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FUNERAL

FUTURE to seventy days, during which time they em- the rlergy towards the people. The corpse is balmed the body. Before the dead were allowed placed in the church, surrounded with lighted to be deposited in the tomh, they underwent a tapers. After the office for the dead, mass is solemn judgment. If any one stepped forth, ac- aid; then the officiating priest sprinkles the cused them, and proved that the deceased had led corpse thrice with holy water, and as often throws an evil life, the judges pronounced sentence, and incense on it. The body being laid in the grave, the body was precluded from hurial. Even their the friends and the relations of the deceased sovereigns underwent this judicature; and Dio- sprinkle the grave with holy water. dorus Siculus asserts, that many kings had been The funeral ceremonies of the Greek church deprived of the honours of burial, and that the are much the same with those of the Latin. It terrors of such a fate had a salutary influence on needs only to he observed, that, after the funeral the virtue of their kings.

service, they kiss the crucifix, and salute the The funeral rites among the Hebrews were mouth and forehead of the deceased); after which, solemn and magnificent. The relations and each of the company eats a bit of bread, and friends rent their clothes; and it was usual to drinks a glass of wine in the church, wishing the ben) the dead person's thumb into the hand, and soul a good repose, and the afflicted family all to fasten it in that posture with a string, be consolation. Bingham's Antig. b. 2; Enc. Brit.; cause the thumb then having the figure of Burtors's Synag. p. 502. the name of God, they thought the devil would FUTURÉ STATE, a term made use of in not approach it. They made a funeral oration relation to the existence of the soul after death. at the grave, after which they prayed; then, That there is such a state of existence, we have turning the face of the deceased towards heaven, every reason to believe; "for if we suppose,' ther said, “Go in peace.”

says a good writer, “the events of this life to have The Greeks used to put a piece of money in no reference to another, the whole state of man the month of the deceasel, which was thought becomes not only inexplicable, but contradictory to he the fare over the infernal river: they ab.) and inconsistent. The powers of the inferior stained from banquets; tore, cut, or shaved their animals are perfectly suited to their station, hair; sometimes throwing themselves on the Thev know nothing higher than their present ground, and rolling in the Just; beating their condition. In gratifying their appetites, they fulfil breasts, and even tearing their flesh with their their destiny, and pass away.-Man, alone, comes nails.

forth to act a part which carries no meaning, and The funeral rites among the Romans were tends to no end. Endowed with capacities which very numerous.-They kept the deceased seven extend far beyond his present sphere, fitted by hiss dive, and washed him every day with hot water, rational nature for running the race of immor and sometimes with oil, if possibly he might be tality, he is stopped short in the very entrance of revived, in case he were only in a slumber; and his course. He squanders his activity on pur every now and then his friends, meeting, made suits which he discerns to be vain. He languishes a horrible shout with the same view; but if they for knowledge which is placed beyond his reach. found he did not revive, he was dressed and em- He thirsts after a happiness which he is Joomed balmed, with a performance of a variety of sin never to enjoy. He sees and laments the disas gular ceremonies, and at last brought to the fune- ters of his state, and yet, upon this supposition ral pile, and burnt; after which his ashes were can find nothing to remedy them. Has the etergathered, inclosed in an urn, and deposited in the nal God any pleasure in sporting himself with sepulchre or tomb.

such a scene of misery and folly, as this life (if is The ancient Christians testifient their abhor- had no connexion with another,) must exhibit to rence of the pa gan custom of burning their dead, his eve? Did he call into existence this magnifi and always deposited the body entire in the cent universe, adorn it with so much beauty and ground; and it was usual to bestow the honour splendour, and surround it with those glorious of embalming upon the martyrs, at least, if not luminaries which we behold in the heavens, only upon others. They prepared the holy for burial that some generations of mortal men might arise by washing it with water, and dressing it in a to behold these wonders, and then disa ppear for funeral attire. This was performed by near re- ever? How unsuitable in this case were the lations, or persons of such dignity as the circum- habitation to the wretched inhabitant! How in stances of the deceased required. Psalmody, or consistent the commencement of his being, and singing of psalms, was the great ceremony used the mighty, preparation of his powers and faculin all funeral processions among the ancient ties, with his despicable end !' How contradio Christians.

tory, in fine, were every thing which concerns In the Romish church, when a person is dead, the state of man, to the wisdom and perfection of they wash the body, and put a crucifix in his his Maker!" nant. At the fect stands a vessel of holy water, and But that there is such a state is clear from many a sprinkler, that they who come in may sprinkle passages of the New Testament, John v. 24; both then selves and the deceased. In the mean Arts vii. 9; Rom. viii, 10, 11; 2 Cor. v. 1, 2, tine some priest stands by the corpse, and prays | Phil. i. 21; 1 Thess. iv, 14. v. 10; Luke xvi. for the deceased till it is laid in the earth. In the ~, &c. But though these texts prove the point, funeral procession the exorcist walks first, carry- yet some have doubted whether there be any ing the holy water: next the cross bearer; after where in the Old Testament any reference to a wards the rest of the clergy: and, last of all

, the future state at all

. The case, it is said, appears officiating priest. They all sing the miserere, to be this: the Mosaic covenant contained no and some other psalms; and at the end of each promises directly re.ating to a future state : pro psalm a requiem. It is said, that the facts of de-bably, as Dr. Warburton asserts, and argues at ceased laynen must be turned towards the altar large, because Moses was secure of an equal pra when they are placed in the church, and those of I vidence, and therofrire needed not subsidiary sana

GENERATION

GENERATION tions taken from a future state, without the belief that we cannot wonder that we find in the wntof which the doctrine of an universal providence ings of the proplets many strong expressions of cannot ordinarily be vindicated, nor the general such an expectation, particularly Gen. zlu. 15: sanctions of religion secured. But, in opposition Ps. xvi. 9 to 11; xvii. last verse; lxxiii. 17, 7: to this sentiment, as Doddridge observes, "it is Eccl. ü. 15, 16, &c.; vii. 12, 15; Is. iii, 10, 11; evident that good men, even before Moses, were Ezek. xviii. 19, 21; Job xix. 23, 37; Dan. xü. animated by views of a future state, Heb. xi. 13, 1s. xxxv. 8; xxvi. 19. The same thing may als 16; as he himself plainly was, 24 to 26th verse; be inferred from the particular promises made to and that the promises of heavenly felicity were Daniel, Dan. xii. 13; to Zerubbabel, Hag. 3. 3; contained even in the covenant made with Abra- and to Joshua, the high priest, Zech. m. 7; as ham, which the Mosaic could not disannul. Suc- well as from those historical facts recorded in the ceeding providences also confirmed the natural Old Testament of the murder of Abel, the tralis arguments in its favour, as every remarkable in- lation of Enoch and Elijah, the death of Moses, terposition would do ; and when general promises and the story of the Witch of Endor, and this were made to the obedient, and an equal provi- what is said of the appearance of angels to, an! dence relating to the nation established on na- their converse with good men." See article tional conformity to the Mosaic institution, and TERMEDIATE STATE, RESURRECTION, and Sort; not merely to the general precepts of virtue; as also, Doddridge's Lectures, lec. 216; Hardersuch an equal providence would necessarily in-ton's Dirine Legation of Moses, vol. ii, p. 563 volve many of the best men in national ruin, at 568; Dr. Addington's Dissertations on the Re a time when, by preserving their integrity in the ligious Knowledge of the Ancient Jour and midst of general apostacy, their virtue was most Patriarchs, containing an Inquiry into the E conspicuous : such good men, in such a state, dences of their Belief and Expectation of would have vast additional reasons for expecting Future State ; Blair's Sermons, ser. 15, vol. 1; future rewards, beyond what could arise from Robinson's Claude, vol. i. p. 132; IV. Jones's principles common to the rest of mankind; so Works, vol. vi, ser. 12; Logan's Ser. vol. ä. p. 113

G. GAIANITÆ, a denomination which derived generation, because, in virtue thereof, the Wond its name from Gaian, a bishop of Alexandria, in becomes like to Him from whom he takes the on

sixth century, who denied that Jesus Christ, ginal; or, as St. Paul expresses it, the figure o after the hypostatical union, was subject to any image of his substance; i.e. of his being and nature. of the infirinities of human nature.

And hence it is, they say, that the second person GALILEANS, a sect of the Jews which is called the Son; and that in such a way and arose in Judea some years after the birth of our manner as never any other was, is, or can be, te Saviour. They sprang from one Judas, a native cause of his own divine nature, he being the true, of Gaulam, in Upper Galilee, upon the occasion proper, and natural Son of Goi, begotten by him of Augustus appointing the people to be muster before all worlds. Thus he is called his open som ed, which they looked upon as an instance of ser- Rom. viii. 3; his only begotten Son, John mi lú ritude which all true Israelites ought to oppose. Many have attempted to explain the manner of They pretended that God alone should be owned this generation by different similitudes; but as as master and lord, and in other respects were of they throw little or no'light upon the subjert, we the opinion of the Pharisees; but as they judged shall not trouble the reader with them. Sume, it unlawful to pray for infidel princes, they sepa. however, suppose that the term Son of God retos rated themselves from the rest of the Jews, and to Christ as incdiator; and that his sonship does performed their sacrifices apart. As our Saviour not lie in his divine or human nature separately and his apostles were of Galilee, they were sus considered, but in the union of both in one perpected to be of the soct of the Galileans; and son. See Luke i. 35; Matt. iv, 3; John i. 49; it was on this principle, as St. Jerome observes, Matt. xvi. 16; Acts ix. 20, 22; Rom. i. 4. It is that the Pharisces laid a snare for him, asking, observed, that it is impossible that a nature pro Whether it were lawful to give tribute !o Cæsar? perly divine should be begotten, since begetting. that in case he denied it, they might have an oc- whatever idea is annexed to it, must signity sound casion of accusing him.

kind of production, derivation, and inferiority; GAZARES, à denomination which appeared consequently, that whatever is produced mus: about 1197, at Gazare, a town of Dalmatia. They have a beginning, and whatever had a beginning held almost the same opinions with the Albi- was not from eternity, as Christ is said to le, Isa. genses; but their distinguishing tenet was, that ix. 6; Col. i. 16, 17. That the sonship of Christ no human power had a right to sentence inen to respects him as mediator will be evident, if we death for any crime whatever.

compare John X. 30, with John xiv, 28. In tbe GEMARA See TALMUD.

former it is said, “I

and my Father are one;" GENERAL CALL. See CALLING, in the latter, "My Father is greater thau L."

GENERATION, ETERNAL, is a term These declarations, however opposite they seems ased as descriptive of the Father's communicating equally respect him as he is the Son; but if his the Divine Nature to the Son. The Father is sonship primarily and properly signify the gene said by some divines to have produced the Word, ration of his divine nature, it will be difficult, if or Son, from all eternity, by way of generation; not impossible, according to that scheme, to make on which occasion, the word generation raises a them harmonize. Considered as a distinct per peculiar idea; that procession which is really son in the Godheadl

, without respect to his office effected in

GENTLENESS

GERMAN wew, he should be both equal and inferior to his is thought of by many, we find it considered in Father. Again ; he expressly tells us himself, Scripture as a characteristic of the true Christian. that the Son can do nothing or himself; that " The wisdom that is from above," saith St. the Father showeth him and things that he doth; James,' is gentle,” iii. 17. “This gentleness, and that he giveth him to have life in himself,'' indeed, is to be distinguished from passive tameJohn v. 19, 21), 26. Which expressions, if applied ness of spirit, and from unlimited compliance with to him as God, not as mediator, will recluce us to the manners of others. That passive tameness, the disagreeable necessity of subscribing either to which submits without a struggle to every enthe creed of Arius, and maintain him to be God croachment of the violent and assuming, forms no of an inferior nature, and thus a plurality of part of Christian duty; but, on the contrary, is Gods, or to embrace the doctrine of Socinus, who destructive of general happiness and order. That allows him only to be a God by office. But if unlimited complaisance which on every occasion this title belong to him as a mediator, every diffi- falls in with the opinions and manners of others, culty is removed. And, lastly, it is observed, that is so far from being a virtue, that it is itself á though Jesus be God, and the attributes of eter- vice, and the parent of many vices. It over nal existence ascribed to him, yet the two attri throws all steadiness of principle, and produces butes, eternal and son, are not once expressed in that sinful conformity with the world which the same text as referring to eternal generation. taints the whole character. In the present corSee article Son of God; Oven on the Person rupted state of human manners, always to assent of Christ ; Pearson on the Creed ; Ridgley's and to comply, is the very worst maxim we can Body of Divinity, p. 73, 76, 3d. edition ; Gill's adopt. True gentleness, therefore, is to be caredito

, p. 205, vol. i. 8vo. edition; Lumbert's fully distinguished from the mean spirit of cowSermons, ser. 13, text, John xi. 35; Hodson's ards and the fawning assent of sycophants. It Essay on the Eternal Filiation of the Son of renounces no just right from fear; it gives up no God; Walto's Works, vol. v. p. 77.

important truth from fiattery: it is, indeed, not GENEROSITY, the disposition which only consistent with a firm mind, but it necessaprompts us to bestow favours which are not the rily requires a manly spirit and a fixed principle, purchase of any particular merit. It is different in order to give it any real value. It stands op from humanity. Humanity is an exquisite feel posed to harshness and severity, to pride and arroing we possess in relation to others, so as to gance, to violence and oppression: it is properly grieve for their sufferings, resent their injuries, that part of charity which makes us unwilling to ar 10 rejoice at their prosperity; and as it arises give pain to any of our brethren. Compassion from sympathy, it requires no great self-denial or proinpts us to relieve their wants; forbearance sell-command; but generosity is that by which prevents us from retaliating their injuries; meekwe are led to prefer some other person to our ness restrains oor angry passions; candour our selves, and to sacrifice any interest of our own to severe judgments; but gentleness corrects what the interest of another.

ever is offensive in our manner, and, by a constant GENIUS, a good or evil spirit or dæmon, who train of humane attentions, studies to alleviate the ancients supposed was set over each person to the burden of common misery.” direct his birth, accompany him in his life, and to GENUFLECTION, the act of bowing or

bending the knee, or rather of kneeling down. Genius signifies that aptitude which a man na- The Jesuit Rosweyd, in his Onomasticon, shows turally possesses to perform well and easily that that genuflection, or kneeling, has been a very which others can do but indiiferently, and with a ancient custom in the church, and even urder the great deal of pain.

Old Testament dispensation; and that this pracGENTILE, in matters of religion, a Pagan, tice was observed throughout all the year, exor worshipper of false gods. The origin of this cepting on Sundays, and during the time from word is deduced from the Jews, who called all Easter to Whitsuntide, when kneeling was forthose who were not of their name, D'i gojim, bilden by the council of Nice. Others have i.e. gentes, which in the Greek translation of the shown, that the custom of not kneeling on SunOld Testament is rendered - iovm, in which days had obtained from the time of the apostles, as sense it frequently occurs in the New Testa- appears from St. Irenæus and Tertullian; and Inent; as in Matt. vi. 32. “All these things the the Ethiopic church, scrupulously attached to the nations or Gentiles seek.”_ Whence the Latin ancient ceremonies, still retains that of not kneel church also used gentes in the same sense as our ing at divine service. The Russians esteen it an Gentiles, especially in the New Testament. But indecent posture to worship God on the knees. the worú gentes soon got another signification, The Jews usually prayed standing. Baronius is and no longer meant all such as were not Jews, of opinion that genutlection was not established but those only who were neither Jews nor Chris- in the year of Christ 58, from that passage in tians, but followed the superstitions of the Greeks Acts xx. 36, where St. Paul is expressly menand Romans, &c. In this sense it continued tioned to kneel down at prayer; but Saurin anong the Christian writers, till their manner of shows that nothing can be thence concluded. speech, together with their religion, was publicly, The same author remarks, also, that the primiand by authority, received in the empire, when tive Christians carried the practice of genuflection gen:iles, from gentes, came into use and then so far, that some of them had worn cavities in the buth words had two significations: viz, in trea- floor where they prayed; and St. Jerome relates tiscs or laws concerning religion, they signified of St. James, that he had contracted a hardness Pagans, neither Jews nor Christians; and in on his knees equal to that of camels. civil atfairs they alu Used for all such as were not GERMAN (REFORMED) CHURCH. Romans. See HEATHEN, PAGANISM,

The members of this denomination were among GENTLENESS, softness or mildness of dis- the early settlers in Pennsylvania. They aro positive and behaviour. Little as this disposition (descended from the Reformed or Calvinistic

be his guard.

GLASSITES

CLASSITES Church in Germany. They remained in a scat- of the national religion ; e.g. being interrogate tered state, till 1746, when the Rev. Michael "Is it your opinion that there is no warrant for a Schlatter, who was sent from Europe for the national church under the New Testament ? purpose, collected them together. They are found he answered, "It is my opinion; for I can see no principally in Pennsylvania; a few in Maryland, churches instituted by Christ in the New Testa. Virginia, Ohio, and other states. Their church ment, beside the universal, but congregational government is essentially presbyterian, though churches. Neither do I see that a nation can be their highest judicature is termed a synod. The a church, unless it could be made a congregation, synod of the German Reformed Church is com- as was the nation of Israel &c.” Interrogaied posed of seven classes-east Pennsylvania, Le-"Is it your opinion that a single congregation of banon, Susquehanna, west Pennsy!vania, Zion, believers, with their pastor, are not under the Maryland, and Virginia. The synod of Ohio, ecclesiastical jurisdiction and authority of supe not in immediate connexion with the general sy- ríor church judicatures, nor censurable by them, nod, on account of its distance, have in their either as to doctrine, worship, or practice ?" He connexion 14 ordained ministers, and one candi- answered, “A congregation or church of Jesus date, and about 100 synod congregations. There Christ, with its presbytery, is, in its discipline, is, in addition, an independent body, called a sy- subject to no jurisdiction under heaven." 'And nod of the German Reformed Church, in the being interrogated, “Do you think yourself eastern part of Pennsylvania.-B.

obliged in conscience to teach and publish these GIOST, HOLY. See Holy Ghost.

your opinions, differing from the received docGIFT OF TONGUES, an ability given to trines of this church, unto the people ?" he anthe apostles of resulily and intelligibly speaking a swered, "I think myself obliged in conscience to variety of languages which they hal never learnt. declare every truth of Christ

, and keep nothing This was a most glorious and important attesta- back ; but to speak all the words of this life; and tion of the Gospel, as well as a suitable, and, in- to teach his people to observe all things whatsoever deed, in their circumstances, a necessary furni- he commands, so far as I can understand : and ture for the mission for which the apostles and that notwithstanding of others differing from me, their assistants were designed. Nor is there any and my being exposed to hazard in the declaring reason, with Dr. Middleton, to understand it as of them.” For these, and other opinions of a simimerely an occasional gift, so that a person might lar nature and tendency, the synod suspended speak a language most fluently one hour, and be Mr. Glas from the exercise of his office, in April entirely ignorant of it in the next; which neither 1728; and, in the same year, he published "an agrees with what is sail of the abuse of it, nor explication of that proposition,” contained in the would have been sufficient to answer the end foregoing answer, “a congregation, or church of proposed. See Acts ii. See Gill and Henry in Jesus Christ with its presbytery ia, in its disci. loc. ; Jortin's Remarks, vol. i. p. 15–21; Essay pline, subject to no jurisdiction under heaven." on the Gift of Tongues; Middleton's Miscel

. Mr. Glas having persisted, not only in the el. Works, vol. ii. p. 379; Doddridge's Lect. lec. 141. ercise of his office as a minister of Christ, note

GILBERTINES, a religious order; thus withstanding the sentence of suspension, but also called from St. Gilbert, of Seinpringham, in the in the opinions expressed in his answers above county of Lincoln, who founde the saine about referred to, the synol of Angus and Mearns, after the year 1119; +he monks of which observed the a great deal of previous procedure, by a piorule of St. Augustine, and were accounted canons, rality of votes, but not without protests entered and the nuns that of St. Benedict.' The founder by some of their brethren, in October 1729, "de of this order erected a double monastery, or rather po-ed him from the office of the holy ministry; two di lerent ones, contiguous to each other; the probibiting and discharging him to exercise the one for men, the other for women, but parted by a same, or any part thereof, in all time coming, unvery high wall. St. Gilbert himself founded thir: der the pain of the highest censures of the church." teen monasteries of this order; viz. four for men From this sentence Mr. Glas appealed to the go alone, and nine for men and women together, neral asset ibly of the church of Scotland. In the which had in them 700 brethren, and 15000 sis- mean time he continued the exercise of his ninis

At the dissolution, there were about try; and from among his numerous followers twenty-five houses of this der in England and for his popularity was then great, notwithstandWales.

ing the peculiarity of some of bis opinious) be GLASSITESThe Glassites are so denomi formed a congregation on his own principles in a nated from Mr. John Glas, their founder, who parish near Dundee, of which he had been ori was a minister of the established kirk of Scot-ginally ordained pastor. land; but his followers are more generally known, In the year 1729, Mr. Ĝlas published a treatise out of Scotland, by the appellation of Sandema- entitled The Testimony of the King of Man nians, from Mr. Robert Sandeman. See San. tyre, as expressed in the answer of Jesus Christ DEMANIANS

to Pilate, "My kingdom is not of this world." In Mr. Glas, about the year 1727, having offend that treatise he has pretty fully illustratext his sed el some of his brethren by certain peculiar no-timents on the points of dispute between the sy tions, both of justifying faith, and of the nature nod and him. This appeal from the synod bring of Christ's kingioni, as being not of this world, referred to the commission of assembly, they was arraigned us an oflender before the presby- after hearing his speech in defence (published in very of which he was a member, and afterwards his Works, vol. i.) affirmed the sentence of deposi. prosecuted before the provincial syriod of Angus tion pronounced by the synod. Notwithstanding and Mearns; and having been in the course of this deposition, Mr. Glas cortinued the exercise that prosecution, called in by the synod to answer of his ministry, though deprived of his stipenda certain queries, he gave such answers as were by and not only preached occasionally in most of the his judges leemed incousistent with the standard principal town of Scotland, but crected churches,

ters.

GNOSTICS

GNOSTICS wherever he found a competent number of per- barbarous persons, who explained and interpresons who adopted and coincided with his opinions. ted the sacred writings, in a low, literal, and unIn vindication of this course he alleged, that his edifying signification. At first, the "Gnostics conduct in this matter was the legitimate conse- were the only philosophers and wits of those quence of the principles he had embraced, and times, who formed for themselves a peculiar sysuntil those principles were refuted by fair reason- tem of theology, agrecable to the philosophy of ing, it was not to be expected that the sentence Pythagoras and Plato; to which they accommoof the synod could loose him from the obligation dated all their interpretations of Scripture. But laid upon him by the law of Christ to preach the Gnostics afterwards became a generical name, gospel

. Soon after the erection of the church at comprehending divers sects and parties of hereDundee

, smaller congregations were put into tics, who rose in the first centuries; and who, church oriler at different places ; such as Edin- though they differed among themselves as to cirburgh, Perth, Montrose, Aberdeen, Glasgow, cumstances, yet all agreed in some common prinPaisley, &c. Glas, as has been observed, pub- ciples. They corrupted the doctrine of the Goslished a variety of tracts and treatises at different pel by a profane mixture of the tenets of the periods, all of them discovering talents of the oriental pbilosophy, conceming the origin of evil highest oriler; and among others who were led and the creation of the world, with its divine by the force of his arguments to adopt his pecu- truths. Such were the Valentinians, Simonians, liar views, was a Mr. Robert Sandeman, ori- Carpocratians, Nicolaitang, lic. ginally educated and destined for the ministry of Gnostics sometimes also uccurs in a good the established church, who having embraced sense, in the ancient ecclesiastical writers, parMr. Glas's principles, was soon after ordained an ticularly Clemens Alexandrinus, who in the per. elder of the church at Perth, from whence he af- son of his Gnostic describes the characters and terwards moved to Edinburgh. He soon entered qualities of a perfect Christian. This point he warmly into controversy with Mr. Hervey and labours in the seventh book of his stromata, others, and became more conspicuous than his where he shows that none but the Grostic, or laster, and in some points has evidently pushed learned person, has any true 'rdigion. He Mr. Glas's peculiar sentiments to a greater ex- affirms that, were it possible for the knowledge treme than he ever carried them, if we may judge of God to be separated from eternal salvation, the from his published works. For the distinguishing Gnostic would make no scruple to choose the doctrinal tenets usually ascribed to the Glassites, knowledge; and that if God would promise him see the article on SANDEMANISM. Adam's Re- impunity in doing any thing he has once spoken Ligirus World Displayed, vol. iii.-B.

against

, or offer him heaven on those terins, te GLORY, praise, or honour, attributed to God, would never alter a whit of his measures. In this in adoration of worship. The state of felicity sense the father uses Gnostics, opposition to prepared for the righteous. See HEAVEN. the heretics of the same name; affirming that the

The glory of God is the manifestation of the true Gnostic is grown old in the study of the divine perfections in creation, providence, and holy Scripture, and that he preserves the orthograce. We may be said to give glory to God dox doctrine of the apostles, and of the church; when we confess our sins, when we love him su- whereas the false Gnostic abandons all the apospremely, when we commit ourselves to him, are tolical traditions, as imagining himself wiser than realous in his service, improve our talents, walk the apostles. humbly, thankfully, and cheerfully before him, Gnostics was sometimes also more particularly and recommend, pra·laim, or set forth his excel- used for the successors of the Nicolaitans anů lencies to others, J. vii. 19; Gal. ii. 20; John Carpocratians, in the second century, upon their xv. 8; Ps. L 23; Matt. v. 16.

laying aside the names of the first authors. Such GNOSIMACHI, a name which distinguished as would be thoroughly acquainted with all their those in the seventh century who were professed doctrines, reveries, and visions, may consult St. enemies to the Gnosis; i. e. the studied know. Irenæus, Tertullian, Clemens Alerandrinus, ledge or science of Christianity, which they rested Origen, and St. Epiphanius ; particularly the wholly on good works; calling it a useless labour first of these writers, who relates their sentiments to seek for knowledge in the Scripture. In short, at large, and confutes them. Indeed he dwells they contended for the practice of morality in all more on the Valentinians than any other sect of sinplicity, and bli med 'those who aimed at im- Gnostics; but he shows the general principles proving and perfecting it by a deeper knowledge whereon all their mistaken opinions were found. and insight into the doctrines and mysteries of ed, and the method they followed in explaining religion. The Gnosimachi were the very reverse Scripture. He accuses them of introducing into of the Gnostics.

religion certain vain and ridiculous genealogies, GNOSTICS, (frum TwoTivos, knowing,) an- i. e. a kind of divine processions or emanations, cient heretics, famous from the first rise of Chris- which had no other foundation but in their own tianity, principally in the past. It appears from wild imagination. The Gnostics confessed, that several

passages of Scripture, particularly 1 John these æons, or emanations, were no where exii . 18; 1 Tim. vi. 20; Col. ii

. 8; that many per- pressly delivered in the sacred writings; but insons were infected with the Gnostic heresy in the sisted that Jesus Christ had intimated them in first century; though the sect did not render parables to such as could understand them. They itself conspicuous, either for numbers or reputa- built their theology not only on the Gospels and tion, before the time of Adrian, when some wri- the epistles of St. Paul, but also on the law of ters crroneously date its rise. The name was Moses and the prophets. These last were peudopted by this sect, on the presumption that they culiarly servicer.ble to them, on account of the were the only persons who had the true knou- allegories and allusions with which they abound, ledge of Christianity. Accorlingly they looked which are capable of different interpretations; on all other Christians as simple, ignorant, and I though their doctrine concerning the creation of

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