the Holy Ghost to the Son. See Donatists. exact order of an army? And yet this is much

ASTONISHMENT, a kind or degree of more easy to be imagined than how the innume wonder introduced by surprise. This emotion rable blind parts of matter should rendezvous always relates to things of the highest importance; themselves into a world. A man that sees Henry to things which appear too vast and extensive for the Seventh's chapel at Westminster might with the

grasp of intellect, rather than to any thing of as good reason maintain (yca, with much beter, an intricate nature. The body marks in a striking considering the vast difference betwixt that liue manner the singular state of the mind under this structure and the huge fabric of the world) that emotion. The eyes are firmly fixed, without it was never contrived or built by any means, but being directed to any particular object; the cha- that the stones did by chance grow into those racter of countenance, which was formed by the curious figures into which they seem to have habitual influence of some predominant affection, been cut and graven; and that upon a time (as is for a time etraced; and a suspension of every tales usually begin) the materials of that building, other expression, a certain vacuity, strongly notes the stone, mortar, timber, iron, lead, and glass this state of mind.

happily met together, and very fortunately ranged ATHANASIANS, those who profess the themselves into that delicate order in which we sentiments held in the Athanasian creed. See see them, now so close compacted, that it must CREEN.

be a very great chance that parts them again ATHEIST, one who denies the existence of | What would the world think of a man that should God:—this is called speculative atheism. Pro- advance such an opinion as this, and write a book fessing to believe in God, and yet acting contrary for it? If they would do him right, they ought to this belief, is called practical atheism. Absurd to look upon him as mad; but yet with a little and irrational as atheism is, it has had its vota- more reason than any man can have to say, that ries and martyrs. In the seventeenth century, the world was made by chance, or that the first Spinosa, a foreigner, was its noted defender. men grew up out of the earth as plants do now. Lucilio Vanini, a native of Naples, also publicly For, can any thing be more ridiculous, and against taught atheism in France; and being convicted all reason, than to ascribe the production of men of it at Toulouse, was condemned and executed to the first fruitfulness of the earth, without so in 1619. It has been questioned, however, whe- much as one instance and experiment, in any age ther any man ever seriously adopted such a prin- or history, to countenance so monstrous a suppo ciple. The pretensions to it have been generally sition ? The thing is, at first sight, so gross and founded on pride or attectation. The open avowal palpable, that no discourse about it can make it of atheism by several of the leading members of more apparent. And yet, these shameful beg: the French convention seems to have been an ex- gars of principles give this precarious account of traordinary moral phenomenon. This, however, the original of things; assume to themselves to as we have seen, was too vague and uncomfort- be the men of reason, the great wits of the world, a' le a principle to last long. Archbishop Tillot- the only cautious and wary persons that hate to bun justly observes, that speculative atheism is be imposed upon, that must have convincing eviunreasonable upon five accounts. 1. Because it dence for every thing, and can admit of nothing gives no tolerable account of the existence of the without a clear demonstration of it." See Exworld.—2. It does not give any reasonable ac- ISTENCE OF God. count of the universal consent of mankind in this Some of the principal writers on the existence apprehension, that there is a Gud.—3. It requires of a Deity have bern Charnock, Verton, Loyley more evidence for things than they are capable Cheyne, Locke, Nicuwentyt, Derham, Bentley of giving.–4. The atheist pretends to know that Ray, Cudworth, Samuel and John Clarke, Aber which no man can know.–5. Atheism contra- nethy, Balguy, Baxter, Fenelon, foc. fac Tildicts itself. Under the first of these he thus lotson's sermon on the subject, as quoted above, argues.-"! appeal to any man of reason whe- has been considered as one of the best in the Enther any thing can be more unreasonable than glish language. See ser, i, vol. 1. abstinately


ATONEMENT tice by Jesus Christ giving himself a ransom for us, sufficient proof that he endured punishments in undergoing the penalty due to our sins, and there his soul which were due to sin,'Mark xiv. 33. by releasing us from that punishment which God Heb. v. 7.7. This doctrine is declared, and might justly inflict upon us, Rom. v. 11. The confirmed, and explained at large, by the apostles Hebrew word signifies covering, and intimates in their writings, 1 Cor. xv. 3. Eph. i. 7. I John that our offences are, by a proper atonement, ü. 2., &c. &c.-8. This was the doctrine that covered from the avenging justice of God. In was witnessed to the world by the amazing gifts order to understand the manner wherein Christ of the Holy Ghost, which attended the Gospel. becomes an atonement, "we should,” says Dr. (See the Acts of the Apostles.) The inferences Watts, "consider the following propositions, 1. and uses to be derived from this doctrine are The great God having made man, appointed to these: 1. How vain are all the labours and pregovern bum by a wise and righteous law, wherein tences of mankind to seek or hope for any better glory and honour, life and immortality, are the religion than that which is contained in the Gosdesigned rewards for perfect obedience; but tri- pel of Christ! It is here alone that we can find bulation and wrath, pain and death, are the ap- the solid and rational principle of reconciliation pointed recompense to those who violate this law, to an offended God, 'Heb. iv. 14.-2. How Gen. iii. Rom. ii. 6, 16. i. 32.—2. All man- strange and unreasonable is the doctrine of the kind have broken this law, Rom. ii. 23. v. 12.- Popish church, which, while it professes to be. 3. God, in his infinite wisdom, did not think lieve the religion of Christ, yet introduces many fit to pardon sinful man, without some compensa- other methods of atonement for sin, besides the Lion for his broken law; for, 1. If the great Ruler sufferings of the Son of God. (See above.)3. of the world had pardoned the sins of men with- Here is a solid foundation, on which the greatest out any satisfaction, then his laws might have of sinners may hope for acceptance with God, 1 seemed not worth the vindicating.–2. Men would Tim. i. 15.–4. This doctrine should be used as have been tempted to persist in their rebellion, a powerful motive to excite repentance, Acts v. and to repeat their old offences.-3. His forms 31.-5. We should use this atonement of Christ of government among his creatures might have as our constant way of access to God in all ou appeared as a matter of small importance.-4. prayers, Heb. x. 19, 22.-6. Also as a divino God had a mind to make a very illustrious display guard against sin, Rom. vi. 1, 2. 1 Pet. i. 15, buth of his justice and of his grace among man- 19.—7. As an argument of prevailing force to kind; on these accounts he would not pardon sin be used in prayer, Rom. viii. 32.—8. As a spring without a satisfaction.-5. Man, sinful man, is of love to God, and to his Son Jesus Christ, not able to make any satisfaction to God for his John iv. 10.-9. As a strong persuasive to that own sins, neither by his labours, nor by his suf- love and pity which we should show on all occafrning Eph. ii. 1, 8, 9:46. Though man be in- sions to our ieiiow crratures, 1 John iv. 11.-10. capable to satisfy for his own violation of the law, It should excite patience and holy joy under afflicyet God would not suffer all mankind to perish. tions and earthly sorrows, Rom. v. 1 to 3.-11. 7. Because God intended to make a full display We should consider it as an invitation to the of the terrors of bis justice, and his divine ré- Lord's Supper, where Christ is set forth to us in sentment for the violation of his law, therefore the memorials of his propitiation.–12. As a most he appointed his own Son to satisfy for the breach effectual defence against the terrors of dying, and of it, by becoming a proper sacrifice of expiation as our joyful hope of a blessed resurrection, 1 or atonement, Gal. ir. 10, 13.—8. The Son of Cor. xv. 50.–13. Lastly, as a divine allurement God bring immortal, could not sustain all these to the upper world.” See Watts's Ser., ser. 34, penalties of the law which man had broken with 35, 36, 37; Evans on the Atonement ; Dr. Oroen vut taking the mortal nature of man upon him, on the Satisfaction of Christ; West's Scripture without assuming flesh and blood, Heb. i. 13, Doctrine of the Atonement; Herrey's Theron 14.–9. The Divine Being having received such and Aspasio, dial. 3; Dr. Magee's Discourses on ample satisfaction for sin by the sufferings of his the Atonement ; Jerram's Letters on ditto. own Son, can honourably forgive his creature (The Christian Joctrine of Atonement, consi. man, who was the transgressor, Rom. iii. 25, 26. dered especially in respect to its nature and e.tVou that this doctrine is true, will appear, if we tent, has in our own country underyone great consider, 1. That an atonement for sin, or an discussion, and given rise to a diversity of opi effectual method to answer the demands of an nions, since Mr. Buck's work was first published. etlerakeel Goul, is the first great bleesing guilty of the leading views entertained among the or man stood in need of, Mic. vi. 6, 7.–2. The very thodox on this subject, it will be proper to give a Grut dt-coveries of grace which were made to man brief notice. These may be classed under the ating his fill inplied in them something of an heads of the general or indefinite, and the limited atonement for sin, and pointed to the propitiation or definite scheme. The advocates of the former Christ has now made, Gen. iii. 15.-3. The train maintain, that the atonement is to be viewed Jis of ceremonies which were appointed by Grod in tinct from its application--that the sufferings of the Jewish church are plain

significations of such Christ were of such a nature that they constitute * alonrınını, 2 Cor. iii. Col. i. 7, 8, 9. Heb. a real atonement though we should suppose that 1. Sone of the prophecies confirm and ex- none should ever actually repent and be saved plain the first promise, and show that ( 'hrist was that the grand design of the Saviour's sufferings bo da as an atoning sacrifice for the sins of men, was to make a display of the evil of sin and of Dan. ix. 24-26. Is. lii.-5. Our Saviour hin the divine justice, and thereby to remove the ob sif taught us the doctrine of the atonement for stacle in the way of the sinner's salvation-that un by his death, Matt. xx. 28. John vi. 51. in consequence of the death of Christ, God can Lake xxü. 19.-6. The terrors of soul, the con- now consistently with all his perfections and the sertation and inwand agonies which our blessed honour of his law, exercise his sovereign mercy


ATONEMENT and as it was not designed for one man more than the Gospel, assuring them that if they will be ansther, but has an equal bearing upon the whole lieve they shall be saved; whereas, if they wilfulworld indiscriminately, the offers of salvation can ly reject the overtures of mercy, they will increase now be freely made to all mankind without dis- their guilt and aggravate their damnation. At tinction. Some of the friends of this theory go the saine time, the Scriptures plainly teach, that still further, and deny that Christ made a plenary the will and disposition to comply with this consatisfaction for the sins of believers, because such dition depends upon the sovereign gift of God, a satisfaction would, in their view, be incompati- and that the actual compliance is secured to those ble with the grace that reigns in the salvation of only for whom in the divine counsels the atonesinners; and consequently, although a provision ment was specifically intended. has been made by which all who believe will be This view of the atonement is supported by the Havead, yet they assert that the claims of the law following considerations:-1. The language of will remain for ever unsatisfied, that the ransomel Scripture. “Christ loved the church and gave of the Lord will never be free from guilt, and himself for it." “All that the Father hath giden that Paul and his companions now in glory, are me shall coine unto me." "I lay down my life at this moment as guilty as when on earth, and for the sheep." "I pray not for the world, but will for ever deserve the punishment of hell. for them which thou hast given me." As to

The grounds upon which this theory of the passages of apparently a contrary import, which atonement is urged, are the following:--1. The seem to extend the object and design of the atonestyle of the Scriptures; which, in speaking of ment to all, these they say are capable in general the atonement, apply to it the most universal and of being interpreted, according to the plain usages unlimited language. "Who gave himself a ran- of Scripture, as implying some of all sorts, instead sum for all to be testified in due time.” “ Who of erery individual, or as pointing out every one is the Saviour of all men, especially of them that of the class or body spoken of. 2. That the docbelieve.” “He is the propitiation for our sins, trine of vicarious or substitutive atonement was and not for ours only, but for the sins of the taught by the typical sacrifices of the Jewish whole world.”—2. If Christ has made an atone- economy. 3. That the meaning of the term ment for the elect, and for them only, then salva- implies an actual reconciliation as the effect of a Lion is not provided for all, and those for whom it satisfaction to the demands of divine justice; conis not provided, cannot be guilty in not receiving sequently, if the atonement was made for all men, it. But this is contrary to the whole tenor of the all men are actually reconciled, which is contrary Gospel, which every where exhibits sinners as to fact. 4. That inasmuch as it is admitted on all grcaliy guilty for rejecting Christ. 3. The Gos- sides that the Saviour suffered and died, not with pel

, or glaul tidings published by Christ, is said to the actual intention of securing the salvation of all be good tidings unto all people. Dat if there be men universally, but only of a definite

number no atonement made for the sins of all people, the determined by the gift of the Father in the decree Gospel, instead of being good news to them, is not of election, the atonenient is therefore properly to addressed to them at all. 4. Ministers are re- be denominated a definite atonement, and that quired to preach faith, as well as repentance, to every objection brought against this view of it falls all sinners as their duty. But if no atonement directly against the doctrine of election. If it be has been made for their sins, they cannot believe; conceded that the Father gave to the Son in the con for to them Christ is in no sense a Saviour, and venant of redemption a particular definite number therefore not a possible object of faith.

of the human race to save; that for these, and these The advocates of the limited or definite atone-alone, did the Son die with an intention to save ment, on the other hand, maintain, that the atone-them; that to none but this elect number will the ment cannot properly be considered apart from atonement ever be in fact applied, the consequence its actual application, or from the intention of the is affirmed to be inevitable, that the atonement is author in regard to its application—that, in strict- definite, because election is definite. “We may ness of speech, the death of Christ is not an call it otherwise; we may call it general, we may atonement to any until it he applied—that the suf- call it indefinite. But it retains its true charac. ferings of the Lamb of God are therefore truly ter. It is what the divine purpose has made ilvicarious, or in other words, that Christ in suffer- definite, limited; not, indeed, in its value, which ing became a real substitute for his people, was is unlimited and intinite; but in its application, charged with their sins, and bore the punishment and in respect to the intention of the Father who of them, and thus has made a full and complete appointed, and of the Son who made, the atonesatisfaction to divine justice in behalf of all who ment." As to the objection, that if the atone shall ever believe on him—that this atonement ment was not made for all, then those for whom will eventually be applied to all for whom in the it was not intentionally made are not guilty for divine intention it was made, or to all to whom not receiving it, and therefore cannot justly be God in bis sovereignty has been pleased to decree condemned on this account, it is answered, that its application. They believe, however, notwith the priinary ground of a sinner's condemnation standing the atonement is to be properly consi- is not so much his rejertion of the Gospel as his dered as exactly commensurate with its intended previous violation of the law. The rejection of application, that the Lord Jesus Christ did otler the Gospel when sincerely, though conditionally, a sacrifice sufficient in its intrinsic value to expi- offered, aggravates his guilt, and according in ate the sins of the whole world, and that if it had human modes of speech adopted in the Scrip peen the pleasure of God to apply it to every in- tures, there is no impropriety in referring his condividual, the whole human race would have been demnation to his slighting the terms of pardon; saved by its immeasurable worth. They hold, as he knows nothing of the secret purposes of therefore, that on the ground of the infinite value Heaven in regard to himself, and, therefore, has of the atonement, the offer of salvation can be no excuse to offer for his perverseness. Thus, if consistently


BACKSLIDING against the laws of his country, and a pardon | sire after riches, attended with extreme diffidence were tendered him on certain terms while under of future events, making a person rob himself of sentence of death, which pardon he madly rejects the necessary comforts of life, for fear of dimi. from disaffection with the terms, it might be said, nishing his riches. See COVETOUSNESS and Misen the man dies, because he rejected the offered par AVERSION, hatred, or dislike. Dr. Watts don, wbereas the real ground of his condemna- and others oppose aversion to desire. When we tion is his previous crime. The same holds in look, say they, upon an object as good, it excites the case of sinners under the Gospel. Their desire; but when we look upon an object as evil, voluntary rejection of proffered mercy greatly it awakens what we call aversion or avoidance. illustrates the deep-rooted depravity of their hearts, But Lord Kaimes observes that aversion is op and in the same proportion displays the justice posed to affection, and not to desire. We have of God in their punishment.“ See Drights an affection to one person, we have an aversion to Theology, vol. i. serm. 56. Janeway's Letters on another; the former dispuses, us to do good, the Le Alonement. Beman on the Atonement, Mur- latter to do ill. dack's Sermon on the Atonement. Review of AUDIENTES, an order of catechumens in Jurdock in Christian Adrovate, vol. v.-B.) the primitive Christian church. They were so

ATTRIBUTES OF GOD are the several called from their being admitted to hear sermons qualities or perfections of the Divine nature. and the Scriptures read in the church; but they Some distinguish them into the negative and po- were not allowed to be present at the prayers. stive or affirmative. The negative are such as AUGSBURGH, or AUGUSTAN CON. remove from him whatever is imperfect in crea- FESSION, a celebrated confession of faith drawn lures: such are infinity, immutability, immor- up by Luther and Melancthon on belialf of tality. &c. The positive are such as assert some themselves and other ancient reformers, and properfection in God which is in and of himself, and sented in 1550 to the emperor Charles V. at the which in the creatures, in any measure, is from diet of Augusta, or Augsburgh, in the name of him. This distinction is now mostly discarded. the evangelie body. This cenfession contains Some distinguish them into absolute and relative: twenty-eight chapters, of which the greatest part absolute ones are such as agree with the essence is employed in representing with perspicuity and of God; as Jehovah, Jah, &c.: relative ones are truth the religious opinions of the Protestants, such as agree with him in time, with some re and the rest in pointing out the errors and abuses spret to his creatures, as Creator, Governor, Pre- that occasioned their separation from the church sner, Releemer, &c. But the more commonly of Rome. The leading doctrines of this confes. received distinction of the attributes of God, is sion are, the true and essential divinity of the into cominunicable and incommunicable ones. Son of Godl; his substitution and vicarious see The communicable ones are those of which there crifice, and thie necessity, freedom, and efficacy is some resemblance in men; as goodness, holi- of Divine grace. A civil war followed this dict ness, wisdom, &c. the incommunicable ones are that lasted upwards of twenty years, but which such as there is no appearance or shadow of in only spread the new opinions, instcad of extirpa en; as independence, immutability, immensiiy, ting them. and eternity. "See those different articles in this AUGUSTINS, a religious order, who ois work; and Pales, Charnock, Abernethy, and served the rule of St. Augustin, prescribed them Suurin on the Divine Perfections.

by pope Alexander IV. in 1256. * This rule was ATTRITION. The casuists of the church to have all things in common; the rich who enof Rome have made a distinction between a per- ter among them to sell their possessions, and fert and an imperfect contrition. The latter they give them to the poor; to employ the first part call attrition; which is the lowest degree of re- of the morning in labouring with their hands, pentance, or a sorrow for sin arising rom a sense and the rest in reading: when they go abroad, to of saune, or any temporal inconvenience a tend- go always two in company; never to eat but in ing the commission of it, or merely from fear of their monastery, &c. Le punishment due to it, without any resolution AUSTERITY, a state of rigid mortification to sin no more: in consequence of which doc- It is distinguished from severity and rigour thus. trine, they reach that, after a wicked and flagi- Austerity, relates to the manner of living; se Duus course of life, a man may be reconciled to verity to the manner of thinking; rigour to the God, and his sins forgiven on his death-bed, by manner of punishing. To austerity is opposed consessing them to the priest with this imperfect effeminacy; to severity, relaxation; to rigour, degree of sorrow and repentance. This distinc- clemency. A hernit is austere in his lite; á

on was settied by the council of Trent. It casuist severe in his application of religion or mangot, however, be easily shown that the mere law; a judge rigorous in his sentences. BOTTOW for sin because of its consequences, and

AUTOCEPHALI BISHOPS. This cie not on account of its evil nature, is no more ac- noinination was given to such bishops in the priceptable to God than hypocrisy itself can be. mitive church as were exempted from the juris

AVARICE is an immoderate love to and de- diction of others.

B. BACKBITING. See DETRACTION and slide with the whole bent of their will; as volunSLANDER.

tary, when applied to those who, after professing BACKSLIDING, the act of turning from the to know the truth, wilfully turn from it, and live path of duty. It may be considered as partial in the practice of sin; as final, when the mind is wheu appbed to true believers, who do not back-given up to judicial hardness, as in the case of

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