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PAULICIANS wuncil of Nice regulated the limits and preroga. | all distinctions of persons, and to make the For tives of the three patriarchs of Rome, Antioch, ther and Son precisely the same; in which the and Alexandria, it did not give them the title of were followed by the Sabellians an:lothes patriarchs, though it allowed them the pre-emi. The author and head of the Petripussians wa nence and privileges thereof; thus when the Praxeas, a philosopher of Phrygia in Asia council of Constantinople adjudged the second PATRONAGE, or Advow'sos, a sort of in place to the bishop of Constantinople, who, till corporeal hereditament, consisting in the right then, was only a suffragan of Heraclea, it said presentation to a church, or ecclesiastical heale nothing of the patriarchate. Nor is the term Advowson signifies the taking into protest patriarch found in the decree of the council of and therefore is synonymous with patrorama, Chalcedon, whereby the fifth place is assigned to and he who has the right of advowson is cais the bishop of Jerusalem; nor did these five pa- the patron of the church. triarchs govern all the churches.
PAULIANISTS, a sect so called from the There were besides many independent chiefs founder, Panlus Samosatenus, a native of of dinceses, who, far from owning the juisdiction mosata, elected hishop of Antioch in 22. Ha of the grand patriarchs, called themselves pa- doctrine seems to have amounted to this : le triarchs, such as that of Aquileia ; nor was Car- the Son and the Holy Chost exist in Gort in the thage ever subject to the patriarch of Alexandria. same manner as the faculties of reason and actor Mosheim (Eccles. Hist. vol. i. p. 281.) imagines vity do in man; that Christ was born ? OFTE that the bishops who enjoyed a certain degree of man; but that the reason or wisdom of the Fr pre-eminence over the rest of their order, were ther descended into him, and by him wrouch distinguished by the Jewish title of patriarchs, in miracles upon earth, and instrucied the nations ; the fourth century. The authority of the pa. and, finally, that on account of this union of the triarchs gradually increased till about the close divine Word with the man Jesus Christ miten of the fifth century: all affairs of moment within though improperly, be called God. It is also the compass of their patriarchates came before said that he did not haptise in the name of the them, cither at first hand, or by appeals froin the Father and the Son, &c.; for which maser, the inetropolitans. They consecrated bishops; as- council of Vice ordered those lmptiser? by him to sembled yearly in council the clergy of their be re-baptised. Being condemned by Dronysos respective districts; pronounced a decisive judg: Alexandrinus in a council
, he ahjured his citare ment in those cases where accusations were to avoid deposition ; but soon after he resumed brought against bishops; and appointed vicars or them, and was actually deposed by another coundeputies clothed with
their authority, for the pre- cil in 269. He may be considered as the father servatior of order and tranquillity in the remoter of the modern Socinians; and his errors are sprovinces. In short, nothing was done without verely condemned by the council of Nice, whese consulting them, and their decrees were executed creed differs a little from that now used under with the same regularity and respect as those of the same name in the church of England
. The the princes.
creed agreed upon by the Nicene fathers with a It deserves to be remarked, however, that the view to the errors of Paulus Samosatenus coauthority of the patriarchs was not acknowledged cludes thus : “But those who say there was : through all the provinces without exception. time when he was not, and that he was not Several districts, both in the eastern and western fore he was born, the catholic and apostolie empires, were exempted from their jurisdiction. church anathematize." The Latin church had no patriarchs till the sixth PAULICIANS, a branch of the ancient century; and the churches of Gaul, Britain, &c. Manichees, so called from their founder
, one f** were never subject to the authority of the pa- lus, an Armenian, in the seventh century, we triarch of Rome, whose authority only extended with his brother John, both of Samosata, formand to the suburbicary provinces. There was no this sect : though others are of opinion that they primacy, no cxarchate, nor patriarchate, owned were thus calleJ from another Paul, an Ara eram here; but the bishops with the metropolitans, by birth, who lived under the reign of conati governed the church in cominon. Indeed, after II. In the seventh century, a zealot, caintes ine name patriarch became frequent in the West, stantine, revived this drooping sect, whico bad it was attributed to the bishop of Bourges anů suffered much from the violence of its adort Lyons, but it was only in the first signification, ries, and was ready to expire under the there have been some abbots who have borne the they were carried into execution. The Poex title of patriarchs. PATRICIANS, ancient sectaries, who dis-nance of the emperor Nicephorus, bet are bet
cians, however, by their number, and the cute turbed the peace of the church
in the beginning midable to all the East. But the cruel mures of the third century; thus called from their persecution, which had for some yeats been founder, Patricius, preceptor of a Marcionite pended, broke forth with redoulles violence unde
? called Symmachus. His distinguishing tenet was, the reigns of Michael Curopalates and Led the that the sulistance of the flesh is not the work of Armenian, who inflicted capital punishmats Gol, but that of the devil; on which account his such of the Paulicians as refused to return it adherents bore an implacable hatred to their own the bosom of the church. The empress The flesh, which sometimes carried them so far as to dora, tutoress of the emperor Michach in
PATRIPASSIANS, a sect that appeared quit the empire ; upon which several of them about the latter end of the second century, so were put to death,
and more retired among the called from their ascribing the passion or suffer- Saracens; but they were neither all esterin ings of Christ to the Father; for they asserted nated nor banished. the unity of God in such a manner as to destrog 323
Upon this they entered into a league with tee
PELAGIANS Saracens, and choosing for their chief an officer | peace is the gift of God through Jesus Christ, of the greatest resolution and valour, whose name 2 Thess. iii. 16. It is a blessing of great imporwas Carbeus, they declared against the Greeks a tance, Psal. cxix. 165. It is denominated perfect, war, which was carried on for fifty years with the Isa. xxvi. 3; inexpressible, Phil. iv. 7; permagreatest vehemence and fury. During these nent, Job xxxiv. 29; John xvi. 22; eternal, Isa. commotions, some Paulicians, wwards the con- lvii. 2; Heb. iv. 9. See HAPPINESS. clusion of this century, spread abroad their doc PELAGIANS, a sect who appeared about trines among the Bulgarians: many of them, the end of the fourth century. They maintained either from a principle of zeal for the propagation the following doctrines: 1. That Adam was by of their opinions, or from a natural desire of fly- nature mortal, and, whether he had sinned or ing from the persecution which they suffered not, would certainly have died. 2. That the under the Grecian yoke, retired about the close consequences of Adam's sin were confined to his of the eleventh century from Bulgaria and own person.-3. That new-born infants are in Thrace, and formed settlements in other coun- the same situation with Adam before the fall. tries. Their first migration was into Italy; 4. That the law qualified men for the kingdom whence, in process of time, they sent colonies into of heaven, and was founded upon equal para almost all the other provinces of Europe, and mises with the Gospel.–5. That the general
formed gradually a considerable number of reli- resurrection of the dead does not follow in virhave gious assemblies, who adhered to their doctrine, tue of our Saviour's resurrection.—6. That the
and who were afterwards persecuted with the grace of God is given according to our merits.-
tine for that purpose, before an assembly of
2 c 2
The monastery be built Bernard was seconded by several others, who, abandoned by their parents, and in danger of
PENITENTIAL, an ecclesiastical book te number of courtezans, about the year 1492. various penitentials, as the Roman penitents'; brief of pope Alexander, Simon bishop of Paris, private confessions of the people, Śn order to in 1497, drew them up a body of statutes, and cilitate public discipline, by acquainting iben PENITENCE
PENITENTIARY letters and protestations of Pelagius, pronounced 1 of age. Since its reformation by Mary Alvequin in favour of these monks, declared them sound in 1616, none have been admitted but maids, arba in the faith, and unjustly persecuted by their ad- however, still retain the ancient name, pe uiteria versaries. The African bishops, with Augustin at their head, little affected with
this declaration, fraternities of penitents, distinguished by the
PENITENTS, an appellation given to ormain continued obstinately to maintain the judginent ferent shape and colour of their habits. The they had pronounced in this matter, and to are secular societies, who have their rules, strengthen it by their exhortations, their letters, tutes, and churches, and make public presse and their writings. Sosimus yielded to the per under their particular crosses or banners severance of the Africans, changed his mind, and these, it is said, there are more than a hundred condemned, with the utmost severity, Pelagius the most considerable of which are as famon and Celestius whom he had honoured with his The White Penitents, of which there are several approbation, and covered with his protection. - different sorts at Rome, the most ancient of which This was followed by a train of evils, which pur- was constituted in 1261 : the brethren of this sued these two monks without interruption. ternity every year give portions to a certain 127 They were condemned, says Mosheim, by that ber of young girls, in order to their being se same Ephesian council which had launched its ried: their habit is a kind of white sackcloth, so: thunder at the head of Nestorius. In short, the on the shoulder is a circle, in the middle of a laro Gauls, Britons, and Africans, by their councils is a red and white cross. Black Penitents, by and emperors, by their edicts and penal laws, de most considerable of which are the Brethren op molished this sect in its infancy, and suppressed Mercy, instituted in 1488 by some Florentine is it entirely before it had acquired any tolerable order to assist criminals during ineir imprint degree of vigour or consistence.
ment, and at the time of their death. On the PENANCE, a punishment either voluntary, day of execution they walk in procession leán or imposed by authority, for the faults a person them, singing the seven penitential psalms
, and has committed. Penance is one of the seven the litanies; and after they are dead, they take sacraments of the Romish church. Besides fast- them down from the gibbet, and bury them their ing, alms, abstinence, and the like, which are the habit is black sackcloth. There are others abie general conditions of penance
, there are others of business it is to bury such persons as are found more particular kind; as the repeating a certain dead in the streets : these wear a death's bead on number of avemarys, paternosters, and credos: one side of their habit. There are also blue, gras, wearing a hair shift
, and giving oneself a certain red, green, and violet penitents, all whort are the number of stripes. In Italy and Spain it is usual markable for little else besides the different colours to see Christians, almost naked, loaded with of their habits. chains, and lashing themselves at every step. Penitents, or Concerts of the Name of Jesen See PoPERY. PENITENCE is sometimes used for a state consisting of women who have led a lernen
a congregation of religious at Seville
, in Spain of repentance, and sometimes for the act of re- life, founded in 1550. This morzastery is čirakel penting. It is also used for a discipline or punish- into three quarters : one for professed religions; penance. It also gives title to several religious under correction. When these Last give sigas ei erlers, consisting either of converted debauchees a real repentance
, they are removed into the rote themselves to the office of reclaiming them. themselves well, they are remanded to their conta See next article.
rection. They observe the rule of St. Augusta Order of Penitents of St. Magdalen was es Penitents of Orrieto are an order of nuits tablished about the year 1272, by one Bernard, a stituted by Antony Simoncelli,
, , . into a religious order by pope Nicholas III. under a monastery, for the reception of such as banding also made a religious order of the penitents, or to take up, and consecrate themselves to women they converted, giving them the same solemne vows. Their rule is that of the Cam rules and observances which they themselves melites. kept.
Congregation of Penitents of St. Magdalen, tained among the Romanists, in au of parenting Tisseran, a Franciscan, who converted a vast and the reconciliation of peniten Louis, Duke of Orleans, gave them his house that of the venerable Bede; that for a monastery; or rather, as appears by their gory the Third, &c. constitution, Charles VIII. gave then the hotel PENITENTIARY, in the air called Bochaigne, whence they were removed to church, a name given to certain St. George's Chapel, in 1572.
a , in
a gentleman at
which is pe
ts. There an
presbiters de to rarite
gave them the rule of St. Augustin, It was ne. what sins were to be expiated by p cessary before a woman couli be admitted, that and to appoint private penance for she had first committed the sin of the fiesh. None crimes as were not proper to be pub were admitted who were above thirty-five years Penitentiary, also, in the court
aclu ccnsund. Roure
, is an
PERFECTION office in which are examined and delivered out ever appeared more truly to bear the name of its the secret bulls, dispensations, &c. Penitentiary real author ? It is not an ordinary book, which, is also an officer in some cathedrals vested with like many others, may be easily hazarded under power from the bishop to absolve in cases re a fictitious name. It is a sacred boook, which ferred tj bim.
the Jews have always read with a veneration, PENTATEUCH, from sivt!, five, and touxos, that remains after seventeen hundred years exile, an instrument or volume, signifies the collection calamities, and reproach. In this book the Heof the five instruments or books of Moses, which brews included all their science; it was their are Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and civil, political, and sacred code, their only treaDeuteronomy. Some modern writers, it seems, sure, their calendar, their annals, the only title of have asserted that Moses did not compose the their sovereigns and pontiffs, the alone rule of Pentateuch, because the author always speaks in polity and worship: by consequence it must be the third person; abridges his narration like a formed with their monarchy, and necessarily have writer who collected from ancient memoirs; the same epoch as their government and religion, sometimes interrupts the thread of his discourse, &c.—Moses speaks only truth, though intidels for example, Gen. iv. 23; and because of the ac-charge him with imposture. But, great God ! count of the death of Moses at the end, &c. It what an impostor must he be, who first spoke of is observed, also, in the text of the Fentateuch, the Divinity in a manner so sublime, that no one that there are some places that are defective: for since, during almost four thousand years, has example, in Exod. xii. 8, we see Moses speaking been able to surpass him! What an impostor to Pharaoh, where the author omits the beginning must he be whose writings breathe only virtue; of his discourse. The Samaritan inserts in the whose style, equally simple, affecting, and susame place what is wanting in the Hebrew. In blime, in spite of the rudeness of those first ages, other places the same Samaritan copy adds what openly displays an inspiration altogether divine !" is deficient in the Hebrew; and what is contained See Ainsworth and Kidder on the Pentateuch ; more than the Hebrew seems so well connected Prideaux's Con. vol. i. p. 342, 345, 573, 575; with the rest of the discourse, that it would be Marsh's Authenticity of the Firc Books of difficult to separate them. Lastly, they think Yoses considered ; Warburton's Dirine Legathey observe certain strokes in the Pentateuch tion; Dr. Graves's Lectures on the last four which can hardly agree with Moses, who was books in the Old Test.; Jenkins's Reasonable. born anıl bred in Egypt; as what he says of the ness of Christianity; Watson's Apology, let. 2 earthly paradise, of the rivers that watered it and and 3 ; Faber's Horæ Mosaica, or a View of the on through it; of the cities of Babylon, Erech, Mosaical Records. Resen, and Calneh ; of the gold of Pison; of PENTECOST, a solemn festival of the Jews, the bdellium, of the stone of Sohem, or onyx so called, because it was celebrated fifty days after stone, which was to be found in that country. the feast of the passover, Lev. xxii. 15. "It corThese particulars, observed with such curiosity, responds with the Christians' Whitsuntide, for seem to prove that the author of the Pentateuch which it is sometimes used. lived beyond the Euphrates. Add what he says PERFECTION, that state or quality of a concerning the ark of Noah, of its construction, thing, in which it is free from defect or redun. of the place where it rested, of the wood where- dancy. According to some, it is divided into phy. with it was built, of the bitumen of Babylon, &c. sical or natural, whereby a thing has all its powers But in answer to all these objections it is justly and faculties; moral, or an eminent degree of observed, that these books are, by the most an- goodness and piety; and metaphysical or trancient writers, ascribed to Moses, and it is con- scendant is the possession of all the essential atfirmed by the authority of heathen writers them- tributes or parts necessary to the integrity of a selves, that they are his writing : besides this, we substance; or it is that whereby a thing has or is have the unanimous testimony of the whole provided of every thing belonging to its nature ; Jewish nation ever since Moses's time. Divers such is the perfection of God. The term perfectexts of the Pentateuch imply that it was written tion, says the great Witsius, is not always used] by him; and the book of Joshua and other in the same sense in the Scriptures. 1. There is parts of Scripture import as much; and though a perfection of sincerity, whereby a man serves some passages have been thought to imply the God without hypocrisy, Job i. 1; Is. xxxviii. 3. contrary, yet this is but a late opinion, and has -2. There is a perfection of parts, subjective been sufficiently confuted by several learned men. with respect to the whole man, ! Thess. v. 23; It is probable, however, that Ezra published a and objective with respect to the whole law, when new edition of the books of Moscs, in which he all the duties prescribed by God are observal, Ps. might add those passages that many suppose cxix. 128; Luke i. 6.-3. There is a comparatire Moses did not write. The Abbé Torné, in a perfection ascribed to those who are advanced in sermon preached before the French King in | knowledge, faith, and sanctification, in compariLent, 1761, makes the following remarks: "The son of those who are still infants and untaught, legislator of the Jews was the author of the Pen- 1 John ii. 13; 1 Cor. i. 6; Phil. iii. 15.--1. Thero tateuch ; an inmortal work, wherein he paints is an erangelical perfection. The righteousness the marvels of his reign, with the majestic pic of Christ being imputed to the believer, hie is comlure of the government and religion which he es- plete in him, and accepted of God as perfect hablished! Who before our modern infidels ever through Christ, Col. ii. 10; Eph. v. 27; 2 Cor. ventured to obscure this incontestable fact? Who v. 21.-5. There is also a perfection of degrecs, per sprang a doubt about this among the He- by which a person perforins all the commands of brews - What greater reasons have there ever God with the full exertion of all his powers, withwen to attribute to Mahomet his Alcoran, to out the least defect. This is what the law of Plato his Republic, or to Homer his sublime God requires, but what the saints cannot attain pwens? Rather let us say, What work in any age I to in this life, though we willingly allow them all
PERSECUTION the other kinds above-mentioned, Rom. vii. 24; | dreadful scenes, which need not here lo enlarged I hil. . 12; 1 John i. 8; Witsii Economia on. After his death, the apostles suffered every Fæderum Dei, lib. iii. cap. 12. $ 124 ; Bales's evil which the malice of the Jews could interim Works, p. 557, &c.; Law and Wesley on Per. and their mad zeal execute. Thes who rral the fection ; Doddridge's Lectures, lecture 181. Acts of the Apostles, will find that, like this PERFECTIONS OF GOD, See ATTRI- Master, they were despised and rejected of ork
and treated with the utmost indignity and com PERJURY is the taking of an oath, in order tempt. to tell or confirm a falsehood. This is a very ii. Persecution of Christians by the Re: heinous crime, as it is treating the Almighty with then.-Historians usually rrekon ien gebrnal irreverence; denying, or at Icast discarding his persecutions, the first of which was under the omniscience; profaniny his name, and vi,lating emperor Nero, thirty-one years after our Land's truth. It has always been esteemed a very detest- ascension, when that einperor, having set fire to able thing, and those who have been proved guilty the city of Rome, threw the odium of that eteof it, have been looked upon as the rests of să crable action on the Christians. First, The ciety. See Oath.
were apprehended who openly avowed then selves PERMISSION OF SIN. See Sin. to be of that sect; then by them were discorend PERSECUTION is any pain or affliction an immens multitude, all of whom were cuprint. which a person designedly inflicts upon another; ed. Their death and tortures were aggravated and in a more restrained sense, the sufferings of by cruel derision and sport; for they were elbst Christians on account of their religion. Perse- covered with the skins of wild heasts and tom in cution is threefold.—1. Mental, when the spirit pieces by devouring dogs, or fastened to create of a man rises up and opposes another.—2. Ver- and wrapped up in combustible garments
, itat, bal, when men give hard words, and deal in un- when the day-light failed, they migbt, like torches
, charitable censures.—3. Actual or open, by the serve to dispel the darkness of the night For hand, such as the dragging of innocent persons this tragical spectacle Nero lent his own gardens; before the tribunal of justice, Matt. x. 18. The and exhibited at the same time the public dres unlawfulness of persecution for conscience sake sions of the circus; sometimes driving a charise must appear plain to every one that possesses the in person, and sometimes standing as a spectator, least degree of thought or of feeling. “To ba- while the shrieks of women burning to astre sur nish, imprison, plunder, starve, hang, and burn plied music for his ears.-2. The second general men for religion,” says the shrewd Jortin, "is not persecution was under Domitian, in the year , the Gospel of Christ; it is the Gospel of the De- when 40,000 were supposed to have surened vil
. Where persecution begins, Christianity ends. martyrdom.-3. The third began in the thind Christ never used any thing that looked like force year of Trajan, in the year 100, and was carried or violence, , except once; and that was to drive on with great violence for several years.-4. The bad men out of the temple, and not to drive fourth was under Antoninus, when the Christians them in,"
wero banished from their houses forbidden to We know the origin of it to be from the prince show their heads, reproached, beaten, buria of darkness, who began the dreadful practice in from place to place, plundered, imprisoners
, and the first family on earth, and who, more or less, stoned.-5. The fifth began in the year 17, has been carrying on the same work ever since, der Severus, when great cruelties were comunited and that almost among all parties. "Persecution In this reign happened the martyrdom of Forest for conscience sake," says Dr. Doddridge, “is tua and Felicitas, and their companions F*** every way inconsistent, because, 1. It is founded petua had an infant at the breast
, and Foritas on an absurd supposition, that one man bas a right was just delivered, at the time of their being te to judge for another in matters of religion.- to death. These two beautiful and amiable 2. It is evidently opposite to that fundamental women, mothers of infant children, after suftprinciple of morality, that we should do to others ing much in prison, were exposed, before an as we could reasonably desire they should do to susting multitude, to a wild cow, who married us,-3. It is by no means calculated to answer the their bodies in a most horrid manner; after wide end which its patrons profess to intend by it. they were carried to a conspicuous place, and ju 4. It evidently tends to produce a great deal of to death by the sword.-6. The sixih began with mischief and confusion in the world.-5. The the reign of Maximinus in 235.—7. The so Christian religion must, humanly speaking, be venth, which was the most dreadful ever not only obstructed, but' destroyed, should perse- began in 250, under the emperor Decius ambient cuting principles universally prevail.—6. Perse the Christians were in all places driven form bene cution is so far from being required or encouraged habitations, stripped of their estates, tornante! by the Gospel, that it is most directly contrary to with racks, &c.-8. The eighth began in 3 many of its precepts, and indeed to the whole under Valerian. Both men and women suara of it.”
death, some by scourging, some by the store The chief objects who have fell a prey to this and some by fire.-9. The ninth was under Ab diabolical spirit have been Christians; a short ac- relian, in 274; but this was inconsiderable to count of whose sufferings we shall here give, as pared with the others before mentioned.-10. Tx persecuted by the Jews, Heathens, and those of tenth began in the ninteenth year of Distan, the same name.
303. In this dreadful persecution, which hestoru Persecution of Christians by the Jews.--Here ten years, houses filled with Christians were we need not be copious, as the New Testament on fire, and whole droves were tipeal together with will inforin the reader more particularly how the ropes and thrown into the ses. Is is related that Jesus Christ himself was exposed to it in the Juring the continuance of this persecution in the greatest degree. The four evangelists record the province of Egypt alone, no less than 1f4cov