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ARMINIANS tabernacle and temple in a visible cloud: hence persevere unto the end; and to inflict everlasting were issued the Divine oracles by an audible punishments on those who should continue in voice; and the high priest appeared before this their unbelief, and resist bis divine succours; so mercy-seat once every year on the great day of that election was conditional, and reprobation in expiation ; and the Jews, wherever they worship- like manner the result of foreseen infidelity and ped, turned their faces towards the place where persevering wickedness. the ark stood.
II. That Jesus Christ, by his sufferings and In the second temple there was also an ark, death, made an atonement for the sins of all manmade of the same shape and dimensions with the kind in general, and of every individual in par first, and put in the same place, but without any ticular; that, however, none but those who be of its contents and peculiar honours. It was used lieve in him can be partakers of divine benefits. as a representative of the former on the day of III. That true faith cannot proceed from the expiation, and a repository of the original copy of exercise of our natural faculties and powers, nor the holy Scriptures, collected by Ezra and the from the force and operation of free will; since men of the great synagogue after the captivity; man, in consequence of his natural corruption, is and, in imitation of this, the Jews, to this day, incapable either of thinking, or doing any good have a kind of ark in their synagogues, wherein thing; and that, therefore, it is necessary, in order their sacred books are kept.
to his conversion and salvation, that he be regeARMENIANS, the inhabitants of Armenia, nerated and renewed by the operations of the Holy whose religion is the Christian of the Eutychian Ghost, which is the gift of God through Jesus sect; that is, they hold but one nature in Jesus Christ. Christ. See EUTYCHIANS. They assert also the IV. That this divine grace or energy of the procession of the Holy Ghost from the Father Holy Ghost begins and perfects every thing that only. They believe that Christ, at his descent can be called good in man, and, consequently all into hell freed the souls of the damned from good works are to be attributed to God alone ; thence, and reprieved them to the end of the that, nevertheless, this grace is offered to all, and world, when they shall be remanded to eternal does not force men to act against their inclinations, flames. They believe that the souls of the righte- but may be resisted and rendered ineflectual by ous shall not be admitted to the beatific vision till the perverse will of the impenitent sinner. Some after the resurrection, notwithstanding which they modern Arminians interpret this and the last arpray to departed saints, adore their pictures, and ticle with a greater latitude. burn larups before them. The Armenian clergy V. That God gives to the truly faithful, who consist of patriarchs, archbishops, doctors, secular are regenerated by his grace, the means of prepriests, and monks. The Armenian monks are serving themselves in this state. The first Ar. of the order of St. Basil ; and every Wednesday minians, indeed, had some doubt with respect to and Friday they eat neither fish, nor eggs, nor the closing part of this article; but their followoil, nor any thing made of milk; and during Lent ers uniformly maintain " that the regenerate may they live upon nothing but roots. They have lose true justifying faith, fali from a state of grace, seven sacraments; baptism, confirmation, pe- and die in their sins." nance, the eucharist, extreme unction, orders, and After the appointment of Arminius to the theomatrimony. They admit infants to the commu- logical chair at Leyden, he thought it his duty to nion at two or three months old. They seem to avow and vindicate the principles which he had place the chief part of their religion in fastings embraced ; and the freedom with which he puband abstinences; and, among the clergy, the higher lished and defended them, exposed him to the the degree, the lower they must live; insomuch, resentment of those that adhered to the theologithat it is said the archbishops live on nothing but cal system of Geneva, which then prevailed in pulse. They consecrate holy water but once a Holland; but his principal opponent was Gomar, year; at which time every one fills a pot, and his colleague. The controversy which was thus carries it home, which brings in a considerable begun became more general after the death of revenue to the church.
Arminius, in the year 1609, and threatened to AR MINIANS, persons who follow the doc- involve the United Provinces in civil discord. trines of Arminius, who was pastor at Amster. The Arminian tenets gained ground under the dam, and afterwards professor of divinity at Ley- mild and favourable treatment of the magistrates den. Arminius had been educated in the opinions of Holland, and were adopted by several persons of Calvin; but, thinking the doctrine of that great of merit and distinction. The Calvinists or Goman with regard to free will, predestination and marists, as they were now called, appealed to a grace, too severe, he began to express his doubts national synod; accordingly the synod of Dort concerning them in the year 1591 ; and, upon was convened, by order of the states-general, in further inquiry, adopted the sentiments of those 1618; and was composed of ecclesiastic deputies whose religious system extends the love of the from the United Provinces as well as from the Supreme Being and the merits of Jesus Christ to reformed churches of England, Hessia, Bremen, ali mankind. "The Arminians are also called Re- Switzerland, and the Palatinate. The pnncipal monstrants, because, in 1611, they presented a advocate in favour of the Arminians was Episcoremonstrance to the states-general, wherein they pius, who at that time was professor of divinity state their grievances, and pray for relief. at Leyden. It was first proposed to discuss the
The distinguishing tenets of the Arminians principal subjects in dispute, that the Arminians may be comprised in the five following articles should be allowed to state and vindicate the relative to predestination, universal redemption, grounds on which their opinions were founded; the corruption of man, conversion, and perseve- but, some difference arising, as to the proper mode rance, viz.
of conducting the debate, the Arminians were I. That God, from all eternity, determined to excluded from the assembly, their case was triod bestow salvation on those who be foresaw would in their absence, and they
were pronounced guilty
ASCENSION OF CHRIST of pestilential errors, and condemned as corrupt- | beth palace, under the eye and with the assistance ers of the true religion. A curious account of the of archbishop Whitgitt, bishop Bancroft, bishof proceedings of the above synod may be seen in a Vaughan, and other eminent dignitaries of the series of letters written by Mr. John Hales, who Church. That the reader may judge how Calvi. was present on the occasion.
nistic the clergy were under the reign of queen In consequence of the abovementioned deci- Elizabeth, we shall here insert them. “1. God sion, the Arminians were considered as enemies hath from eternity predestinated certain persons to to their country, and its established religion, life, and bath reprobated certain persons unto and were much persecuted. They were treated death. 2. The moving or efficient cause of pre with great severity, and deprivedl of all, their posts destination unto life is not the foresight of faitha and employments; their ministers were silenced, or of perseverance, or of good works, or of any and their congregations were suppressed. The thing that is in the persons predestinated ; but the great Barneveldt was beheaded on a scatiold; and alone will of God's good pleasure. 3. The prethe learned Grotius, being condemned to per- destinati are a pre-determined and certain number, petual imprisonment, fled, and took' refuge in which can neither be lessened nor increased. 4. France.
Such as are not predestinated to salvation shall After the death of prince Maurice, who had inevitably be condemned on account of their sins. been a violent partisan in favour of the Goma- 5. The true, lively, and jus*ifying faith, and rists, in the year 1625, the Arminian exiles were the Spirit of God justifying, is not extinguished, restored to their former reputation and tranquillity; doth not utterly fail, doth not vanish away in the and under the toleration of the state, they erected elect, either finally or totally. 6. A true believer, churches and founded a college at Amsterdam, that is, one who is endued with justifying faiih, is appointing Eptscopius the first theological profes- certified by the full assurance of faith that his sor. The Arminian system has very much pre- sins are forgiven, and that he shall be everlastingly vailed in England since the time of Archbishop saved by Christ. 7. Saving grace is not allowed, Laud, and its volaries in other countries are very is not imparted, is not granted to all men, by numerous. It is generally supposed that a ma- which they may be saved if they will. 8. No jority of the clergy in both the established churches man is able to come to Christ, unless it be given of Great Britain favour the Arminian systen, him; and unless the Father drew him; and all notwithstanding their articles are strictly Calvi- men are not drawn by the Father, that they may nistic. The name of Mr. John Weshy hardly come to his Son. 9. It is not in the will or power need be mentioned here. Every one knows what of every man to be saved." What gave occasion an advocate he was for the tenets of Arminius, to the framing these articles was this:--Some and the success he met with. See Methodists. persons had distinguished themselves at the uni
Some of the principal writers on the side of the versity of Cambridge, by opposing preilestination. Arminians have been Arminius, Episcopins, Alarmed at the opinions that were vented, the Vorstius, Grotius, Currelæus, Limborch, Le above-mentioned archbishop, with others, comClerc, Wetstein, Goodwin, Whitby, Tuylor, posed these articles, to prevent the helief of a Fletcher, &c.
contrary doctrine. These, when completed, were Some of the principal writers on the other side sent down to Cambridge, to which the scholars have been Polhill in his Book on the Decrees ; | were strictly enjoined to conform. John Edwards in his Veriias Redur ; Cole in ARTOTYRITES, a Christian sect in the his Sovereignty of God; Edwards on the Will, primitive church, whó celebrated the eucharist and Original Sin; Dr. Orwen in his Display with bread and cheese. The word is derived of Arminianism, and on Particular Redemp- from «pros, bread, and rupos, cheese. The Artion; Gill in his Cause of God and Truth; totyrites admitted women to the priesthood and Toplady in almost all his works.
and episcopacy; and Epiphanius tells us that it ARNOLDIST'S, the followers of Amold, of was a common thing to see seven girls at once Brescia, in the tweltth century, who was a great enter into their church robed in white, and holl. declaimer against the wealth and vices of the ing a torch in their hand; where they wept and clergy. He is also charged with preaching bewailed the wretchedness of human nature, and against baptisin, and the eucharist. He was the miseries of this life. burnt at Rome in 1155, and his ashes cast into ASCENSION OF CHRIST, his visible ele the Tiber.
vation to heaven. The ascension of Jesus Christ ARRHABONARII, a sect who held that the was not only presignified by many Scripture eucharist is neither the real flesh or blood of types, but also by many remarkable Scripture Christ, nor yet the sign of them, but only the prophecies, Ps. xlvii. 5. ex. I. Dan. vii. 13, 14 pledge or carnest thereof.
Mic. q. 13. Ps. Ixviii. 18. ARTEMONTES, a denomination in the se The evidences of his ascension were numerous. cond century; so called from Artemon, who The disciples saw him ascend, Acts i. 9, 10. Two taught that at the birth of the man Christ,' a cer- angels testified that he did ascend, Acts i. 11. tain divine energy, or portion of the divine nature, Stephen, Paul, and John saw him in his ascended united itself to him.
state, Acts vii. 55, 56. ix. Rev. i. The marARTICLE OF FAITH is, by some, defined vellous descent of the Holy Ghost demonstrated a point of Christian doctrine, which we are it, John xvi. 7. 14. Acts ii. 33. The terrible overobliged to believe as having been revealed by throw and dispersion of the Jewish nation is a God himself, and allowed ani established as such standing proof of it, Johin viii. 21. Matt xxvi. ft. vy t'ne church. See CONFESSIONA.
The time of his ascension. It was forty days ARTICLES OF THE CHURCH OF after his resurrection. He continued so many ENGLAND. See CHURCH OF ENGLAND. davs on carth, that he might give maliy se
ARTICLES, LAMBETH. The Lambeth pated proofs ot' his resurrection, Arts i. 3; that articles were
ASSURANCE which pertained to the abolishment of the Jewish I will grant us the complete enjoyment of what he ceremonies, Acts i. 3; and that he might open to has promised, Heb. vi. 11. them the Scriptures concerning himself
, and re The doctrine of assurance, i, e, the belief that new their commission to preach the gospel
, Acts we have an interest in the divine favour, has afi5, 6. Mark xvi. 15.
forded matter for dispute among divines. Some The manner of his ascension. It was from have asserted that it is not to be obtained in the Mount Olivet to heaven, Acts i. 12; not in ap- present state, allowing that persons may be in a pearance only, but in reality and truth; visibly hopeful way to salvation, but that they have no and locally; a real motion of his human nature; real or absolute assurance of it: but this is clearly siden, swift, glorious, and in a triumphant man- refuted by fact as well as by scripture. That it is ner. He was parted from his disciples while he to be obtained is evident, for we have reason to was solemnly blessing them; and multitudes of believe many persons have actually obtained it. angels attended him with shouts of praise, Ps. Job xix. 25. Ps. xvii. 15. 2 Tim. i. 12. The liviii. 17. xlvii. 5, 6.
Scriptures exhort us to obtain it, 2 Cor. xiii. 5. The effects or ends of Christ's ascension were, Heb. vi. 11. 1 Thess. v. 21. The Holy Spirit is 1. To fulfil the prophecies and types concerning said to bear witness of it, Rom. viii. 16.' The exit. 2. To take upon him more openly the exer- ercise of the Christian graces is considered as a cise of his kingly office. 3. To receive gifts for proof of it, 1 John ii. 14. 1 John i. 3. We must, men both ordinary and extraordinary, Ps. Ixviii. however guard against presumption ; for a mere 18. 4. To open the way into heaven for his persuasion that Christ is our's is no proof that people, Heb. x. 19, 20. 5. To assure the saints he is so. We must have evidence before we can of their ascension also, John xiv. 1, 2.
have genuine assurance. It is necessary to ob ASCETIC, one who retires from the world serve, also, that it is not a duty imposed upon all for the purpose of devotion and mortification. mankind, so that every one, in whatsoever state he When the monks came in fashion, this title was may be, ought to be fully persuaded of his salvabestowed upon them, especially such as lived in tion. “We do not affirm,” says Saurin, “that solitude. It was also the title of several books of Christians, of whose sincerity there may be some spiritual exercises, as the Ascetics, or devout ex. doubt, have a right to assurance; that backercises of St. Basil, &c.
sliders, as such, ought to persuade themselves that ASCODROGITES, a denomination which they shall be saved; nor do we say that Christians trose about the year 181. They brought into who have arrived to the highest degree of holiness their churches bags or skins filled with new wine, can be persuaded of the certainty of their sulva to represent the new bottles filled with new wine, tion in every period of their lives; nor, if left to mentioned by Christ. They danced round these their own efforts, can they enjoy it; but believers, bags or skins, and, it is said, intoxicated them- supported by the Divine aid, who walk in all good selves with the wine.
conscience before him, these only have ground to ASCOODRUTES, a sect, in the second cen- expect this privilege." turv, who rejected the use of all symbols and sa Some divines have maintained that assurance craments, on this principle, that incorporeal things is included in the very essence of faith, so that a cannut be communicated by things corporcal
, nor man cannot have faith without assurance; but we davine mysteries by any thing visible.
must distinguish between assurance and justifyASSEMBLIES OF THE CLERGY are ing faith. The apostle, indeed, speaks of the full callel convocations, synods, councils. The an assurance of faith; but then this is a full and nual meeting of the church of Scotland is called firm persuasion of what the Gosj! reveals ; a general assembly. In this assembly his majesty whereas the assurance we are speaking of reis represented by his commissioner, who dissolves lates to our personal interest in Christ, and is an one inerting and calls another in the name of the effect of this faith, and not faith itself. Faith in king, while the moderator does the same in the Christ certainly includes some idea of assurance; name of Jesus Christ. See CONVOCATION, PRES- for, except we be assured that he is the Saviour, BYTEKIANS, WESTMINSTER ASSEMBLY. we shall never go to rely upon him as such; but
ASSENT, that act of the mind, whereby it faith in Christ does not imply an assurance of our takes or acknowledges any proposition to be true interest in him; for there may be faith long beor false. There are three degrees of assent; fore the assurance of personal interest comconjecture, opinion, and belief. Conjecture is mences. The confounding of these ideas bas but a slight and weak inclination to assent to the been the cause of presumption on the one hand, thing proposed by reason of the weighty olvjections and despair on the other. When nien have been that lie against it. Opinion is a more steady and taught that faith consists in believing that Christ fixed assent, when a man is almost certain, though died for them, and been assured that, if they can yet soine fear of the contrıry remains with him. only believe so, all is well; and that then they are Belief is a more full and assured assent to the immediately, pardoned and justified, the consetruth. See BELIEF.
quence has been, that the bold and self-conceited ASSURANCE is the firm persuasion we have soon wrought themselves up to such a per. have of the certainty of any thing, or a certain suasion, without any ground for it, to their own expectation of something future.
deception; whilst the dejected, bumble, and poor Assurance of the Understanding is a well-in spirit, not being able to work themselves to such grounded knowledge of divine things founded on a pitch of contidence, have concluded that they God's word. Col. i. 2.- Assurance of Faith have not the faith of God's elect, and must inevit. does not relate to our personal interest in Christ, ably be lost. but consists in a firm belief of the revelation that The means to attain assurance are not those of God has given us of Christ in his word, with an an extraordinary kind, as some people imagine ; entire dependence on him. Heb. x. 22. --As such as visions, dreams, voices, &c.; but such as nu-ance of Hope is a firm expectation that God I are ordinary; self-examination, humble and con
ATONEMENT stant prayer, consulting the sacred oracles, Chris- carries in the very face of it all the arguments tian communication, attendance on the divine and characters of a wise design and contrivance. ordinances, and perseverance in the path of duty; Was ever any considerable work, in which there without which all onr assurance is but presump- was required a great variety of parts, and a regu. tion, and our profession but hypocrisy.
lar and orderly disposition of those parts, done Assurance may be lost for a season through by chance? Will chance fit means to ends, and bolily diseases which depress the spirits, unwatch- that in ten thousand instances, and not fail in fulness, falling into sin, manifold temptations, any one? How often might a man, after he had worldly cares, and neglect of private duty: He jumbled a set of letters in a bag, fling them out therefore, who would wish to enjoy this privilege, upon the ground before they would fall into an let him cultivate communion with God, exercise a exact poem; yea, or so much as make a good diswatchful spirit against his spiritual enemies, and course in prose? And may not a little book be give himself unreservedly to him whose he is, and as easily made by chance as the great volume of whom he professes to serve. See Sıurin's Ser. the world ? How long might a man be in sprink. vol. ii, ser. 10, Eng. ed.; Cases Sermons, ser. 13.; Ling colours upon canvass with a careless hand, Lambert's Ser.on John ix. 35; Herrey's Theron before they would happen to make the exact picand Aspasio, dialogue 17; Howe's Works, vol. i. ture of a man? And is a man easier made p. 312, 318; Brooks, Burgess, Roberts, Barter, by chance than his picture? How long might Polhill
, and Davye on Assurance; Horaæ Sol. twenty thousand blind men who should be sent vol. ii. p. 269.
out from several remote parts of England, want ASSURITANS, a branch of the Donatists, der up and down before they would all meet upon who held that the Son was inferior to the Father, Salisbury plain, and fall into rank and file in the and the Holy Ghost to the Son. See Donatists. exact order of an army? And yet this is much
ASTONÍSHMENT, a kind or degree of more easy to be imagined than how the innume wonder introduced by surprise. This emotion rable blind parts of matter should rendezvous always relates to things of the highest importance; themselves into a world. A man that sees Henry to things which appear too vast and extensive for the Seventh's chapel at Westminster might with the grasp of intellect, rather than to any thing of as good reason maintain (yca, with much better, an intricate nature. The body marks in a striking considering the vast difference betwixt that little manner the singular state of the mind under this structure and the huge fabric of the world) that emotion. The eyes are firmly fixed, without it was never contrived or built by any means, but being directed to any particular object; the cha- that the stones did by chance grow into those racter of countenance, whicb was formed by the curious figures into which they seem to have habitual influence of some predominant affection, been cut and graven; and that upon a time (as is for a time etfaced; and a suspension of every tales usually begin) the materials of that building, other expression, a certain vacuity, strongly notes the stone, mortar, timber, iron, lead, and glass, this state of mind.
happily met together, and very fortunately ranged ATHANASIANS, those who profess the themselves into that delicate order in which we sentiments held in the Athanasian creed. See see them, now so close compacted, that it must CREED.
be a very great chance that parts them again ATHEIST, one who denies the existence of What would the world think of a man that should God:—this is called speculative atheism. Pro- advance such an opinion as this, and write a book fessing to believe in God, and yet acting contrary for it? If they would do him right, they ought to this belief, is called practical atheism. Absurd to look upon him as mad; but yet with a little and irrational as atheism is, it has had its vota- more reason than any man can have to say, that ries and martyrs. In the seventeenth century, the world was made by chance, or that the first Spinosa, a foreigner
, was its noted defender. men grew up out of the earth as plants do now. Lucilio Vanini
, a native of Naples, also publicly For, can any thing be more ridiculous, and against taught atheism in France; and being convicted all rcason, than to ascribe the production of men of it at Toulouse, was condemned and executed to the first fruitfulness of the earth, without so in 1019. It has been questioned, however, whe- much as one instance and experiment, in any age ther any man ever seriously adopted such a prin- or history, to countenance so monstrous a suppo ciple. The pretensions to it have been generally sition? The thing is, at first sight, so gross and foundel on pride or atiectation. The open avowal palpable, that no discourse about it can make it of atheism by several of the leading members of more apparent. And yet, these shameful beg. the French convention seems to have been an ex- gars of principles give this precarious account of traordinary moral phenoinenon. This, however, the original of things; assume to themselves to as we have seen, was too vague and uncomfort- be the men of reason, the great wits of the world, a' le a principle to last long. Archbishop Tillot- the only cautious and wary persons that hate to son justly observes, that speculative atheism is be imposed upon, that must have convincing eviunreasonable upon five accounts. 1. Because it dence for every thing, and can admit of nothing gives no tolerable account of the existence of the without a clear demonstration of it.” See Er. world.-2. It does not give any reasonable ac- ISTENCE OP God. count of the universal consent of mankind in this Some of the principal writers on the existence apprehension, that there is a God.-3. It requires of a Deity have been Charnock, Verlon, Poyle, more evidence for things than they are capable Cheyne, Locke, Nieuwentyt, Derham, Bentley of giving.–4. The atheist pretends to know that Ray, Cudworth, Samuel and John Clarke, aber which no man can know.-5. Atheism contra- nethy, Balguy, Baxter, Fenelon, &-c. der. Tildicts itself. Under the first of these he thus lotson's
sermon on the subject, as quoted above, argues.—"! appeal to any man of reason whe- has been considered as one of the best in the En ther any thing can be more unreasonable than glish language. See ser. I, vol. 1.
ATONEMENT tice by Jesus Christ giving himself a ransom for us, sufficient proof that he endured punishments in undergoing the penalty due to our sins, and there his soul which were due to sin, Mark xiv. 33. ly releasing us from that punishment which God Heb. v. 7.—7. This doctrine is declared, and might justly inflict upon us, Rom. v, 11. The confirmned, and explained at large, by the apostles Hebrew word signifies covering, and intimates in their writings, 1 Cor. xv. 3. Eph. i. 7. 1 John that our offences are, by a proper atonement, ü. 2., &c. &c.-8. This was the doctrine that covered from the avenging justice of God. In was witnessed to the world by the amazing gifts order to understand the manner wherein Christ of the Holy Ghost, which attended the Gospel
. becomes an atonement, "we should,” says Dr. (See the Acts of the Apostles.) The inferences Watts, "consider the following propositions, 1. and uses to be derived from this doctrine are The great God having made man, appointed to these: 1. How vain are all the labours and pregovern him by a wise and righteous law, wherein tences of mankind to seek or hope for any better glory and honour, life and immortality, are the religion than that which is contained in the Gosdesigned rewards for perfect obedience; but tri- pel of Christ! It is here alone that we can find bulation and wrath, pain and death, are the ap- the solid and rational principle of reconciliation pointed recompense to those who violate this law, to an offended God, 'Heb. iv. 14.-2. How Gen. ii. Rom. i. 6, 16. i. 32.—2. All man- strange and unreasonable is the doctrine of the kind have broken this law, Rom. iii. 23. v. 12.- Popish church, which, while it professes to be. 3. God, in his infinite wisdom, did not think lieve the religion of Christ, yet introduces many fit to parulon sinful man, without some compensa. other methods of atonement for sin, besides the tion for his broken law; for, 1. If the great Ruler sufferings of the Son of God. (See above. 1-3. of the world had pardoned the sins of men with. Here is a solid foundation, on which the greatest orit any sutisfaction, then his laws might have of sinners may hope for acceptance with God, 1 seemed not worth the vindicating.–2. Men would Tim. i. 15.—4. This doctrine should be used as have been tempted to persist in their rebellion, a powerful motive to excite repentance, Acts v. and to repeat their old offences.—3. His forms 31.-5. We should use this atonement of Christ of government among his creatures might have as our constant way of access to God in all our appeared as a matter of small importance.-4. prayers. Heb. x. 19, 22.–6. Also as a divine God had a mind to make a very illustrious display guard against sin, Rom. vi. 1, 2. 1 Pet. i. 15, both of his justice and of his grace among man- 19.—7. As an argument of prevailing force to kind; on these accounts he would not pardon sin be used in prayer, Rom. viii. 32.-8. As a spring wuhout a satisfaction.-5. Man, sinful man, is of love to God, and to his Son Jesus Christ, I not able to make any satisfaction to God for his John iv. 10.-9. As a strong persuasive to that own sins, neither by his labours, nor by his suf- love and pity which wo siwuld show on all occaferings, Eph. ii. 1, 8, 9.–6. Though man be in- sions to our fellow creatures, 1 John iv. 11.-10. capable to satisfy for his own violation of the law, It should excite patience and holy joy under aflia vet God would not suffer all mankind to perish.- tions and earthly sorrows, Rom. v. 1 to 3.-11. 7. Because God intended to make a full display We should consider it as an invitation to the of the terrors of his justice, and his divine re-Lord's Supper, where Christ is set forth to us in sentment for the violation of his law, therefore the meinorials of his propitiation.–12. As a most he appointed his own Son to satisfy for the breach effectual defence against the terrors of dying, and of it, by becoming a proper sacrifice of expiation as our joyful hope of a blessed resurrection, 1 or atonement, Gal. in. ío, 13.-8. The Son of Cor. xv. 50.-13. Lastly, as a divine allurement God being immortal, could not sustain all these to the upper world.” See Watts's Ser., ser. 34, penalties of the law which man had broken with 35, 36, 37; Evans on the Atonement ; Dr. Oroen out taking the mortal nature of man upon him, on the Satisfaction of Christ; West's Scripture without assuming flesh and blood, Heb. ii. 13, Doctrine of the Atonement; Herrey's Theron 14.–9. The Divine Being having received such and Aspasio, dial. 3; Dr. Magce's Discourses on ample satisfaction for sin by the sufferings of his the Atonement ; Jerram's Letters on dillo. own Son, can honourably forgive his creature (The Christian soctrine of Atonement, consiinan, who was the transgressor, Rom. iii. 25, 26. dered especially in respect to its nature and erNow that this doctrine is true, will appear, if we tent
, has in our own country underyone great cursider, I. That an atonement for sin, or an discussion, and given rise to a diversity of opieffortual method to answer the demands of an nions, since Mr. Buck's work was first published. atlenked God, is the first great blessing guilty of the leading views entertained among the or man stood in need of, Mic, ví. 6, 7.-2. The very tholox on this subject, it will be proper to give a brat de overies of grace which were made to man brief notice. These may be classed under the after his fall inplied in them something of an heads of the general or indefinite, and the limited atonement for sin, and pointed to the propitiation or definite scheme. The advocates of the former Christ has now made, Gen. iii. 15.-3. The train maintain, that the atonement is to be viewed Jis of ceremonies which were appointed by God in tinct from its application--that the sufferings of the Jewish church are plain significations of such Christ were of such a nature that they constituto en alonement, 2 Cor. iii. Col. ä. 7, 8, 9. Heb. a real atonement though we should suppose that 14. Some of the prophecies confirm and ex- none should ever actually repent and be saved plain the first promise, and show that Christ was that the grand design of the Saviour's sufierings i da as an atoning sacritice for the sins of inen, was to make a display of the evil of sin and of Dan. ix. 24-26. Is. lii.-5. Our Saviour him the divine justice, and thereby to remove the ob slí laughe us the doctrine of the atonement for stacle in the way of the sinner's salvation-that sin by his death, Matt, xx. 28. John vi
. 51. in consequence of the death of Christ, God can Loke urü. 19.-6. The terrors of soul
, the con now consistently with all his perfections and the stertation and inward agonies which our blessed honour of his law, exercise his sovereign mercy Lord mustained a little before his death, were a and bestow eternal life
upon whom he pleases.