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MENNONITES

MENNONITES as made him pass for an oracle in the estimation | Mennonite minister, who has published their his of the inultitude. He appears, moreover, to have tory and apology, maintains, that they are not been a man of probity, of a meck and tractable spi- Anabaptists either by principle or by origin rit, gentle in his manners, pliable and obsequious However, nothing can be more certain ihan its in his commerce with persons of all ranks and cha- fact, viz. that the first Mennonite congregations racters, and extremely zealous in proinoting prac. were composed of the different sorts of Analap Lical religion and virtue, which he recommended tists; of those who had been always inoffensive hy his example as well as by his precepts. The and upright, and of those who before their con plan of doctrine and discipline drawn up by version by the ministry of Menno, had been Menno was of a much more inild and moderate ditious fanatics : besides, it is alleged, that the nature than that of the furious and fanatical Mennonites do actually retain at this day sone Anabaptists (whose tumultuous proceedings have of those opinions and doctrines which led the se been recited under that article) but somewhat ditious and turbulent Anabaptists of old to the more severe, though more clear and consistent commission of so many and such enormous crimes; than the doctrine of the wiser branches of that such particularly is the doctrine concerning the sect, who aimed at nothing more than the re- nature of Christ's kingdom, or of the church of storation of the Christian church to its primitive the New Testament, though modified in such a purity. Accordingly, he condemned the plan of manner as to have lost its noxious qualities, and to ecclesiastical discipline that was founded on the be no longer pernicious in its influence. prospect of a new kingdom, to be miraculously The Mennonites are subdivided into several established by Jesus Christ on the ruins of civil sects, whereof the two principal are the Flandrians government, and the destruction of human rulers, or Flainingians, and the IVaterlandians. The and which had been the fatal and pestilential opinions, says Mosheim, that are held in commoa source of such dreadful commotions, such exe- by the Mennonites, seem to be all derived from crable rebellions, and such enormous crimes. He this fundamental principle,-that the kingdom declared publicly his dislike of that doctrine which which Christ established upon earth is a vidde pointed out the approach of a marvellous reform- church, or community, into which the holy and ation in the church by the means of a new and just alone are to be admitted; and which is conextraordinary effusion of the Holy Spirit. He sequently exempt from all those institutions and expressed his abhorrence of the licentious tenets rules of discipline that have been invented by buwhich several of the Anabaptists had maintained man wisdom for the correction and reformation with respect to the lawfulness of polygamy and of the wicked. This principle, indeed, was avowed divorce ; and, finally, considered as unworthy of by the ancient Mennonites, but it is now almost toleration those fanatics who were of opinion, wholly renounced: nevertheless, from this ancient that the Holy Ghost continued to descend into doctrine many of the religious opinions that dis the minds of many chosen believers, in as extra- tinguish the Mennonites from all other Christian ordinary a manner as he did at the first establish- communities seem to be derived. In consequence ment of the Cnristian church, and that he testi- of this doctrine, they admit none to the sacrament fied his peculiar presence to several of the faith- of baptism but persons that are come to the foll ful by miracles, predictions, dreams, and visions use of their reason; they neither admit civil of various kinds. He retained, indeed, the doc- rulers into their communion, nor allow any of trines commonly received among the Anabap- their members to perform the functions of magis tists, in relation to the baptism of infants; the tracy; they deny the lawfulness of repelling force millennium, or one thousand years' reign of by force; and consider war, in all its shapes

, as Christ upon earth : the exclusion of magistrates unchristian and unjust: they entertain the at from the Christian church; the abolition of war; most aversion to the execution of justice, and and the prohibition of oaths enjoined by our more especially to capital punishments; and they Saviour; and the vanity, as well as the perni- also refuse to confirm their testimony by an cath cious effécts of human science. But while Men- The particular sentiments that divided the more no retained these doctrines in a general sense, he considerable societies of the Mennonites are the explained and modified them in such a manner following: The rigid Mennonites, called the as made them resemble the religious tenets that Flazningians, maintuin with various degrees of were universally received in the Protestant rigour the opinions of their founder Menno, as to churches; and this rendered them agreeable to the human nature of Christ, alleging that it was inany, and made them appear inoffensive even to produced in the womb of the Virgin by the numbers who had no inclination to embrace them. creating power of the Holy Ghost; the obliga It, however, so happened, that the nature of the tion that binds us to wash the feet of stranger doctrines considered in themselves, the eloquence in consequence of our Saviour's command; the of Menno, which set them off to such advantage, necessity of excommunicating and avoiding, as and the circumstances of the times, gave a high one would do the plague, not only avowed sinners degree of credit to the religious system of this but also all those who depart, even in some light fainous teacher among the Anabaptists, so that it instances pertaining to dress, &c. from the siin made a rapid progress in that sect. And thus it plicity of their ancestors; the contempt due to was in consequence of the ministry of Menno, human learning; and other matters of less mo that the different sorts of Anabaptists agreed ment. However, this austere system declines, and together in excluding from their communion the the rigid Mennonites are gradually approaching fanatics that dishonoured it, and in renouncing towards the opinions and discipline of the inore all tenets that were detrimental to the authority moderate, or Waterlandians. of civil government, and by an unexpected coali The first settlement of the Mennonites in the tjon foriped themselves into one community. United Provinces was granted them by William,

Though the Mennonites usually pass for a prince of Orange, towards the close of the sixteenth sect of Anabaptists, yet Mr, Herman Schyn, al contury; but it was not before the following actie

MERCY

MERCY tury that their liberty and tranquillity were fixed quences of their misconduct, James v. 20. Mercy upon solid foundations, when, by a confession of may also be shown to them by a proper mitigafaith published in the year 1626, they cleared tion of justice, and not extending the punishthemselves from the imputations of those per- ment beyond the nature or desert of the crine nicious and detestable errors that had been laid to With regard to those who are in necessity and their charge. In order to appease their intestine want, mercy calls upon us to afford the most suitdiscords, a considerable part of the Anabaptists of able and seasonable supplies; and here our beneFlanders, Germany, and Friesland, concluded factions must be dispensed in proportion to our their debates in a conference held at Amsterdam circumstances, and the real distress of the object, in the year 1630, and entered into the bonds of 1 John iii. 17. As to those who are in misery fraternal communion, each reserving to them and distress, mercy, prompts us to relieve and selves a liberty of retaining certain opinions. This comfort them by doing what we can to remove association was renewed and confirmed by new or alleviate their burdens. Our Lord strongly tesclutions in the year 1619; in consequence of recommended this act of mercy in the parable of which the rigorous laws of Menno and his suc- the man who fell among thieves, and was re cessors were in various respects mitigated and lieved by the poor Samaritan; and in the concorrected. According to Benedict, there were, clusion he adds, 'Go and do thou likewise,' Luke in 1824, 200 Mennonite churches in America. x. 30—37. They are a simple, harmless people, and make it "This merciful temper will show and exert an article of their faith never to bear arms. See itself not only towards those of our own party ANABAPTISTS.

and acquaintance, but to the whole human

speMEN OF UNDERSTANDING. This cies; and not only to the whole human species title distinguished a denomination which appear- but to the animal creation. It is a degree of inal in Flanders and Brussels in the year 1511. humanity to take pleasure in giving any thing They owed their origin to an illiterate man, whose pain, and more in putting useful animals to ex. name was Egidius Cantor, and to William of treme torture for our own sport. This is not that Hildenison, a Carmelite monk. They pretended dominion which God originally gave to man over to be honoured with celestial visions, denied that the beasts of the field. It is, therefore, an usurpany could arrive at perfect knowledge of the ed authority, which man has no right to exercise Holy Scriptures without the extraordinary suc over brute creatures, which were made for his @ours of a divine illumination, and declared the service, convenience, support, and ease; but not approach of a new revelation from heaven, more for the gratification of unlawful passions, or cruel perfect than the Gospel of Christ. They said dispositions. that the resurrection was accomplished in the "Mercy must be distinguished from those person of Jesus, and no other was to be expected; weaknesses of a natural temper which often put ihat the inward man was not defiled by the out on the appearance of it. With regard to crimiward actions, whatever they were; that the pains nals or delinquents

, it is false compassion to supof hell were to have an end; and not only all press the salutary admonition, and refuse to set mankind, but even the devils themselves, were their guilt before them, merely because the sight to return to God, and be made partakers of eter- of it will give their conscience pain; such unsear nal felicity. They also taught, anong other sonable tenderness in a surgeon may prove the things that Christ alone had inerited eternal life death of his patient : this, however, it may appear, and felicity for the human race; and that there is not mercy, but cruelty. So is that fondness of fore men could not acquire this inestimable privi. a parent that withholds the hand of discipline lege by their own actions alone-that the priests, from a beloved child, when its frowardness and w whóm the people confessed their transgressions, faults render seasonable and prudent correction had not the power of absolving them, but this necessary to save it from ruin. In like manner, authority was vested in Christ alone-that volun- when a magistrate, through excessive clemency, tary penance and mortification was not necessary suffers a criminal who is a pest to society to lo salvation.

escape unpunished, or so mitigates the sentence This denomination appears to have been a of the law as to put it into his power to do still ranch of the Brethren and Sisters of the Free greater hurt to others, he violates not only the Βρirit.

laws of justice, but of mercy too. MERCY is that disposition of mind which “Merey lo the indigent and necessitous has excites us to pity and relieve those who are in been no less abused and perverted by acts of mis trouble, or to pass by their crimes without punish- taken beneficence, when impudence and clamour ing them. It is distinguished from lore, thus : are permitted to extort froin the hand of charity The object of love is the creature simply; the that relief which is due to silent distress and má object of mercy is the creature fallen into misery. dest merit; or when one object is lavishly reParents love their children simply as they are lieved to the detriment of another who is more their children: but if they fall into misery, love deserving. As it respects those who are in triworks in a way of pity and compassion; love is bulation or misery, to be sure, every such person turned into mercy,

is an object of our compassion ; but that cont "As we all are ihe objects of mercy in one degree passion may be, and often is, exercised in a wrong or another the mutual exercise of it towards each manner. Some are of so tender a make, that other is necessary to preserve the harmony and they cannot bear the sight of distress, aru stand happiness of society. "But there are those who aloof from a friend in pain and offliction, because may be more particularly considered as the ob- it affects them too sensibly, when their

presence jects of it; such as the guilty, the indigent, and would at least give them some little comfort, and the miserable. As it respects the guilty, the might possibly administer lasting relief. This greatest mercy we can show to them is to endea- weakness should be opposed, because it not only vour to reclaim them, and prevent the bad conse- I looks like unkindness to our friends, but is really

MERIT

MESSIAH showing more tenderness to ourselves than to very clearly to be seen that there can be no such them; nor is it doing as we would be done by. thing as merit in our best obedience. One man Again; it is false pity, when, out of mere ten- may merit of another, but all mankind together derness of nature, we either advise or permit our cannot merit from the hand of God. This evi. afflicted friend to take or do any thing which dently appears, if we consider the imperti dions will give him a little transient ease, but which we of all our services, and the express declaration of know at the same time will increase his future the divine word, Eph. ii. 8, 9; Rom. xi. 5, 6; pain, and aggravate the symptoms of his disease." | Tit. ij. 5; Rom. x. 1, 4. The Doctrine of Seeing, therefore, the extremes to which we are Merit stated, ser. I. vol. iii.; South's Serm.; Top liable, let us learn to cultivate that wisdom and lady's Works, p. 471, vol. iii.; Herrey's Eleten prudence which are necessary to regulate this Letters to Wesley; Robinson's Claude, vol. i. virtue. To be just without being cruel, and p. 218. merciful without being weak, should be our con

MERITS OF CHRIST, a term used to stant air, under all the circumstances of guilt, in- denote the active and passive obedience of Christ; digence, and n.isery, which present themselves to all that he wrought and all that be suffered for our view. See BENEDICENCE, CHARITY, Love. the salvation of mankind. See articles ATONE

MERCY OF GOD is his readiness to relieve MENT, IMPUTATION, RIGHTEOCSNESS OF CHRIST. the iniserable, and to pardon the guilty. 1. It is MESSIAH signifies anointed, the title given essential to his nature, Exod. xxxiv. 6, 7; not, by way of eminence to our Saviour; meaning indeed, as a passion or affection, as it is in men, the same in Hebrew as Christ in Greek, and but the result of his sovereign will, and guided by alludes to the authority he had to assume the his infinite wisdom.—2. It is free, as nothing out characters of prophet, priest, and king, and that of himself can be the cause of it; for then there of Saviour of the world. The ancient Jews had would be a cause prior to him, the cause of him- just notions of the Messiah, which came graself. The misery of the creature is not the cause dually to be corrupted, by expecting a temporal of mercy, for be is not wrought upon as creatures monarch and conqueror; and finding Jesus Christ are; nor are the merits of the creature the cause, to be poor, hunible, and of an unpromising apTit. iii. 5: nor are even the sufferings of Christ pearance, they rejected him. Most of the modern the cause, but the effects of it; but it arises from rabbins, according to Buxtorf, believe that the the goodness of his nature, and from his sover-gn Messiah is come, but that he lies concealed bewill and pleasure, Exod. xxxiii. 19; Rom. ix. 18. cause of the sins of the Jews. Others bebiere be 3. His merey is infinite; it pardons offences is not yet come, fixing different times for his apcommitted against an infinitely holy Being, and pearance, many of which are elapsed; and, being bestows an infinite good on all who believe, even thus batlied, have pronounced an anathema Jesus Christ, Luke i. 78.-4. It is immutable; against those who shall pretend to calculate the nothing can change it; it is invariably the same, time of his coming. To reconcile the prophecies Mal.jj. 6; Luke i. 30.-5. Shall be forever cele- concerning the Messiah that seemed to be conbrated in a future state, Psal. lxxxix. 2; ciji. 17. tradictory, some have had recourse to a twofold 6. It is only displayed in and through Christ, Messiah ; one in a state of poverty and suffering, Eph. ii. It has been further distinguished into the other of splendour and glory. The firs 1.' Preventing mercy, Psal. lix. 10.-2. Forbear- they say, is to proceed from the tribe of Ephraim, ing mercy, Rom. ii. 4.-3. Comforting mercy, who is to fight against Gog, and to be slain by 2 Cor. i. 4.-4. Relieving mercy, Psal. cxlv. 8, Annillus, Zech. xii. 10; the secord is to be of 9.-5. Pardoning mercy, Isa. Iv. 6.-6. Univer- the tribe of Judah and lineage of David, who is sal or extensive mercy. It extends to all kinds to conquer and kill Annillus; to bring the first of beings and fallen creatures. The brute crea- Messiah to life again, to assemble all Israch, and con share in it, Psal. cxlv. 9; xxxvi. 5, 6. The rule over the whole world. ungodly are the objects of it in a general way, That Jesus Christ is the true Messiah, and Matt. v. 45; 1 Tim. iv. 10. The saints on earth actually come in the flesh, is evident, if we come are continual monuments of it, Rom. ix. 23; and sider (as Mr. Fuller observes) that it is intimaird the spirits of just men made perfect in glory are that whenever he should come, the sau rvices and always praising God for it. Finally, it is enjoyed ceremonies of the Mosaic law were to be super in an especial manner by all who are true be- seded by him, Ps. xl. 6–8: 1 Sam. xv. *?; Lail lievers, of every nation, in every age, in every ix. 27; Jer. xxxi. 31, 31; Heb. viii. 13. Now circunstance, in all places, and at all times. See sacrifice and oblation have ceased. They rir GRACE, PARDON: Gill's Body of Dir. vol. i. p. tuully ceazed when Jesus offered himself a sacar 124, oct. ed.; Saurin's Ser. vol. i. ser. 8; Dr. tice, and in a few years after, they actually crasel Goodwin's Works, vol. v. part 2; Tillotson's A few of the ancient ceremonies are inded Scr, ser. 147; Hül's Ser. ser. 10.

adhered to, but as one of the Jewish writen MERIT signifies desert, or to earn: origi- acknowledges, " The sacrifices of the Holy Ten nally the word was applied to soldiers and other ple have ceased.” Let every Jew. terelere as military persons, who, by their labours in the himself this question : Should Messiah the Prince tiell, and by the various hardships they under-come at some future period, how are the sacnice went during the course of a campaign, as also by and oblation to cease on his appwarance, ubka other services they might occasionally render to they have already ceased near 1800 years ! the commonwealth, were said, merere stipendia, to Again, it is suggested in the Soniture, that merit or earn their pay; which they might pro- the great body of sacred propheey should be perly be said to do, because they yielded in real accomplished in him; Gen. l. 16; xvi. 16; Is. service an equivalent to the state for the stipend xlix. io; liü. 1. The time when he was to they received, which was therefore due to them come is clearly marked out in prophecy; k. xlir. in justice. Here, then, we come at the true 10; Hag. ii. 6–9; Dan. ix. 2. He actually meaning of the word merit; from which it is came according to that time.-- The place

MESSIAH

MESSIAH where Messiah should be born, and where he | from heaven to restore his nation to its ancient should principally impart his doctrine, is deter- i liberty and glory. He chose å forerunner, raised mined; Mic. v. 3; Isa. ix. 2; and was literally | an army, was anointed king, coined money infulfilled in Jesus. –3. The house or family from scribeul with his own name, and proclaimed him whom he should descend, is clearly ascertained. self Messiah and prince of the Jewish nation So much is said of his descending from David, Adrian raised an army, and sent it against him. that we need not refer to particular proofs; and He retired into a town called Bither, where he the rather as no Jew will deny it. The genealo- was besieged. Barchocheba was killed in the gies of Matthew. and Luke, whatever varieties siege, the city was taken, and a dreadful havock there are between them, agree in tracing his pedi- succeeded. The Jews themselves allow, that, gree to David. And though, in both, it is traced during this short war against the Romans in doin the name of Joseph, yet this appears to be only fence of this false Messiah, they lost five or six in conformity to the Jewish custom of tracing no hundred thousand souls. This was in the forpedigree in the name of a female. The father of mer part of the second century. Joseph, as mentioned by Luke, seems to have 2. In the reign of Theodosius the younger, in been his father by marriage only'; so that it was, the year of our Lord 434, another impostor arose, in reality, Mary's pedigree that is traced by Luke, called Moses Cretensis. He pretended to be though under her husband's name; and this a second Moses, sent to deliver the Jews who being the natural line of descent, and that of Jwelt in Crete, and promised to divide the sea, Mathew the legal one, by which, as a king, he and give them a safe passage through it. Their would have inherited the crown, there is no Jelusion proved so strong and universal, that they inconsistency between them.–4. The kind of neglected their lands, houses, and all other conmiracles that Messiah should perform is specified; cerns, and took only so much with them as they 1s. xxxv. 5, 6. He actually performed the mira- could conveniently carry. And on the day apcles there predicted, his enemies themselves being pointed, this false Moses, having led them to the juilges.-5. It was prophesied that he should, as top of a rock, men, women, and children, threw à King, be distinguished by his lowliness ; enter themselves headlong down into the sea, without ing into Jerusalem, not in a chariot of state, but the least hesitation or -reluctance, till so great a in a much humbler style; Zech. ix. 9; this was nunber of them were drowned, as opened the really the case, Matt. xxi.-6. It was predicted eyes of the rest, and made them sensible of the that he should sufier and die by the hands of cheat. They then began to look out for their wicked men; Isa. xlix. 7; liii. $; Dan. ix. 26. pretended leader, but he disappeared, and escaped Nothing could be a more striking fulfilment of out of their hands. prophecy than the treatment the Messiah met 3. In the reign of Justin, about 520, another with in almost every particular circumstance.- impostor appeared, who called himself the son of 7. It was foretold that he should rise from the Moses. His name was Dunaan. He entered dead; Isa. liii. 11; Psal. Ixviii. 18; xvi. 10; his into a city of Arabia Felix, and there he greatly resurrection is proved by indubitable evidence oppressed the Christians; but he was taken pri8. It was foretold that the great body of the Jew-soner, and put to death by Elesban, an Æthioish nation would not believe in him, and that he pian general. would set up his kingdom among the Gentiles ; 4. In the year 529 the Jews and Samaritans Is. liii. 1; xlix. 46; ri. 9–12. Never was a rebelled against the emperor Justinian, and set prophecy more completely fulfilled than this, as up one Julian for their king; and accounted him facts evidently prove.

the Messiah. The emperor sent an army against Lastly, It is declared that when the Messiah them, killed great numbers of them, took their should come, the will of God would be perfectly pretended Messiah prisoner, and immediately put fulfilled by him, Is. xlii. 1; xlix. 3—5. And what him to death. was his whole life but perfect conformity to him? 5. In the year 571 was born Mahomet, in AraHe finished the work the Father gave him to do; (bia. At first he professed himself the Messiah, never was there such a character seen among who was promised to the Jews. By this means men. Well therefore may we say, Truly this he drew many of that unhappy people after him. was the Son of God. See article CuntsTUANITY, !n some sense, therefore, he may be considered Jesus Christ.

in the number of false Messiahs. See Maho. There have been numerous false Messiahs MET ANISM. which have arisen at ditlerent times. Of these 6. About the year 721, in the time of Leo the Saviour predicted, Matt. xxiv. 14. Some Isaurus, arose another false Messiah in Spain; have reckoned as many as twenty-four, of whom his name was Serenus. He drew great numbers we shall here give an account.

after him, to their no small loss and disappoint1. Caziba was the first of any note who made inent, but all his pretensions came to nothing. a noise in the world. Being dissatisfied with the 7. The twelfth century was fruitful in false state of things under Adrian, he set himself up Messiahs; for about the year 1137, there appear. at the head of the Jewish nation, and proclaimed ed one in France, who was put to death, and himself their long-expected Messiah. He was many of those who followed him. one of those bandiui that infested Judca, and 8. In the year 1138 the Persians were dis. committed all kinds of viclence against the Ro- turbed with a Jew, who called himself the Mesmans; and has become so powerful, that he was siah. He collected together a vast army. But obosen king of the Jews, and hy them acknow-ho, too, was put to death, and his followers treated ledged their Messiah. However, to facilitate the with great inhumanity. fuccess of this bold enterprise, he changed his 9. In the year 1157, a false Messiah stirred up naine from Caziba, which it was at first, to that the Jews at Corduba, in Spain. The wiser and of Barebocheba, alluding to the star foretold by better soort looked upon him as a madman, but Balaam;. for he pretended to be the star sent the great body of the Jews in that nation believed

MASTER

MATERIALISTS the Snow, celebrated on the fifth of August; that servants; to give particular instructions for what of St. Margaret, patroness of lying-in women; is to be done, and how it is to be done ; to take that at the least of St. John the Baptist, at which care that no more is required of servants than are said three masses ; that of the Innocents, at they are equal to; to be gentle in our departeners which the gloria in excelsis and hallelujah are towards them; to reprove them when they de omitted, and, it being a day of mourning, the wrong, to commend them when they do right; te altar is of a violet colour. Aš to ordinary masses, make them an adequate recompense for abrir some are said for the dead, and, as is supposed, services, as to protection, maintenance, wares, contribute to fetch the soul out of purgatory. At and character.—2. As to the morals of serta Fe, these masses the altar is put in mourning, and Masters must look well to their servants' charar. the only decorations are a cross in the middle of ters before they hire them; instruct them in the six yellow wax lights; the dress of the celebrant, principles and confirm them in the habits of viand the very mass-book are black; many parts of tue; watch over their morals, and set then goud the office are omitted, and the people are dismiss- examples.-3. As to their religious interests.ed without the benediction. If the mass be said They should instruct them in the knowledge of for a person distinguished by his rank or virtues, divine things, Gen. xiv. 14; xviii. 19. Tray it is followed with a funeral oration: they erect a with them and for them, Joshua xxiv. 15. Alchapelle ardente, that is, a representation of the low them time and leisure for religious xe, deceased, with branches and tapers of yellow &c. Eph. vi. 9. See Stennett on Ibrezse wax, either in the middle of the church, or near Duties, ser. 8; Paley's Mor. Phil. vol. i. 23 the deceased's tomb, where the priest pronounces 235; Beattie's Elements of Moral Science, vol a solemn absolution of the deceased. "There are i. 150, 153; Doddridge's Lcc. vol. ü. No. likewise private masses said for stolen or strayed MATERIALISTS, a sect in the ancient goods or cattle, for health, for travellers, &c., church, composed of persons who, being presse which go under the name of votire masses.- sessed with that maxim in philosophy, "es niThere is still a further distinction of masses, de hilo nihil fit,” out of nothing nothing can anise, nominated from the countries in which they had recourse to an eternal matter, on which they were used : thus the Gothic mass, or missa mosa- supposed God wrought in the creation, in A Tabum, is that used among the Goths when they of admitting Him alone as the sole cause of the were masters of Spain, and which is still kept up existence of all things. Tertullian vigorously at Toledo and Salamanca ; the Ambrosian mass opposed them in his treatise against Herms is that composed by St. Ambrose, and used only genes, who was one of their number. at Milan, of which city he was bishop; the Gal Materialists are also those who maintain that lic mass, used by the ancient Gauls; and the the soul of man is material, or that the princiule Roman mass, used by almost all the churches in of perception and thought is not a substance dis the Romish communion.

tinct from the body, but the result of curpureal Mass of the presanctified (missa præsanctif- organization. There are others called by this catorum,) is a mass peculiar to the Greek church, name, who have maintained that there is nothing in which there is no consecration of the elements; but matter in the universe. but, after singing some hymns, they receive the The followers of the late Dr. Priestley are con bread and wine which were before consecrated. sidered as Materialists, or Philosophical Venes This mass is performed all Lent, except on sarians. According to the doctor's writing, be Saturdays, Sundays, and the Annunciation. The believed, priest counts, upon his fingers, the days of the 1. That man is no more than what we now ensuing week on which it is to be celebrated; and see of him: his being commences at the time of cuts off as many pieces of bread at the altar as his conception, or perhaps at an earlier periai he is to say massas; and after having consecrated The corporeal and mental faculies, inhenng in them, steeps them in wine, and puts them in a the same substance, grow, ripen, and decay to box; out of which, upon every occasion, he takes gether; and whenever the system is disad some of it with a spoon, and, putting it on a dish, continues in a state of dissolution, till i sal sets it on ihe altar.

please that Almighty Being, who called it into MASSACRE, a term used to signify the sud-existence, to restore it to life again. For if the den and promiscuous butchery of a multitude.- mental principle were, in its own nature, in See PERSECUTION.

terial and immortal, all its peculiar faculties MASSALIANS, or MESSALIANS, a sect would be so too; whereas we see that every which sprung up about the year 361, in the faculty of the mind, without exception, is bakte reign of the emperor Constantius, who main- to be impaired, and even to beconie w bulir es. tained that men have two souls, a celestial and tinct, before death. Since, therefore, all the a diabolical; and that the latter is driven out by faculties of the mind, separately taken, appear to prayer. From those words of our Lord, “ La be mortal, the substance, or principle, in which hour not for the meat that perisheth,” it is said, they exist, must be pronounced mortal too. Thus that they concluded they ought not to do any we might conclude that the body was murti work to get their bread. We may suppose, says from observing that all the separate selises and Dr. Jortin, that this sect did not last long that limbs were liable to decay and perish. these sluygards were soon starved out of the This system gives a real value to the doctrine world; or, rather

, that cold and hunger sharpen- of the resurrection from the dead, which is pero el their wits, and taught them to be better inter- liar to revelation ; on which alone the secret preters of Scripture.

writers build all our hope of future life: and it MASTER, a person who has servants under explains the uniform language of the Scriptures, hinn; a ruler, or instructor. The duties of mas- which speak of one day of judgment for all Deters relate to the ciril concerns of the fumily: kind; and represent all the rewards of virtue, and

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