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JUDGMENTS

JUDGMENTS Severus, another persecuting emperor, was obtained a complete victory, taking him and his overthrown and put is death in the year three sons prisoners, whom they put to death. hundred and seven.

Hunneric, the Vandal, though a Christian, About the same time, Urbanus, governor of was a most cruel persecutor of those who differed Palestine, who had signalized himself by torment from him in opinion, about the year of our Lord ing and destroying the disciples of Jesus, met 184. He spared not even those of his own per with his due reward; for almost immediately af-suasion, neither his friends nor his kindred. He ter the cruelties committed, the divine vengeance reigned, however, not quite eight years, and died overtook him. He was unexpectedly degraded with all the marks of divine indignation upon hin and deprived of all his honours; and, dejected, Júlian the apostate greatly oppressed the Chris disspirited, and meanly begging for mercy, was tians; and he perished soon after, in his rash esput to death by the same hand that raised him. pedition against the Persians.

Firmilianus, another persecuting governor, Several of those who were employed or pesmet with the same fate.

mitted by Julian to persecute the Christians are Maximianus Herculius, another of the wretch- said to have perished miserably and reanarbabis

. el persecuting emperor;, was compelled to hang I will here relate the fate of a few of those who himself, in the year three hundred and ten. happy wretches in the words of Tillemont

, wbo Maximianus Galerius, of all the tyrants of his faithfully collected the account from the ancients time the most cruel, was seized with a grievous “ We have observed,” says that learned man and horrible disease, and tormented with worms "that Count Julian, with Felix, superintendent and ulcers to such a degree, that they who were of the finances, and Elpidius, treasurer to the ordered to attend him could not bear the stench. emperor, apostates all three, had received orders Worms proceeded from his body in a most fearful to go and seize the effects of the church at An manner; and several of his physicians were put tioch, and carry them to the treasury. They did to death because they could not endure the smell, it on the day of the martyrdom of St. Theodunen and others because they could not cure him: and drew up an account of what they had seized This happened in the year of our Lord three But Count Julian was not content with taking hundred and eleven.

away the sacred vessels of the church and p Maxentius, another of the inhuman monsters, faning them by his impure hands: carrying to was overthrown in battle by Constantine ; and in greater lengths the outrage he was doing to Jesus his flight he fell into the Tíber, and was drowned Christ, he overturned and Aung them down on in the year three hundred and twelve.

the ground, and sat upon them in a most crucial Maximinus put out the eyes of many thousands manner; adding to this all the banters and also of Christians. Soon after the commission of his phemies that he could devise against Christ, and crueltics, a disease arose among his own people, against the Christians, who, he said, were abanwhich greatly affected their eyes, and took away doned of God.” their sight. He himself died miserably, and upon Felix, the superintendent, signalized timell the rack, his eyes starting out of his head through also by another impiety; for as he was viewing the violence of his distemper, in the year three the rich and magniticent vessels which the enpat hundred and thirteen. All his family likewise rors Constantine and Constantius had givens were destroped, his wife and children put to deat!, the church, “Behold,” said he," with u bat plazo together with most of his friends and dependents, the son of Mary is served!" It is said, 100, that who had been the instruments of his crueltv. Count Julian and he made it the suljece of map

A Roman other, to oblige thuis Maximinus, ter, that God should let them thus frutine bis greatly oppressed the church at Damascus: not temple, without interposing by visible mirates long atter, he destroyed himself.

But these imbieties remained not long top Licinius, the last of these persecuting empe- nished, and Julian had no sooner protaned the rors before Constantine, was conquered and put sacred utensils, than he felt the effects of divine to death in the year three hundred and twenty- vengeance. He fell into a grievous and unkon three. He was equally an enemy to religion, disease; and bis inward parts being corruzione liberty, and learning,

he cast out his liver and his excrements, not troba Cyril

, the deacon, was murdered by some Pa- the ordinary passages, but from his miserabie gans, at Heliopolis, for his opposition to their mouth, which had uttered so many blasphemie images. They ripped open his belly, and ate his His secret parts, and all the flesh round about liver: the divine vengeance, however, pursued all them, corrupted also, and bred worins; and those who had been guilty of this crime; their show that it was a divine punishment, all the air teeth came out, their tongues rotted, and they of physicians could give him no relief. In this lost their sight.

condition he continued forty days without speech Valens was made emperor in 364; and though or sense, preyed on by worms. a Christian himself, he is said to have caused came to hiinself again. The imposthumes, bora fourscore presbyters, who differed from him in ever, all over his body, and the worins which opinion, to be put to sea, and burnt alive in the gnawed him continually, reduced him to the air ship. Afterwards, in a battle with the Goths, most extremity. He threw them ur; he was defeated and wounded, and fled to a cot- crasing, the last three days of his lite, with a tage, where he was burnt alive, as most histori- stench which he himself could not bear. ans relate: all agree that he perished.

The disease with which God visited felis, The last Payan prince, who was a formiılable was not so long. Ele burst suddenly in the wido enemy to Christianity, was Radagaisus, a king dle of his

body, and died of an etlusion of bloed of the Goths. He invaded the Roman empire in the course of one day. with an army of 400,000 men, about the year 405, and vowed to sacrifice all the Romans to his shut up in prison, where after having continued

Elpidius was stripped of his effects in 36, and gods. The

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JUSTICE

JUSTIFICATION honour, cursed of all the world, and surnamed | jured." Watts's Serm. ser. 9, 25, vol. ii.; the Apostate.

Berry Street Lect, ser. iv.; Grove's Mor. Phil. To these instances many more might be added p. 332, vol. ii.; Wollaston's Relig. of Nature, p. nearer our own times, did our room permit. 137, 141 ; Jay's Serm. vol. ii. p. 131. These, however, are sufficient to show us what JUSTICE OF GOD is that perfection wherea fearful thing it is to fall into the hands of the by he is infinitely righteous and just, both in living God, and how fruitless and awful it is to himself and in all his proceedings with his creaoppose his designs, and to attempt to stop the tures. Mr. Ryland defines it thus : “The ardent progress of his Gospel. "Why do the heathen inclination of his will to prescribe equal laws as rage, and the people imagine a vain thing? He the supreme governor, and to dispense equal re. that sitteth in the heavens shall laugh; the Lord wards and punishments as the supreme judge." shall have them in derision. Thou shalt break Rev. xvi. 5; Ps. cxlv. 7; xcvii. 1.-2. It is disthem with a rod of iron ; thou shalt dash them to tinguished into remunerative and punitive juspieces as a potter's vessel. Be wise now, there- tice. Remunerative justice is a distribution of fore, O ye kings; be instructed, ye judges of the rewards, the rule of which is not the merit of the earth. Serve the Lord with fear, and rejoice with creature, but his own gracious promise, James i. trembling." Ps. ii. Jortin's Remarks on Eccle- 12; 2 Tim. iv. 8. Punitive or vindictire jus. siastical History, vol. iii. p. 216, &c.; Simpson's tice, is the infliction of punishment for any sin Key to the Prophecies, 29; Newton on the Pro- comınitted by men, 2 Thess. i. 6. That God phecies, dis. 24; Bryant's Observations on the will not let sin go unpunished is evident, 1. From Plagues of Egypt; Tillemont, Histoire des the word of God, Ex. xixiv. 6, 7; Numb. xiv. Emp.

18; Neh. i. 3.-2. From the nature of God, Isa. JUDICIUM DEI, or Judgment of God, was 1: 13, 14; Psal. v. 5, 6; Heb. xii. 29.—3. From a term anciently applied to all extraordinary trials sin being punished in Christ, the surety of his of secret crimes; as those by arms and single people, 1 Pet. iii. 18.–4. From all the various combat; and the ordeals, or those by fire, or red natural evils which men bear in the present state. hot ploughshares, by plunging the arm in boiling The use we should make of this doctrine is this: water, or the whole body in cold water, in hopes 1. We should learn the dreadful nature of sin, that God would work a miracle, rather than suf- and the inevitable ruin of impenitent sinners, Ps. fer truth and innocence to perish. Thesc cus-ix. 17.–2. We should highly appreciate the toms were a long time kept up even among Chris- Lord Jesus Christ, in whom justice is satisfied, tians, and they are still in use in some nations. 1 Pet. iii. 18.-3. We should imitate the justice Trials of this sort were usually held in churches, of God, by cherishing an ardent regard to the in the presence of the bishop, priest, and secular rights of God, and to the rights of mankind. julges, after three days' fasting, confession, com- 4. We should abhor all sin, as it strikes directly munion, and many adjurations and ceremonies, at the justice of God.-5. We should derive comdescribed at large by Du Cange.

fort from the consideration that the judge of all JUMPERS, persons so called from the prac- the earth will do right, as it regards ourselves, the tice of jumping during the time allotted for reli- church, and the world at large, Psal. xcvii. 1, 2. gious worship. This singular practice began, it Ryland's Contemp. vol. ii. p. 439; Witsius's is said, in the western part of Wales, about the Economy, lib. xi. ch. 8. $ 11; Dr. Owen on the year 1760. It was soon after defended by Mr. Justice of God ; Gill's Body of Dirinity, p. 155, William Williams, (the Welsh poet, as he is vol. i. 8vo.; Elisha Cole on the Righteousness of sometimes called,) in a pamphlet, which was pa- God. tronized by the abettors of jumping in religious JUSTIFICATION, a forensic term, and assemblies. Several of the more zealous itinerant signifies the declaring or pronouncing a person preachers encouraged the people to cry out go- righteous according to law. It stands opposed to goninnt (the Welsh word for glory,) amen, &c. condemnation ; and this is the idea of the word &c; to put themselves in violent agitations; and, whenever it is used in an evangelical sense, Rom, finally, to jump until they were quite exhausted, v. 18; Deut. xxv. 1 ; Prov. xvii. 15; Matt. xii. 37. 60 as often to be obliged to fall down on the floor It does not signify to make men holy, but the or field, where this kind of worship was held. holding and declaring them so. It is defined by

JUSTICE consists in an exact and scrupu- the assembly thus : "An act of Gols free grace, lous regard to the rights of others, with a deli in which he pardoneth all our sins, and accepteth berate purpose to preserve them on all occasions us as righteous in his sight only for the rightkarred and inviolate. It is often divided into eousness of Christ imputed to us, and received by commutative and distributive justice. The for- faith alone." mer consists in an equal exchange of benefits ; The doctrine of justification, says Mr. Booth, the latter in an equal distribution of rewards and makes a very distinguished figure in that religion punishments. Dr. Watts gives the following which is from above, and is a capital article of rules respecting justice.—". It is just that we that faith which was once delivered to the saints. honour, reverence, and respect those who are su- Far from being a merely speculative point, it periors in any kind, Eph. vi. 1, 3; 1 Pet. ii. 17; spreads its ințluence through the whole body of i Tim. v. 17.-2. That we show particular

kind- divinity, runs through all Christian experience, dess to near relations, Prov. xvii. 17.-3. That and operates in every part of practical godliness. we love those who love us, and show gratitude to Such is its grand importance, that a mistake those who have dore us good, Gal. iv. 15.- about it has a malignant efficacy, and is attended 4. That we pay the full due to those whom we with a long train of dangerous consequences. bargain or deal with, Rom. xiii.; Deut. xxiv. Nor can this appear strange, when it is consider11.-3. That we help our fellow-creatures in ed, that the doctrine of justification is no other cases of great necessity, Ex. xxii. 4.–6. Repa- than the way of a sinner's acceptance with God. tation to those whom we have wilfully in- Being of such peculiar moment, it is inseparably

JUSTIFICATION

JUSTIFICATION connected with many other evangelical truths, lieveth on him that justifieth-whom? the rigt the harmony and beauty of which we cannot be teous ? the holy ? the eminently pious ? nay, te hold while this is misunderstood. It is, if any rily, but the ungodly, his faith, or that in which thing may be so called, an essential article, and he believes, is counted unto him for righteousness certainly requires our most serious consideration. Rom. iv. 4, 5; Gal. ii. 17. Here, then, we learn

Justification, in a theological sense, is either that the subjects of justification, considered in legal or evangelical. If any person could be themselves, are not only destitute of a perfect found that had never broken the divine law, he righteousness, but have performed no good might be justified by it in a manner strictly legal. works at all. They are denominated and cons But in this way none of the human race can dered as the ungodly, when the blessing is to be justified, or stand acquitted before God. For stowed upon them. Not that we are to order. all have sinned; there is none righteous; no, not stand that such remain ungodly. "A!," says one, Rom. iii. Assinners, they are under the Dr. Owen," that are justified, were before unsentence of death by his righteous law, and ex. godly; but all that are justified, are, at the sun cluded from all hope and mercy. That justifica- instant, made godly." That the mese sinner, tion, therefore, about which the Scriptures prin- however, is the subject of justification, appears cipally treat, and which reaches the case of a from hence. The Spirit of God, speaking in the sinner, is not by a personal, but an imputed Scripture, repeatedly declares that we are justified righteousness; a righteousness without the law, by grace. But grace stands in direct oppostas Rom. iii. 21 ; provided by grace, and revealed in to works. Whoever, therefore, is justified by the Gospel; for which reason, that obedience by grace, is considered as absolutely unworthy in which a sinner is justified, and his justification that very instant when the blessing is vi-uchsafed itself, are called evangelical. In this affair there to him, Rom. ii. 24. The person, therefore, that is the most wonderful display of divine justice is justified, is accepted without any cause in bir , and boundless grace. Of divine justice, if we re- self. Hence it appears that if we regard the per

gard the meritorious cause and ground on which sons who are justified, and their state prior to the the Justifier proceeds in absolving the condemned enjoyment of the immensely glorious privilege sinner, and in pronouncing him righteous. Of divine grace appears, and reigns in all its glory. boundless grace, if we consider the state and As to the way and manner in which sinners character of those persons to whom the blessing are justified, it may be observed that the Divine is granted. Justification may be further distin- Being can acquit none without a complete nghe guished as being either at the bar of God, and in teousness. Justification, as before obsad, is the court of conscience; or in the sight of the evidently a forensic term, and the thing mtendal world, and before our fellow creatures. The for- by it a judicial act. So that, were a persoa to mer is by mere grace through faith ; and the be justified without righteousness, the judgment latter is by works.

would not be according

to truth; it would be a 5's To justify, is evidently a divine prerogative. It and unrighteous sentence. That righteousness by is God, that justifieth, Rom. viii. 33. "That so wirich we are justified must be equal to the demars vereign Being, against whom we have so greatly of that law according to which the Sovereign Judge offended, whose law we have broken by ten thou- proceeds in our justification. Many personatal sand acts of rebellion against him, has, in the of conditions of justification (see article COAD! way of his own appointment, the sole right of TION;) but the only condition is that of perfeetrit acquitting the guilty, and of pronouncing them teousness: this the law requires, nor does the tros righteous. He appoints the way, provides the pel substitute another. But where shall we find or means, and imputes the righteousness; and all in how shall we obtain a justifying righteousness 1 perfect agreement with the demands of his of- Shall we flee to the law for relief ? Shall we sp fended law, and the rights of his violated justice. ply with diligence and zeal to the performance of But although this act is in some places of the in-duty, in order to attain the desired end! The fallible word more particularly appropriated per- apostle positively affirms, that there is no amse sonally to the Father, yet it is manifest that all ance with God by the works of the lau ; and be the Three Persons are concerned in this grand reasons are evident. Our righteousness is in affair, and each performs a distinct part in this perfect, and consequently cannot justify. lies particular, as also in the whole economy of salva- tification were by the works of men, it caktu tion. The eternal Father is represented as ap- be by grace : it would not be a righteousnes pointing the way, and as giving his own Son to without works.-There would be no need of ile perform the conditions of our acceptance before righteousness of Christ; and lastly, if just him, Rom. vii. 32; the divine Son as engaged to tion were by the law, then boasting would bera sustain the curse, and make the atonement; to couraged; whereas God's design in the wire fulfil the terms, and provide the righteousness by scheme of salvation is to exclude it, Rom. i. which we are justified, Tit. ii. 14; and the Holy Eph. ii. 8, 9. Nor is faith itself our righteoSpirit as revealing to sinners the perfection,-suit- ness, or that for the sake of which we are jusuted: ableness

, and freeness of the Saviour's work, for, though believers are said to be justituut enabling them to receive it as exhibited in the faith, yet not for faith · faith can only be ous Gospel of sovereign grace ; and testifying to their dered as the instrument, and not the caus. 'l ist consciences complete justification by it in the faith is not our righteousness, is evident from the court of heaven, John xvi. 8, 14.

following considerations : No mar's tanh is As to the objects of justification, the Scripture fect; and, if it were, it would not be equal wibe says they are sinners and ungodly. For thus demands of the divine law. It could not, they runs the divine declaration : Thim that work- fore, without an error in judgment, he acounted eth is the reward of justification, and of eternal a complete righteousness. But the judgment a life as connected with it; not reckoned of grace, God, as before proved, is according to try and but of debt

JUSTIFICATION

JUSTIFICATION dience by which a sinner is justified is called the shall be saved from wrath through him," Rom. righteousness of faith, righteousness by faith, v. 9. The spotless obedience, therefore, the bitand is represented as revealed to faith ; conse- ter sufferings, and the accursed death of our heaquently, cannot be faith itself

. Faith, in the busi- venly Surety, constitute that very righteousness ness of justification, stands opposed to all works; by which sinners are justified before God. T'bat to him thot worketh not but beliereth. Now, if this righteousness is imputed to us, and that we it were our justifying righteousness, to consider are not justified by a personal righteousness, apit in such a light would be highly improper. For pears from the Scripture with superior evidence. in such a connexion it falls under the considera-"By the obedience of one shall many be made tion of a work; a condition, on the performance righteous,” Rom. v. 19. “He hath made him to of which our acceptance with God is manifestly be sin for us, who knew no sin, that we might be suspended. If faith itself be that on account of made the righteousness of God in him.” 2 Cos. which we are accepted, then some believers are v. 21 ; “And be found in him, not having mine justified by a more, and some by a less perfect own righteousness which is of the law, but that righteousness, in exact proportion to the strength which is through the faith of Christ; the righor weakness of their faith. That which is the teousness which is of God by faith,” Phil. ii. & end of the law is our righteousness, which cer- See also Jer. xxiji. 6; Dan. ix. 24 ; the whole of Lainly is not faith, but the obedience of our ex. the 21 chap. of Galatians. See articles Reconalted substitute, Rom. x. 4. Were faith itself CILIATION, RIGHTEOUSNESS. our justifying righteousness, we might depend As to the properties of justification : 1. It is upon before God, and rejoice in it. So that, an act of God's free grace, without any merit according to this hvpothesis, not Christ, but whatever in the creature, Rom. ii. 24. 2. It is faith, is the capital thing; the object to which we an act of justice as well as grace; the law being must look, which is absurd. When the apostle perfectly fulfilled in Christ, and divine justice savs, "frith was imputed to him for righteous- satisfied, Rom. iii. 26; Ps. Ixxxv. 10.—3. It is ness," his main design was to prove that the an individual and instantaneous act, done at once, eterna! Sovereign justifies freely, without any admitting of no degrees, John xix. 30.–4. It is cause in the creature.

irreversible, and an unalterable act, Mal. iï. 6. Nor is man's obedience to the Gospel as to a As to the time of justification, divines are not new and milder law the matter of his justification agreed. Some have distinguished it into decrebefore God. It was a notion that some years ago tive, virtual, and actual. I. Decretive, is God's oblained, that a relaxation of the law, and the eternal purpose to justify sinners in time by severities of it, has been obtained by Christ; and Jesus Christ.—2. Virtual justification has a rea new law, a remedial law, a law of milder ference to the satisfaction made by Christ.terms, has been introduced by him, which is the 3. Actual, is when we are enabled to believe in Gospel; the terms of which are faith, repentance, Christ, and by faith are united to him Others and obedience; and though these are imperfect, say it is eternal, because his purpose respecting it Fet, being sincere, they are accepted of by God was from everlasting; and that, as the Almighty in the room of a perfect righteousness. But viewed his people in Christ, they were, of conseevery part of this scheme is wrong, for the law quence, justified in his sight. But it appears to is not relaxel, nor any of its severities abated; me, that the principle on which the advocates for there is no alteration made in it, either with re- this doctrine have proceeded is wrong. They spect to its precepts or penalty : besides, the have confounded the design with the execution; scheme is absurd, for it supposes that the law for if this distinction be not kept up, the utmost which a man is now under requires only an im- perplexity will follow the consideration of every perfect obedience; but an imperfect righteous- subject which relates to the correes of God; nor ness cannot answer its demands; for every law shall we be able to form any clear ideas of his mquires perfect obcdience to its own precepts and moral government whatever. To say, as one prohibitions.

does, that the eternal will of God to justify men Nor is a profession of religion, nor sincerity, is the justification of them, is not to the purpose; nor good works, at all the ground of our accept for upon the same ground we might as well say ance with God, for all our righteousness is im- that the eternal will of God to convert and glo perfect, and must therefore be entirely excluded. rify his people is the real conversion and glorifiBygrare, saith the apostle, ye are stred, not of cation of them. That it was eternally deterworks, lest any man should borst, Eph. ii. 8, 9. mined that there should be a people who should Besides, the works of sanctification and justifica- believe in Christ, and that his righteousness tim are two distinct things : the one is a work should be imputed to them, is not to be disputed; of grace within men; the other an act of grace but to say that these things were really done Sve or towards inen: the one is imperfoct, the from eternity

(which we must say if we believe other complete: the one carried on gradually, eternal justification,) this would be absurd. It is the other done at once. See SANCTIFICATION. more consistent to believe, that God from eter

If, then, we cannot possibly be justified by any nity laid the plan of justification; that this plan of our own performances, nor by faith itselt

, nor was executed by the life and death of Christ, even by the graces of the Holy Spirit, where and that the blessing is only manifested, received then shall we find a righteousness by which we and enjoyed, when we are regenerated; so that can be justified ? The Scripture furnishes us no man can say, or has any reason to conclude, with an answer—"By Jesus Christ all that be- he is justified, until he believes in Christ, Ro lieve are justified from all things from which mans v. i.

they could not be justified by the law of Moses." The efects or blessings of justification, are, · Acis xii. 38, 39. "He was delivered for our 1. An entire freedom from all penal evils in this

offences, and raised again for our justification," life, and that which is to come, 1 Cor. iii. 22Rom. iv. 25. "Being justified by his blood we 2. Peace with God, Rom. v. 1.-3. Access to

KNIPPERDOLINGS

KNOWLEDGE God through Christ, Ephesians üi. 12.-4. Ac- tians held as constituting the very essence of their ceptance with God, Ephesians v. 27.-5. Holy system ; which our reformers considered as the confidence and security under all the difficulties most important point; which our venerable toarand troubles of the present state, 2 Timothy i tyrs gloried in, and sealed with their blood; and 12.-6. Finally, eternal salvation, Romans viii. which, as the church of England observes, is a 30; v. 18.

"very wholesome doctrine, and full of comfort." Thus we have given as comprehensive a view See Dr. Owen on Justification ; Raulins e of the doctrine of justification as the nature of Justification; Edwards's Sermons on dite; this work will admit; a doctrine which is found-Lime-Street Lect. p. 350; Hervey's Therm ans ed upon the sacred Scriptures; and which, so Aspasia, and Eleren Letters ; Witherspoon's far froin leading to licentiousness, as some sup- Connexion between Justification and Hulinex ; pose, is of all others the most replete with mo-Gill and Ridgley's Dio.; but especially Bacca's tives to love, dependence, and obedience, Rom. Reign of Grace, to which I am indebted for great vi. 1, 2. A doctrine which the primitive Chris- part of the above article.

K. KEITHIANS, a party which separated from the 16th century; so called from Bertrand the Quakers in Pennsylvania in the year 1691. Knipperdoling, who taught that the righters They were headed by the famous George Keith, before the day of judgment shall have a monarchy from whom they derived their name. These on earth, and the wicked be destroyed; that time who persisted in their separation, after their are not justified by their faith in Christ Jesus; leader deserted them, practised baptism, and re- that there is no original sin ; that infants oughts ceived the Lord's Supper. This party were also not be baptized, and that immersion is the only calle ! Quaker Baptists, because they retained mode of baptism : that every one has authority the language, dress, and manner of the Quakers. to preach and administer the sacraments ; tbt

KEYS, POWER OF THE, a term made men are not obliged to pay respect to magistrates; use of in reference to ecclesiastical jurisdiction, that all things ought to be in common, and that denoting the power of excommunicating and ab- it is lawful to marry many wives. solving. The Romanists say that the pope has KNOWLEDGE is defined by Mr. Lacke to the power of the keys, and can open and shut be the perception of the connexion and agreement paradise as he pleases; grounding their opinion or disagreement and repugnancy of our was on that expression of Jesus Christ to Peter—“1 It also denotes learning, or the improvement of will give thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven.” our faculties by reading; experience, or the 2Matt. xvi. 19. But every one must see that this quiring new ideas or truths, by seeing a vanety is an absolute perversion of Scripture : for the of objects, and making observations upon thes keys of the kingdom of heaven most probably in our own minds. No man, says the admorable refer to the Gospel dispensation, and denote the Dr. Watts, is obliged to learn and know every power and authority of every faithful minister thing; this can neither be sought not required to preach the Gospel, administer the sacraments, for it is utterly impossible: yet all persons are and exercise government, that men may be ad- under some obligation to improve their own under mitted to or excluded from the church, as is pro- standing, otherwise it will be a barren deserta per. See AESOLUTION,

a forest overgrown with weeds and bramhles In St. Gregory we read that it was the custom Universal ignorance, or infinite error, will over for the pope to send a golden key to princes, spread the mind which is utterly neglected, and wherein they inclosed a little of the filings of St. lies without any cultivation. The following Peter's chain, kept with such devotion at Rome; rules, therefore, should be attended to for the and that these keys were worn in the bosom, as provement of knowledge.-1. Deeply, posar being supposed to contain some wonderful vir- your mind with the vast importance of a grond tues! Such has been the superstition of past judgment, and the rich and inestimable adva? ages!

tages of right reasoning.–2. Consider the weak. KIRK SESSIONS, the name of a petty eccle nesses, failings, and mistakes of human nature a siastical judicatory in Scotland. Each parish, general. —3. Be not satisfied with a slight vjer according to its extent, is divided into several parti- of things, but take a wide survey now and then cular districts, every one of which has its ownelder of the vast and unlimited regions of learning, the and deacons to oversee it. A consistory of the variety of questions and difficulties belonging to ministers, elders and deacon of a parish form a every science.4. Presume not too much upon kirk session. These meet once a week, the mi- a bright genius, a ready wit, and gool parts; te nister being their moderator, but without a nega- this, without study, will never make a man of tive voice. It regulates matters relative to public knowledge.-5. Do not imaginc that large and worship, elections, catechising, visitations, &c. laborious reading, and a strong memory, can be It judges in matters of less scandal ; but greater, nominate you truly wise, without meditation an! as ad altery, are left to the preshytery, and in all studious thought.-6. Be not so weak as to LTcases an appeal lies from it to the presbytery.- agine that a life of learning is a life of laziness.com Kirk sessions have likewise the care of the poor, 7. Let the hope of new discoveries, as well as the and poor's funds. See PRESBYTERIANS. satisfaction and pleasure of known truths, an

KINDNESS, civil behaviour, favourable treat- mate your daily industry.—8. Do not hovet ment, or a constant and habitual practice of always on the surface of things, nor take up friendly offices and benevolent actions. See suddenly with mere appearances.-9. Once CHARUTY; GENTLENESS. KNIPPERDOLINGS

day, especially in the early years of life and studi

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