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MONASTERY ence to our opinions, Rom. xii. 3; but in general | officers. The dissolution of houses of this kind it respects our conduct in that state which comes began so early as the year 1312, when the Temunder the description of ease or prosperity; and plars were suppressed; and in 1323, their lands, ought to take place in our wishes, pursuits, ex- churches, advowsons, and liberties, here in Engpectations, pleasures, and passions.

land, were given, by 17 Edw. II., stat. 3, to the See Bishop Hall on Moderation, ser. 16; prior and brethren of the hospital of St. John of Blair's Sermons, vol. ii. ser. 12; Toplady's Jerusalem. In the years 1390, 1437, 1441, 1459, Works, vol. iii. ser. 10.

1497, 1505, 1508, and 1515, several other houses MODESTY is sometimes used to denote were dissolved, and their revenues settled on difhumility, and sometimes to express chastity.- ferent colleges in Oxford and Cambridge. Soon The Greek word xcopios, modestus, signifies after the last period, cardinal Wolsey, by licence neat or clean. Modesty, therefore, consists in of the king and pope, obtained a dissolution of purity of sentiment and manners, inclining us to above thirty religious houses for the founding abhor the least appearance of vice and indecency, and endowing his colleges at Oxford and Ipswich. and to fear doing any thing which will incur About the same time a bull was granted by the censure. An excess of modesty may be called same pope to cardinal Wolsey to suppress monasbashfulness, and the want of it impertinence. teries, where there were not above six monks, to There is a false or vicious modesty, which influ- the value of eight thousand ducats a year, for enences a man to do any thing that is ill or indis. dowing Windsor and King's College in Camcreet; such as, through fear of offending his bridge; and two other bulls were granted to companions he runs into their follies or excesses; cardinals Wolsey and Campeius, where there or it is a false modesty which restrains a man were less than twelve monks, and to annex them from doing what is good or laudable; such as to the greater monasteries; and another bull to being ashamed to speak of religion, and to be the same cardinals to inquire about abbeys to be seen in the exercises of piety and devotion. suppressed in order to be made cathedrals. Al

MOLINISTS, a sect in the Romish church though nothing appears to have been done in who follow the doctrine and sentiments of the consequence of these bulls, the motive which inJesuit Molina, relating to sufficient and efficacious duced Wolsey and many others to suppress these grace. He taught that the operations of divine houses, was the desire of promoting learning ; grace were entirely consistent with the freedom and archbishop Cranmer engaged in it with a of the human will; and introduced a new kind view of carrying on the Reformation. There of hypothesis to remove the difficulties attending were other causes that concurred to bring on the doctrines of predestination and liberty, and their ruin : many of the religious were loose and to reconcile the jarring opinions of Augustines, vicious; the monks were generally thought to be Thomists

, Semi-Pelagians, and other conten- in their hearts attached to the pope's supremacy: tious divines. He affirmed that the decree of their revenues were not employed according to predestination to eternal glory was founded upon the intent of the donors; many cheats in images, a previous knowledge and consideration of the feigned miracles, and counterfeit relics, had been merits of the elect; that the grace, from whose discovered, which brought the monks into disoperation these merits are derived, is not effica- grace ; the observant

friars had opposed the king's cious by its own intrinsic power only, but also divorce from queen Catharine; and these circumby the consent of our own will

, and because it is stances operated, in concurrence with the king's administered in those circumstances in which the want of a supply, and the people's desire to save Deity, hy that branch of his knowledge which is their money, to forward a motion in parliament, called scientia media, foresees that it will be effi. that, in order to support the king's state, and cacious. The kind of prescience, denominated supply his wants, all the religious houses might in the schools scientia media, is that foreknow- be conferred upon the crown, which were not ledge of future contingents that arises from an able to spend above 2001, a year; and an act was acquaintance with the nature and faculties of ra- passed for that purpose, 27 Hen. VIII. c. 28. tional beings, of the circumstances in which they By this act about three hundred and eighty shall be placed, of the objects that shall be pre- houses were dissolved, and a revenue of 30,000i. sented to them, and of the influence which their or 32,0001, a year came to the crown; besides circumstances and objects must have on their about 100,0001. in plate and jewels. The supactions.

pression of these houses occasioned discontent, MONACHISM, the state of a monk, the and at length an open rebellion ; when this was monastic life. See Monk.

appeased, the king resolved to suppress the rest MONARCHIANS, the same as the Patri- of the monasteries, and appointed a new visitapassians: which see.

tion, which caused the greater abbeys to be surMONASTERY, a convent or house built for rendered apace: and it was enacted by 31 Henry the reception of religious; whether it be abbey, VIII. c. 13, that all monasteries which have been priory, nunnery, or the like.

surrendered since the 4th of February, in tho Monastery is only properly applied to the 27th year of his majesty's reign, and which here houses of monks, mendicant friars, and nuns: after shall be surrendered, shall be vested in the the rest are more properly called religious houses

. king. The knights of St. John of Jerusalem For the origin of monasteries, see Monastic and were also suppressed by the 32 Hen. VIII. c. 24.

The suppression of these greater houses by these The houses belonging to the several religious two acts produced a revenue to the king of above orders which obtained in England and Wales, 100,0001. a year, besides a large sum in plate and were cathedrals

, colleges, abbeys, priories, precep-jewels. The last act of dissolution in this king's tories, commandries, hospitals, triaries, hermit- reign was the act of 37 Hen. VIII. c. 4, for disages, chantries, and free chapels. These were solving colleges, free chapels, chantries, &c. which under the direction and management of various act was further enforced by 1 Edw. VI. c. 14


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MONASTERY By this act were suppressed 90 colleges, 110 hos- I were other nouses which are not included within pitals, and 2,374 chantries and free chapels. The this calculation, perhaps they may be compared nuinber of houses and places suppressed from in one general estimate at about 50.000. As firs: to last, so far as any calculations appear to there were pensions paid to alınast all three sal have been made, seems to be as follows: the greater monasteries, the king did 10e lyene

diately come into the full enjoyment of the Of lesser monasteries, of which we have the whole revenues; however, by means

what be valuation

374 did receive, he founded six new bishoprios, Of greater monasteries

186 those of Westminster, (which was changed his Belonging to the hospitallers

48 queen Elizabeth into a deanery, with twelve litt Colleges

90 bends and a school,) Peterborough, Chester Hospitals

110 Gloucester, Bristol, and Oxford. And in eight Chantries and Free Chapels

2374 other sees he founded deaneries and chapters by

converting the priors and monks into deans zal Total, 3182 prebendaries, viz. Canterbury, Winchester, Dir


ham, Worcester, Rochester, Norwich. Els, and Besides the friars' houses, and those suppressed Carlisle. He founded also the colleges of Christ by Wolsey, and many small houses of which we Church in Oxford, and Trinity in C'embardigans have no particular account.

and finished King's College there. He likewis The sum total of the clear yearly revenue of founded professorships of divinity, law, phone the several houses at the time of their dissolution, and of the Hebrew and Greek tongues

, in both of which we have any account, seems to be as the said Universities. He gave the heeze on follows:

Grey Friars and St. Bartholomew's Hospital to the city of London, and a perpetual pensein

to Of the greater monasteries, £104,919 13 31 the poor knights of Windsor, and laid out grek Of all those of the lesser monas

sums in building and fortifying many ports in the teries of which we have the

channel. It is observable, upon the whole

, there valuation

29,702 1 101 | the dissolution of these houses was an act, not of Knights hospitallers, head house

the church, but of the

state, in the period precede in London

2,385 12 8 ing the Reformation, by a king and pariame We have the valuation of only

of the Roman Catholic communion in all painis 28 of their houses in the

except the king's supremacy; to which the page country

3,026 9 5 himself, by his bulls and licences, had led the was. Friars' houses of which we have

As to the merits of these institutions authors the valuation

7512 01 are much divided. While some have considered

them as beneficial to learning, päety, and bezero Total, £ 140,784 19 31 lence, others have thought them very injur.com

We may form some idea of them from the si If proper allowances are made for the lesser mo- lowing remarks of Mr. Gilpin. nasteries and houses not included in this estimate, He is speaking of Glastonbury Abbey, erlieb and for the plate, &c. which came into the hands possessed the amplest revenues of any relevan of the king by the dissolution, and for the value house in England. "Its fraternity," says het of money at that time, which was at least six “is said to have consisted of five hundred osta times as much as at present, and also consider lished monks, besides nearly as many retainersa that the estimate of the lands was generally sup- the abbey. Above four hundred children were posed to be much under the real worth, we must not only educated in it, but entirely

maintained conclude their whole revenues to have been im- ---Strangers from all parts of Europe were de mense.

rally received, classed according to their ses and It does not appear that any computation hath nation, and might consider the hospitable for been made of the number of persons contained in under which they lodged as their own Fire the religious houses.

hundred travellers, with their horses, have bec

lodged at once within its walls; while the post Those of the lesser monasteries dissolved from every side of the country, waited the rinzes

by 27 Hen. VIII. were reckoned at of the alms-bell; when they flocked in crow about

10,000 young and old, to the gate of the monastery If we suppose the colleges and hospitals where they received, every morning

, a platbu to have contained a proportionable provision for themselves and their families. number, these will make about

5,347 this appears great and noble. If we reckon the number in the greater

“On the other hand, when we consider fire monasteries according to the propor hundred persons bred up in indolence and last de tion of their revenues, they will be the commonwealth; when we consider that these about 35,000; but as probably they houses were the great nurseries of superstition

, had larger allowances in proportion bigotry, and ignorance; the stews of sloth, uto their number than those of the pidity, and perhaps intemperance; when went lesser monasteries, if we abate upon sider that the education received in them had met

that account 5,000, they will then be 30,000 the least tincture of useful learning, good rete Ons for each chantry and free chapel 2,374 ners, or true religion, but tended rather to valy

and disgrace the human mind; when we comedy Total 47,721 that the pilgrims and strangers who sesented

thither were idle vagabonds, who got nothing But as the e were probably more than one person abroad that was equivalent to the occupations they to officiate in several of the tree chapels, and there I left at home; and when we consider

, lastly

, tha:

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MONK indiscriminate alms-giving is not real charity, but The solitaries are those who live alone, in an avocation from labour and industry, checking places rernote from all towns and habitations of every idea of exertion, and filling the mind with men, as do still some of the hermits. The cænoabject notions, we are led to acquiesce in the fate bites are those who live in community with of these foundations, and view their ruins, not several others in the same house, and under the only with a picturesque eye, but with moral and same superiors. The sarabites were strolling religious satisfaction. Gilpin's Observations on monks, having no fixed rule or residence. the Western Parts of England, p. 138, 139; The houses of monks, again, were of two Bigland's Letters on Hist. p. 313.

kinds, viz., monasteries and laure. MONASTIC, something belonging to monks, Those who are now called monks are cænoor the monkish life. The monastic profession is bites, who live together in a convent or monastery, a kind of civil death, which in all worldly mat- who make vows of living according to a certain ters has the same effect with the natural death.rule established by the founder, and wear a babit The council of Trent, &c. fix sixteen years as which distinguishes their order. the age at which a person may be admitted into Those that are endowed, or have a fixed rethe monastical state.

venue, are most properly called monks, monachi ; St. Anthony is the person who, in the fourth as the Chartreux, Benedictines, Bernardines, &c. century, first instituted the monastic life; as St. The Mendicants, or those that beg, as the CapuPachomius, in the same century, is said to have chins and Franciscans, are more properly called first set on foot the cænobitic life, i. e. regular religious and friars, though the names are frecommunities of religious. In a short time the quently confounded. deserts of Egypt became inhabited by a set of The first monks were those of St. Anthony, solitaries, who took upon them the monastic pro- who, towards the close of the fourth century, fession. St. Basil carried the monkish humour formed them into a regular body, engaged them into the east, where he composed a rule which to live in society with each other, and prescribed afterwards obtained through a great part of the to them fixed rules for the direction of their

conduct. These regulations, which Anthony In the eleventh century, the monastic diseipline had made in Egypt, were soon introduced into was grown very remiss. St. Oddo first began to Palestine and Syria by his disciple Hilarion. retrieve it in the monastery of Cluny: that mo- Almost about the same time, Aones, or Eugenastery, by the conditions of its erection, was put nius, with their companions Gaddanas and under the immediato protection of the holy see; Azyzas, instituted the monastic order in Mesowith a prohibition to all powers, both secular and potamia, and the adjacent countries; and their ecclesiastical, to disturb the monks in the pos- example was followed with such rapid success, session of their effects or the election of their that in a short time the whole East was filled with abbot. In virtue hereof they pleaded an exemp- a lazy set of mortals, who abandoning all human tion from the jurisdiction of the bishop, and ex- connexions, advantages, pleasures, and concerns, tended this privilege to all the houses dependent wore out a languishing and miserable existence, a Clony. This made the first congregation of amidst the hardships of want and various kinds several houses under one chief immediately sub- of suffering, in order to arrive at a more close ject to the pope, so as to constitute one body, or and rapturous communication with God and as they now call it, one religious order. Till angels. then, each monastery was independent, and sub From the East this gloomy disposition passed ject to the bishop. See Monk.

into the West, and first into Italy and its neighMONK, anciently dennted "a person who bouring islands ; though it is uncertain who retired from the worlů to give himself wholly to transplanted it thither. St. Martin, the celeGud, and to live in solitude ar. I abstinence." The brated bishop of Tours

, erected the first monasword is derived from the Latin monachus, and teries in Gaul, and recommended this religious that from the Greek povazov, " solitary;" of poves, solitude with such power and efficacy, both by Bolus, "alone.”

his instructions and his example, that his funeral The original of monks seems to have been this: is said to have been attended by no less than two - The persecutions which attended the first ages thousand monks. From hence the monastic of the Gospel, forced some Christians to retire discipline extended gradually its progress through from the world, and live in deserts and places the other provinces and countries of Europe, mnost private and unfrequented, in hopes of find. There were, besides the monks of St. Basil ing that peace and comfort among beasts, which (called in the East Calogeri

, from xalos yopuv, the case of some very extraordinary persons, theit Bermits of St. Augustine, and afterwards those example gave such reputation to retirement, that of St. Benedict and St. Bernard : at length came the practice continued when the reason of its those of St. Francis and St. Dominic

, with a commencement ceased. After the empire became legion of others, all which see under their Christian, instances of this kind were numerous ; proper heads. and those whose security had obliged thein to live Towards the close of the fifth century, the imparately and apart, became afterwards united monks, who had formerly lived only for theminto societies. We may also add, that the mystic selves in solitary retreats, and had never thought Obcology, which gained ground towards the close of assuming any rank among the sacerdotal orpure effect , and to drive men into solitude for the populace

, and endowed with such opulence ural distinguished into solitarice, cu nimics, and even schong the pillars and supporters of the Christian The inonks, at least the ancient ones, were selves in a condition to claim an eminent station



and licentious epicures, whose views in life were sides at Grand Cairo, and are subdivided into However, the Reformation had a manifest in- century downwards, all the patriarchs of the habits into black, white, grey, .&c. Among the patriarch of Antioch. In the seventeenth ect

Monks are distinguished by the colour of their the first century, and consequently the larial monks, some are called monks of the choir, others tury, a small body of Monophysites, in de last are destined for the service of the convent, tution of their ancestors, and embraced the me professed monks, and others lay monks; which abandoned for some time the doctrine and it

munion of Rome; but the African Moroplyste in the house: in opposition to extra-monks, who exposed them to the seductions of sophistry and

Cloistered monks are those who actuaily reside notwithstanding that poverty and ignorana which whom the civil and ecclesiastical authority have attempts employed by the papal missionaries Monks are also distinguished into reformed, obstinate resistance to the promises, presents and

gain, stood firm in their principles, and made a made masters of ancient convents, and put in bring them under the Roman yoke: and in the which had been relaxed; and ancient, who re-persisted in their refusal to enter into the come their power to retrieve the ancient discipline, eighteenth century, those of Asia and Africa hem main in the convent, to live in it according to its munion of the Romish church, not withstanding establishment at the time when they made their the earnest entreaties and alluring offers that bu vows, without obliging themselves to any new been made from time to time by the pope's legate

MONOTHELITES, (compounded of porting were only distinguished from the rest of the peo- "single," and girme, 61, rolo, "I will,") an ab ple by a peculiar habit, and an extraordinary de- cient sect which sprung ont of the Eutychiana, votion. Not only the monks were prohibitad the thus called, as only allowing of one will in Jesu

The opinion of the Monothelites had its rise MONK

MONOTHELITES tity was so great, that bishops and presbyters the letters of St. Gregory. Pope Sirkus ery were often chosen out of their order; and the the first who called them to the clericate, opr. passion of erecting edifices and convents, in casion of some great scarcity of priests lund the which the monks and holy virgins might serve church was then supposed to labour under; ad God in the most commodious manner, was at since that time the priesthood has been usaha that time carried beyond all bounds. However, united to the monastical profession. Enc. Brat: their licentiousness, even in this century, was British Monachism, or Manners and Cou become a proverb; and they are said to have ex- of Monks and Nuns of England; Makina cited the most dreadful tumults and seditions in Ecc. Hist.; Gibbon's Decline and Fall various places. The monastic orders were at first MONOPHYSITES (from pino, kad, et under the immediate jurisdiction of the bishops, quris, nutura,) a general name given to all time from which they were exempted by the Roman sectaries in the Levant who only own one na pontiff about the end of the seventh century; and in Jesus Christ; and who maintain that the & the monks, in return, devoted themselves wholly vine and human nature of Jesus Christ were su to advance the interest and to maintain the dig- united as to form only one nature, yet wibrat nity of the bishop of Rome. This immunity any change, confusion, or mixture of the top which they obtained was a fruitful source of li- natures. centiousness and disorder, and occasioned the The Monophysites, however, properly so called greatest part of the vices with which they were are the followers of Severus, a leamed merk del afterwards so justly charged. In the eighth cen- Palestine, who was created patriarch of Antuch, tury the monastic discipline was extremely re- in 513, and Petrus Fullensis. laxed, both in the eastern and western provinces, The Monophysites were encounged by the and all efforts to restore it were ineffectual. Ne emperor Anastasius, but suppressed by Justin vertheless, this kind of institution was in the and succeeding emperors. However, this set highest esteem ; and nothing could equal the vene- was restored by Jacob Baradeus, an obscure ration that was paid about the close of the ninth monk, insomuch that when he died bishop of century to such as devoted themselves to the sa- Edessa, A. D.588, he left it in a most lourishing cred gloom and indolence of a convent. veneration caused several kings and emperors to Nubia, Abyssinia, and other countries the call them to their courts, and to employ thein in laborious efforts of Jacob were recorded in civil affairs of the greatest moment. Their re- Egypt and the adjacent countries by Theraclesias the effect was of short duration. In the eleventh that all the Monophysites of the Fast considered the authority established insomuch, that in the to this day called Jacobiles

, in honour of the council of Lateran, which was held in the year new chief. The Monopbysites 1215, a decree was passed, by the advice of In- two sects or parties, the ove African and the nocent III. to prevent any new monastic institu- other Asiatic; at the head of the latter is the tions; and several were entirely suppressed. In triarch of Antioch, who resides for the most per the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, it appears, in the monastery of St. Athanias, near the

city from the testimony of the best writers, that the hof Merðin: the former are under the junaliin monks were generally lazy, illiterate, profligate, of the patriarch of Alexandria, who generalinis ing them more circumspect and cautious in their in order to show that they are the linen external conduct.

sors of Ignatius, who was bishop oi Anhieb in have neither clericate nor literature. have benefices depending on the monastery. .

to conquer their inflexible constancy. Anciently the monks were all laymen, anda priesthood, but even priests were expressly pro- Christ. hibited from becoming monks, as appears from


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MORAVIANS in 630, and haul the emperor Heraclius for an all- tion in the mind arising from the contemplation herent: it was the same with that of the acepha- of those actions of rational agents which we call lous Severians. They allowed of two wills in good or virtuous: some call this natural conChrist, considered with regard to the two na- science, others intuitive perception of right and tures ; but reduced them to one by reason of the wrong, &c. See article Sense.-9. Moral lar. union of the two natures, thinking it absurd that See Law, EVIDENCE. there should be two free wills in one and the MORALITY is that relation or proportion same person. They were condemned by the which actions bear to a given rule. It is generally sixth general council in 680, as being supposed used in reference to a good life. Morality is dis to destroy the perfection of the humanity of tinguished from religion thus: “Religion is a Jesus Christ, depriving it of will and operation. studious conformity of our actions to the relations Their sentiments were afterwards embraced by in which we stand to each other in civil society. the Maronites.

Morality comprehends only a part of religion; MONTANISTS, a sect which sprung up but religion comprehends the whole of morality about the year 171, in the reign of the emperor Morality finds all her motives here below; reliMarcus Aurelius. They were so called from gion fetches all her motives from above. The their leader Montanus, a Phrygian by birth; highest principle in morals is a just regard to the whence they are sometimes called Phrygians rights of men; the first principle in religion is the ad Cataphrygians.

love of God.” The various duties of morality are Montanus, it is said, embraced Christianity in considered in their respective places in this work. hopes of rising to the dignities of the church. Sce Bishop Horsley's Charge, 1790; Palcy's He pretended to inspiration; and gave out that and Grore's Moral Philosophy; Beattie's Ele the Holy Ghost had instructed him in several ments of Moral Science ; Erans's Sermons on points which had not been revealed to the apos-Christian Temper; Watts's Serm. on Christian iles. Priscilla and Maximilla, two enthusiastic Morals; Mason's Christian Morals ; H. More's Fomen of Phrygia, presently became his disci- Hints, vol. ii. p. 245; Gisborne's Sermons, design ples, and in a short time he had a great numbered to illustrate and enforce Christian Morality of followers. The bishops of Asia being assem MORAVIANS, a sect generally said to have Hled together, condemned his prophecies, and ex- arisen under Nicholas Lewis, count of Zinzen communicated those that dispersed them. After-dorf, a German nobleman of the last century, wards they wrote an account of what had passed and thus called, because the first converts to their to the western churches, where the pretended system were some Moravian families. Accord prophecies of Montanus and his followers were ing to the society's own account, however, they likewise condemned.

derive their origin from the Greek church in the The Montanists, finding themselves exposed ninth century, when, by the instrumentality of to the censure of the whole church, formed a Methodius and Cyrillus, two Greek monks, the achism, and set up a distinct society under the kings of Bulgaria and Moravia being converted direction of those who called themselves prophets. to the faith, were, together with their subjects Montanus, in conjunction with Priscilla and united in communion with the Greek church. Maximilla, were at the head of the sect. Methodius was their first bishop, and for their

These sectaries made no alteration in the creed. use Cyrillus translated the Scriptures into the They only held that the Holy Spirit made Mon Sclavonian language. unus his organ for delivering a more perfect form The antipathy of the Greek and Roman of discipline than what was delivered by his apos- churches is well known, and by much the greater ties. They refused communion for ever to those part of the Brethren were in process of time who were guilty of notorious crimes, and be compelled, after many struggles, to submit to the lieved that the bishops had no authority to recon- see of Rome. A few, however, adhering to the dle them. They held it unlawful to ily in time rites of their mother church, united themselves in of persecution. They condemned second mar. 1170 to the Waldenses, and sent missionaries Tiages

, allowed the dissolution of marriage, and irto many countries. In 1517 they were called absorved three lents.

Fra'res legis Christi, or Brethren of the law of MORAL, relating to the actions or conduct Christ; because, about that period, they had of life, or that which determines an action to be thrown on all reverence for human compilations good or virtuous.-2. A moral agent is a being of the faith, professing simply to follow the doc. tint is capable of those actions that have a moral trines and precepts contained in the word of quality, and which can properly be denominated God. good or evil in a moral sense.-3. A morai cer There being at this time no bishops in the tainty is a very strong probability, and is used in Bohemian church who had not submitted to the contradistinction to mathematical probability.- papal jurisdiction, three priests of the society of 4. Moral fil ness is the agreement of the actions United Brethren were, about the year 1467, conof any inielligent being with the nature, circum- secrated by Stephen, bishop of the Waldenses, stances, and relation of things.-5. A moral im- in Austria (sce WALDENSES ;) and these prepossibility is a very great or insuperable difficulty; lates, on their return to their own country, conopposed to a natural impossibility. See Irael- secrated ten co-bishops, or co-seniors, from among LITY.-6. Moral obligulion is the necessity of the rest of the presbyters. In 1323, the United doing or omitting any action in order to be happy Brethren cominenced a friendly correspondenca and good. See OBLIGATION.—7. Moral philo- first with Luther, and afterwarls with Calvin sophy is the science of manners, the knowledge and other leaders among the reformers. A perof our duty and · felicity. See PHILOSOPHY, sccution, which was brought upon them on this 3. Moral sense, that whereby we perceive what account, and some religious disputes which took is good, virtuous, and beautiful in actions, man- place among themselves, threatened for a while ners, and characters. or it is a kind of satisfac- l the society with ruin; but the disputes were, in

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