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INFLUENCES

INTERCESSION laught,' I Cor. ii. 13; and this general assertion | Bennett on Inspiration; Dr. Stennet on the may be applied to their writings as well as to Authority and Use of Scripture ; Parry's Intheir sermons. Besides, every person who hath quiry into the Nature and Extent of the Inspireflected upon the subject

, is aware of the impor-ration of the Apostles ; Brown'. Nat. and Rev. tance of a proper selection of words in expressing Religion, p. 78; and article Christianity and our sentiments; and knows how easy it is for a SCRIPTURE, in this work. heedless or unskilful person not only to injure INSTINCT, that power which acts on and the beauty and weaken the efficacy of a discourse impels any creature to any particular manner of by the impropriety of his language, but, by sub-conduct

, not by a view of the beneficial consestituting one word for another, to which it seems quences, but merely from a strong impulse supto be equivalent, to alter the meaning, and per-posed necessary in its effects, and to be given haps render it totally different. If, then, the sa-them to supply the place of reason. creu writers had not been directed in the choice INSTITUTE, INSTITUTION; an estaof words, how could we have been assured that blished custom or law: a precept, maxim, or those which they have chosen were the most pro- principle. Institutions may be considered as poper? Is it not possible, nay, is it not certain, sitive, moral, and human.' 1. Those are called that they would have sometimes expressed them- positire institutions or precepts which are not selves inaccurately, as many of them were illiter- founded upon any reasons known to those ate ; and by consequence would have obscured to whom they are given, or discoverable by and misrepresented the truth? In this case, how them, but which are observed merely because could our faith have securely rested on their testi- some superior has commanded them.—2. Moral mony? Would not the suspicion of error in are those, the reasons of which we see, and the their writings have rendered it necessary, before Anties of which arise out of the nature of the case we reccived them, to try them by the standard of itself

, prior to external command.-3. Human, reason ? and would not the authority and the de- are generally applied to those inventions of men, sign of revelation have thus been overthrown? or means of honouring God, which are not apWe must conclude, therefore, that the words of pointed by him, and which are numerous in the Scripture are from God, as well as the matter; church of Rome, and too many of them in Pro or we shall charge him with a want of wisdom in testant churches. Butler's Analogy, p. 214; transmitting his truths through a channel by Doddridge's Lec. lect. 158; Robinson's Claude, which they might have been, and most probably 217, vol. i. and 258, vol. ii.; Burrough's tuo have been, polluted.

Disc. on Positive Institutions ; Bp. Hvadley's “To the inspiration of the words, the differ- Plain Account, p. 3. ence in the style of the sacred writers seems to be INTEGRITY, purity of mind, free from any an objection, because, if the Holy Ghost were undue bias or principle, Prov. xi. 3. Many hold, the author of the words, the style might be ex- that a certain artful sagacity, founded upon knowpected to be uniformly the same. But in answer ledge of the world, is the best conductor of every to this oljection it may be observed, that the Di- one who would be a successful adventurer in vine Spirit, whose operations are various, might life, and that a strict attention to integrity would act differently on different persons, according to lead them into danger and distress. But, in anthe natural turn of their minds. He might enable swer to this, it is justly observed, 1. That the one man, for instance, to write more sublimely guidance of integrity is the safest under which than another, because he was naturally of a more we can be placed ; that the road in which it exalted genius than the other, and the subject leads us is, upon the whole, the freest from dan assigned to him demanded mure elevated lan-gers, Prov. iii. 21, &c.-2. It is unquestionably guage; or he might produce a difference in the the most honourable ; for integrity is the founda style of the same man, by raising, at one time, tion of all that is high in character among manhis faculties above their ordinary state; and by kind, Prov. iv. 8.-3. It is the most conducive to leaving them, at another, to act according to their felicity, Phil. iv. 6, 7; Prov. ii. 17.—4. Such a native energy under his inspection and controul. character can look forward to eternity without We should not suppose that inspiration, even in dismay, Rom. ii. 7. its higher degrees, deprived those who were the INTEMPERANCE, excess in eating or subjects of it, of the use of their faculties. They drinking. This is the general idea of it; but were, indeed, the organs of the Spirit; but they we may observe, that whatever indulgence unwere conscious, intelligent organs. They were dermines the health, impairs the senses, inflames dependent, but distinct agents, and the operation the passions, clouds' and sullies the reason, perof their mental powers, though elevated and di- verts the judgment, enslaves the will, or in any rected by superior influence, was analogous to way disorders or debilitates the faculties, may be their ordinary mole of procedure. It is easy, ranked under this vice. See article TEMPERtherefore, to conceive that the style of the writers ANCE. of the Scriptures should differ, just as it would INTERCESSION OF CHRIST, his inhave differed if they had not been inspired. A terposing for sinners by virtue of the satisfaction perfect uniformity of style could not have taken he made to divine justice. 1. As to the fact itself place, unless they had all been inspired in the it is evident, from many places of Scripture, that same degree, and by inspiration their faculties Christ pleads with God in favour of his people, had been completely suspended, so that divine Rom. viü. 31; Heb. vii. 25; 1 John ii, 1.-2. As truths were conveyed by them in the same pas- to the manner of it: the appearance of the highGive manner in which a pipe affords a passage

to priest among

the Jews, in the presence of God, Essay on the Inspiration of the Scriptures ; him the blood of the sin-offering, is at large re Hawker on Plenary Inspiration; Appendix lo ferred to by St. Paul

, as illustrating the interces 34 vul, of Doddruge's Espositor; Calamy and sion of Christ, Heb. ix, 11, 14, 22, 26; L. 19, 21,

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INDEPENDENTS

INDEX in Scotland. Having lately been brought to I isters in the national church, resigned ther think seriously of religion, and now happy in the charges, and united with them and their ass enjoyraent of its comforts, he felt in no smal! ciates in the work in which they were engine degree the importance of the duty of spreading in preaching the gospel throughout the kingdon among the heathen the knowledge of those A distinct society was soon formed; and the truths which had given hope and consolation to Messrs. H. by whose zeal and influence the sejahis own mind. Under this impression, he sold ration was chiefly effected, being at its head to his estates, and along with several associates, members came to be called Haldanites, but this men of talent and exemplary piety, intended to name of distinction was by no means agricable employ his fortune in dillusing among the tribes to those gentlemen, who modestly desired it might of Hindostan the arts of civilized life, and the be laid aside. blessings of true religion. Such an example of Large places of public worship, which were st disinterested zeal and of individual active benevo first distinguished by the name of tabernacias

, lence has seldom occurred, and we may challenge were erected at Mr. R. H.'s expense in the prirall the modern philosophers and modern philan- cipal towns, where the word of God was declared thropists to produce the like. Upon application to numerous assemblies, both by those ministers to government for liberty to adopt a system of and others from various denominations in Engmeasures for propagating the gospel extensively land. Mr. J. Haldane and Mr. Aikman were in the East Indies, his proposal was unsuccess- finally fixed at Edinburgh, Mr. Innes at Du ful. But this disappointment, however great, dee, and Mr. Ewing at Glasgow, besides vario served only to direct his benevolence into another other preachers who were established in different channe!; for he then turned his attention to the parts of the country. Academies also, supported state of his own country, and resolved to emplɔy chiefly, if not solely, at the expence of Mr. R.H. his fortune and his exertions in propagating the were formed at the three above-mentioned places gospel at home. Accordingly, "The Socieiy for for the education of young men for the work of Propagating the Gospel at Home,” was formed in the ministry; who, when qualified, were to be 1797, the professed object of which was to send employed as itinerants under the inspection and forth men to preach the gospel in those parts of countenance of the “Society for Propagating the Scotland where they conceived that this blessing Gospel at Home.” was not enjoyed in its purity, or where it was The Established Presbyterian Church, it sees not regularly dispensed; and hence the members have not followed the cautious policy of Gama of this sect were sometimes called Missionaries. "to let these men alone;" for we are told that

The formation and exertions of this society, the ministers and leaders of this denomination we are told, “had been considerably facilitated have not been treated with "silent neglxt," and by the progress of opinion --by the corruptions of that it was not owing to the moderation of ber the Scottish church, and by the religious discus- clergy, or the mildness of her principles, but to sions which had been excited by several publica- the superior indulgence of the civil government

, tions, and particularly by the Missionary Maga- that the Messrs. H. and their friends were si zine." This miscellany, conducted by a minis- punished for their non-conformity, by the terras ter of the established church, who had agreed to of the law. accompany Mr. H. to India, contained some bold Their present numbers, condition, or prospects doctrines, which had seldom been heard without we have had no means of ascertaining. In uw the threshold of some obscure conventicle; and trine they are decidedly Calvinistic

, and in among others, that it is the right, nay, the para-church government maintain the purest princ mount duty, of every Christian who knows the ples of Congregationalism. See that article, with gospel, and is duly qualified, to preach it to his the references. Also, Adams's Religious World fellow sinners. L'he discussion of this contro-Displayed, vol. üi.; Haldane's Vieu of Socias versy created a very great sensation in the reli- Worship.-B. gious world; and the societies which had been INDEX, EXPURGATORY, a catalogue formed, were generally disposed to act upon the of prohibited books in the church of Rome. 114 principle. James Haldane, Esq. brother of the first catalogues of this kind were made by the in above, Mr. Aikman and others, men of ability, quisitors, and these were afterwards approved of and actuated by fervent zeal, travelled at different by the council of Trent, after some altezza times through the greater part of Scotland, was made in them by way of retrenchnetk or preaching the gospel to their countrymen, and addition. Thus an index of heretical books be that on the maxim of making the word of God ing formed, it was confirmed by a bull of Chet without charge." In their labours they expe- ment VIII. in 1595, and printed with several rienced considerable opposition, particularly from introductory rules; by the fourth of which, the the established clergy; but "the common people use of the Seriptures in the vulgar tongue is fos heard them gladly, and not a few of them ein- bidden to all persons without a particular licence braced the doctrines which they taught. They and by the tenth rule it is ordained, that no lume were soon succeeded by other labourers, employel shall be printed at Rome without the appronta by the society, who were no less successful in tion of the pope's vicar, or some person delegated promoting the same cause,

by the pope; nor in any other places, unless Neither the Messrs. Haldanes nor any of allowed by the bishop of the diocese, or su their friends, had yet separated froin the com person deputed by him, or by the inquisitor of munion of the church of Scotland, nor had any lieretical pravity. The Trent inder king tips of the established ministers declared theinselves published, Philip 11. of Spain, ordered another & attached to their party. But in a short time be printed at Antwerp in 1571, with consulta science and duty to forsake her fellowship; and in Spain in 1581

, a copy of which was such won after, Messrs. Innes and Ewing, buth' min-led out of the fire when the English plundered

10

INDULGENCES

INDWELLING Cadiz. Afterwards there were several expurga-, and if you shall not die at present, this grace tory indexes printed at Rome and Naples, and shall remain in full force when you are at the particularly in Spain.

point of death. In the name of the Father, the INDIGNATION, a strong disapprobation of Son, and the Holy Ghost.” According to a booking mind, excited by something flagitious in the con called the Tax of the sacred Roman Chancery, in duct of another. It does not, as Mr. Cogan ob- which are contained the exact sums to be levied serves, always suppose that excess of depravity for the pardon of each particular sin, we find which alone is capable of committing deeds of some of the fees to be thus : horror. Indignation always refers to culpability

d. of conduct, and cannot, like the passion of hor- For procuring abortion

7 for, be extended to distress either of body or For simony mind. It is produced by acts of treachery, abuse For sacrilege

10 of confidence, base ingratitude, &c., which we For taking a false oath in a criminal case 9 cannot contemplate without being provoked to For robbing

12 anger, and feeling a generous resentment. For burning a neighbour's house 12 INDULGENCES, in the Romish church, For defiling a virgin

9 are a reinission of the punishments due to sin, For lying with a mother, sister, &c. 7 granted by the church, and supposed to save the For murdering a layman

7 6 sinner from purgatory.

For keeping a concubine

10 6 According to the doctrine of the Romish church, For laying violent hands on a clergyman 10 6 all the good works of the saints, over and above | And so on. those which were necessary lowards their own The terms in which the retailers of indulgences justification, are deposited, together with the in- described their benefits, and the necessity of purxnite merits of Jesus Christ, in one inexhausti-chasing them, were so extravagant, that they, apble treasury. The keys of this were committed pear almost incredible. If any man, said they, to St. Peter, and to his successors, the popes, purchase letters of indulgence, his soul may rest who may open it at pleasure; and, by trans- secure with respect to its salvation. The souls ferring a portion of this superabundant merit to confined in purgatory, for whose redemption inany particular person for a sum of money, may dulgences are purchased, as soon as the money convey to him either the pardon of his own sins, tinkles in the chest, instantly escape from that or a release for any one in whom he is interested place of torment, and ascend into heaven. That from the pains of purgatory. Such indulgences the efficacy of indulgences was so great, that the were first invented in the eleventh century, hy most heinous sins, even if one should violate Urban II. as a recompense for those who went (which was impossible) the Mother of God, would in person upon the glorious enterprise of con- be remitted and expiated by them, and the person quering the Holy Land. They were afterwards be freed both from punishment and guilt. “That granted to those who hired a soldier for that pur. this was the unspeakable gift of God, in order to pose; and in process of time were bestowed on reconcile man to himself. That the cross erected such as gave money for accomplishing any pious by the preachers of indulgences was equally eftir work enjoined by the pope. The power of cacious with the cross of Christ itsell

. "Lo," granting indulgences has been greatly abused in said they, "the heavens are open : if you enter the church of Rome. Pope Leo X., in order to not now, when will you enter? For twelvepence carry on the magnificent structure of St. Peter's, you may redeem the soul of your father out of at Rome, published indulgences, and a plenary purgatory; and are you so ungrateful that you remission to all such as should contribute money will not rescue the soul of your parent from tortowards it. Finding the project take, he granted ment ? If you had but one coat

, you ought to strip w Albert, elector of Mentz, and archbishop of yourself instantly and sell it, in order to purchase Magdeburg, the benefit of the indulgences of such benefit,” &c. It was this great abuse of inSaxony, and the neighbouring parts, and farmed dulgences that contributed not a little to the Reout those of other countries to the highest bid- forination of religion in Germany, where Martin ders: who, to make the best of their bargain, Luther began first to declaim against the preachers procured the ablest preachers to cry up the value of indulgences, and afterwards against indulgences of the ware. The form of these indulgences was themselves. Since that time the popes have been as follows :—"May our Lord Jesus Christ have more sparing in the exercise of this power; ał mercy upon thee, and absolve thee by the merits though, it is said, they still carry on a great trade of his most holy passion. And I, by his authority, with them to the Indies, where they are purchased that of his blessed apostles, Peter and Paul, aná at two rials a piece, and sometimes more. Wo of the most holy pope, granted and committed to are told also that a gentleman not long since being me in these parts, do absolve thee, first from all at Naples, in order that he inight be fully ascer ecclesiastical censures, in whatever manner they lained respecting indulgences, went to the office, have been incurred; then from all thy sins, trans- and for two sequins purchased a plenary remisgressions, and excesses, how enormous soever sion of all sins for himself and any two oiher per. they may be: even from such as are reserved for sons of his friends or relations, whose names he the cognizance of the holy see, and as far as the was empowered to insert. Haweis's Church Hist. keys of the holy church extend. I remit to you vol. iii. p. 147; Smith's Errors of the Church of all punishment which you deserve in purgatory Rome; Watson's Theol. ?racts, vol. v. p. 274; om their account; and I restore you to the holy Mosheim's Eccl. Hist, vol. i. p. 594, quarto. sacraments of the church, to the unity of the INDUSTRY, diligence, constant applicatiou faithful, and to that innocence and purity which of the mind, or exercise of the body. See Dillyou possessed at baptism : so that when you die, GENCE and ÍDLENESS. the gates of punishment shall be shut, and the INDWELLING SCHEME, a scheme which gates of the paradise of delight shall be opened; I derives its name from that passage in Col ü. 9.

INFALLIBILITY

INFALLIBILITY * In him dwelleth all the fulness of the Godhead pope and council conjointly; for two fallibles bodily," which, according to some, asserts the could not make one infallible, any more than two doctrine of Const's consisting of two beings; one ciphers could make an integer. To say that it is the self-existent Creator, and the other a creature, lodged in the church universal or dulusive, is made into one person by an ineffable union and equally erroneous ; for this would be useless and indwelling, which renders the same attributes insignificant, because it could never se exercised and honours equally applicable to both. See Thi whole church could not meet to make de PRE-EXISTENCE. Dr. Oren's Glory of Christ, crees, or to choose representatives, or to deliver p. 368, 369, London ed. 1679; a Sermon entitled their sentiments on any question started; and * The true Christ of God abore the false Christ less than all would not be the whole church, and of Jien," Ipswich, 1799; Watts's Glory of Christ, so could not claim that privilege. p. 6–203; Adams's View of Religions, p. 267. The most general opinion, however, it is said

INFALLIBILITY, the quality of not being is that of its being seated in a pope and general able to be deceived or mistaken.

council. The advocates for this opinion consider The infallibility of the Church of Rome has the pope as the vicar of Christ

, head of the church been one of the great controversies between the and centre of unity; and therefore conclude that Protestants and Papists. By this infallibility it his concurrence with and approbation of the de is understood, that she cannot at any time cease crees of a general council are necessary, and sufi to be orthodox in her doctrine, or fall into any cient to atlord it an indispensable sanction and pernicious errors; but that she is constituted, by plenary authority. A general council they re divine authority, the judge of all controversies of gard as the church representative, and suppose religion, and that all Christians are obliged to ac- that nothing can be wanting to ascertain the quiesce in her decisions. This is the chain truth of any controversial point, when the pro which keeps its members fast bound to its com- tended head of the church and its members, as az union; the charm which retains them within sembled in their supposed representatives muits magic circle; the opiate which lays asleep all tually concur and coincide in judicial definits their doubts and difficulties; it is likewise the and decrees, but that infallibility attends then magnet which attracts the desultory and unstable coalition and conjunction in all their determina in other persuasions within the sphere of popery, tions. the foundation of its whole superstructure, the Every impartial person, who considers this cement of all its parts, and its tence and fortress subject with the least degree of attention, nous against all inroads and attacks.

clearly perceive that neither any individual der Under the idea of this infallibility, the church boly of Christians have any ground from reasa of Rome claims, 1. To determine what books or Scripture for pretending to infallibility. It is are and what are not canonical, and to oblige all evidently the attribute of the Supreme Being Christians to receive or reject thein accordingly.-alone, which we have all the foundation image 2 To communicate authority to the Scripture ; nable to conclude he has not communicaied to or, in other words, that the Scripture (quoad nos,) any mortal, or associations of mortals. I be ho as to us, receives its authority from her.-3. To man being who challenges infallibility seeins te assign and fix the sense of Scripture, which all imitate the pride and presumption of Luciet, Christians are submissively to receive.-4. To when he said, I will ascend, and will be like decree as necessary to salvation whatever she the Most High. A claim to it was unheard of judges so, although not contained in Scripture.- in the primitive and purest ages of the churca; 5. To decide all contro:ersies respecting matters but became, after that period, the arrogant a of faith. These are the claims to which the tension of papal ambition. History plainly in church of Rome pretends, but which we shall not forms us, that the bishops of Rome, on the de here attempt to refute, because any inan with the clension of the western Roman empire, began to Bible in his hand, and a little common sense, put in their claim of being the supreme and in will easily see that they are all founded upon igno- fallible heads of the Christian church; whr rance, superstition, and error. It is not a little they at length established by their deep JOT remarkable, however, that the Roman Catholics and unremitting efforts; by ibe concurrence o themselves are much divided as to the seat of this fortunate circumstances; by the advantages wb&b infallibility, and which, indeed, may be consi- they reaped from the necessities of sense princes dered as a satisfactory proof that no such privi- and the superstition of others; and by the gove lege exists in the church. For is it consistent ral and czeessive credulity of the people. Bu with reason to think that God would have im- ever, when they had gressly abused this aleurd partel so extraordinary a gift to prevent errors pretension, and committed various acts of viw aid dissensions in the church, and yet have left tice, tyranny, and crudty; when the blind vie an additional cause of error and dissension, viz. ration for the papal dignity had been greatly de the uncertainty of the place of its abode ? No, minished by the long and scandalous ston surely: -Some place this infallibility in the pope occasioned by contending poies; when these or bishop of Rome; some in a general council; had been for a considerable tine roarning aku others in neither pope nor council separately, but Europe, fawning on princes, squeezing their ad in both conjointly; whilst others are said to place herents, and cursing their rivals; and wlun the it in the church diffusive, or in all churches councils of Constance and Basil bail challenged throughout the world. But that it could not be and exercised the right of deposing and electing deposited in the pope is evident, for many popes the bishops of Rone, then their pretensk nis to have been heretics, and on that account censured infallibility were called in question, and the world and deposed, and therefore could not have been discovered that councils were a jurisdiction suro infallible. That it could not be placed in a gene- rior to that of the towering pontifls. Then it ral council is as evident; for general councils have was that this infallibility was transferred by tiny actually erred. Neither could it be placed in the divines from popes to general councils and the

INFANT

INFIDELITY opinion of the superior authority of a council | would probably be advisable to admit them to above that of a pope spread vastly, especially un- communion, though very young; which, by the Jer the profligate pontificate of Alexander VI. way, might be a good security against many of anıl the martial one of Julius II. The popes the snares to which youth are exposed. -Doda were thought by numbers to be too unworthy dridge's Lectures, lect. 207; Pierce's Essay on possessors of so rich a jewel ; at the same time it the Eucharist, p: 76, &c.; Wilsius on Cov. b. 4. appeared to be of too great a value, and of too ex- c. 17, $ 30,32; J. Frid. Mayer Diss. de Eucha tensive consequence, to be parted with entirely. ristia Infantum ; Zornius Hist. Eucharist. InIt was, therefore, by the major part of the Roman funtum, p. 18; Theol, and Bib. Mag. January church, deposited with, or made the property of and April, 1806. general councils, either solely or conjointly with INFANTS, SALVATION OF. “Varithe pope. See Smith's Errors of the Church of ous opinions," says an acute writer, "concerning Rome detected; and a list of writers under article the future state of infants have been adopted. POPERY,

Some think, all dying in infancy are annihilated; INFANT COMMUNION, the admission for, say they, infants, being incapable of moral of infants to the ordinance of the Lord's Supper. good or evil

, are not proper objects of reward or It has been debated by some, whether or no in- punishment. Others think that they share a fate fants should be adınitted to this ordinance. One similar to adults; a part saved, and a part perish. of the greatest advocates for this practice was Others affirm all are saved because all are imMr. Pierce. He pleads the use of it even unto mortal and all are innocent. Others, perplexed this day among the Greeks, and in the Bohemian with these diverse sentiments, think best to leave churches, till near the time of the Reformation ; the subject untouched. Cold comfort to parents but especially from the custom of the ancient who bury their families in infancy! The most churches, as it appears from many passages in probable opinion seems to be, that they are all Photius, Augustin, and Cyprian. But Dr. Dod- saved, through the merits of the Mediator, with dridge observes, that Mr. Pierce's proof from the an everlasting salvation. This has nothing in it more ancient fathers is very defective. His argu- contrary to the perfections of God, or to any dements from Scripture chiefly depend upon this claration of the Holy Scriptures; and it is highly general medium; that Christians succeeding to agreeable to all those passages which affirm the Jews as God's people, and being grafted upon where sin hath abounded, grace hath much more that stock, their infants have a right to all the abounded. On these principles, the death of privileges of which they are capable, till forfeited Christ saves more than the fall of Adam lost.” by some iminoralities ; and consequently have a If the reader be desirous of examining the subject, right to partake of this ordinance, as the Jewish we refer him to p. 415. vol. ií. Robinson's Claude; children had to eat of the passover and other sa-Gillard and Williams': Essays on Infant Salvacrifices; besides this, he pleads those texts which tion; An Attempt to clucidale Rom. v. 12, by an speak of the Lord's Supper as received by all anonymous writer; Watts's Ruin and Recovery, Christians.

p. 321, 327; Edwards on Original Sin, p. 431, The most obvious answer to all this, is that 131; Doddridges Lect. lec. 168 ; Ridgley's which is taken from the incapacity of infants to Body of Dir. vol. i. p. 330 to 336. examine themselves, and discern the Loril's body; INFIDELITY, want of faith in God. or the but he answers that this precept is only given to disbelief of the truths of revelation, and the great persons capable of understanding and complying principles of religion. If we inquire into the rise with it

, as those which require faith in order to of infidelity, we shall find it does not take its oribaptismn are interpreted by the Pædobaptists. gin from the result of sober inquiry, close invesAs for his argument from the Jewish children tigation, or full conviction; but it is rather, as eating the sacrifice, it is to be considered that this one observes, "The slow production of a carewas not required as circumcision was; the males less and irreligious life, operating together with were not necessarily brought to the temple till prejudices and erroneous conceptions concerning they were twelve years old, Luke ii. 42; and the the nature of the leading doctrines of Chrissacrifices they ate of were chiefly peace-ufferings, tianity. It may, therefore, be laid down as an which becarpe the common fool to all that were axiom, that infidelity is, in general, a disease of clean in the family, and were not looked upon as the heart more than of the understanding; for acts of devotion to such a degree as our eucharist is; we always find that infidelity increases in proporthough, indeed, they were a token of their ac- tion as the general morals dechine. If we conknowledging the divinity of that Gol to whom sider the nature and effect of this principle, we they had been oilered, I Cor. x. 18; and even shall find that it subverts the whole foundation of the passover was a commemoration of a temporal morals; it tends directly to the destruction of a deliverance; nor is there any reason to believe taste for moral excellence, and promotes the that its reference to the Messiah was generally growth of those vices which are the most hostilo understood by the Jews.

to social happiness, especially vanity, ferocity, and On the whole, it is certain there would be unbridled sensuality. As to the progress of it, more danger of a contempt arising to the Lord's it is certain that, of late years, it has made rapid Supper from the almission of infants, and of strides. Lord Herbert did not, indeed, so much contusiɔn and trouble to other communicants; impugn the doctrine or the morality of the Scrip so that not being required in Scripture, it is tures, as attempt to supersede their necessity, hy unuch the best w omit it. When chililren are endeavouring to show that the great principles grown up to a capacity of behaving decenuy, they of the unity of God, a moral government, and a may soon be instructed in the nature and design future world, are taught with sufficient clearness of ike ordinance; and if they appear to under by the light of nature. Bolingbroke, and others stand it, and behave for some competent time of of his successors, advanced much further, and triul in a manner suitable to that prufession, it I attempted to invalidate the proofs of the 'moral 193 2

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