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of Schomberg (d. 1690), in the large brick house known as Schomberg House, now occupied by Nos. 81 and 82 as part of the War Office. [See Schomberg House.] The great Duke of Marlborough, who built Marlborough House. George Psalmanazar had lodgings here on his first arrival, and here he was visited as an inhabitant of Formosa. Swift writes, October 1720, to the Hon. Sir Thomas Hanmer, Bart., at his house in Pall Mall. Lord Bolingbroke was living here in 1726. October 22, 1726.-I hear that Lord Bolingbroke will be in town, at his house in Pall Mall, next week.-Gay to Swift.

June 4, 1727.-You will find me just returning to Crauford from the Pall Mall. -Bolingbroke to Swift.

Bubb Dodington, Lord Melcombe, the Bubo of Pope. "Mr. Dodington" wrote Horace Walpole, "built the house in Pall Mall which is now in front of Carlton House."

Dodington's house in Pall Mall stood close to the garden the Prince had bought there of Lord Chesterfield; and during Dodington's favour the Prince had suffered him to make a door out of his house into his garden, which, upon the first decay of his interest, the Prince shut up-building and planting before Dodington's house, and changing every lock in his own to which he had formerly given Dodington keys.-Lord Hervey's Memoirs, vol. i. p. 434.

He flattered Walpole at Whitehall

And damned him at Pall Mall.

Sir Robert Walpole had a freehold house in Pall Mall, which he gave to his son Edward.1 In it lived Lady Waldegrave and Sir Edward Walpole.

Robert Dodsley, the bookseller, opened his shop in Pall Mall in 1735, under the patronage of Pope, with the sign of "Tully's Head," and dying in 1764 was buried at Durham.

To be spoke with every Thursday at Tully's head in Pall Mall, Adam FitzAdam.-The World, No. 1.

William Hunter, on his first arrival in London in 1741, took up his residence with Dr. Smellie in Pall Mall, but soon left it for the house of Dr. Douglas, the Horatian enthusiast, and owner of the "soft obstetric hand" celebrated by Pope. Smellie and Douglas were rival man-midwives, and in a paper war which arose between them the former was accused of degrading the profession by hanging out from his house in Pall Mall a paper lantern inscribed " Midwifery taught here for five shillings." The young Pretender, on his furtive visit to London in September 1750, held a secret meeting with about fifty of his friends at his lodging in Pall Mall.2 William, Duke of Cumberland, the hero of Culloden, in Schomberg House in 1760.

October 28, 1760.—The Duke of Cumberland has taken Lord Sandwich's [house] in Pall Mall.—Walpole to Montagu (Letters, vol. iii. p. 353).

In Sir Joshua Reynolds's pocket-book for 1762 is noted an appointment, "July 17, at six with Miss Nelly O'Brien in Pall Mall, next door this side the Star and Garter," which is represented by the

1 Horace Walpole, Account of my Conduct. (Letters, vol. i. p. lxxix.)

2 Lord Stanhope's Hist. of England, vol. iv.

p. 8.

present 43 A. Gibbon wrote to Holroyd, Pall Mall, December 25, 1769; and again in December 1772 immediately before he took his house in Bentinck Street. On his brief visit to England in 1787 he once more took lodgings here, and wrote to Lord Sheffield, "Virtue should never be made too difficult. I feel that a man has more friends in Pall Mall than in Bentinck Street." Sir John Pringle (President of the Royal Society, 1772-1778) frequently received the Fellows of that Society at his house until his death in 1781. Thomas Gainsborough, the painter, in the western wing of Schomberg House, from 1777 to 1783. A tablet has been placed by the Society of Arts in the house to commemorate Gainsborough's residence. David Astley, the painter, divided Schomberg House into three, and fitted up the centre in a fantastic manner for his own use, and after his death, in 1787, it was occupied by Cosway the miniature painter, whose pretty wife gave parties that were for a while extremely fashionable. In 1779, when Admiral Keppel was acquitted, and all London was illuminated, his prosecutor, Palliser, was living in Pall Mall.

February 12, 1779.-My servants, who have been out this morning, tell me that about 3 o'clock the mob found their way into Palliser's house in spite of the guards and demolished every thing in it. P.S.-The mob entirely gutted Sir Hugh Palliser's house, but the furniture had been removed.-Walpole to Sir H. Mann (Letters, vol. vii. p. 176).

In 1782 Lord Rodney's prisoner, the Count de Grasse, took up his abode in the Royal Hotel, Pall Mall. Lord Chancellor Erskine dates a codicil of his will from "Carleton Hotel, Pall Mall, October 2, 1786." Mr. Angerstein lived at No. 102. Five doors east of it died the Right Hon. William Windham, June 3, 1810.

Windham is a Moloch among the fallen ambassadors, I was at his house on the day when the Peace procession passed in Pall Mall, and was highly gratified with his grotesque affectation of laughing at the triumph of his enemies. He laughed, but it was a laugh of agony.—Thomas Campbell to J. Richardson, 1802.

Lord Brougham has portrayed him under a different aspect.

His manners were the most polished and noble and courteous, without the least approach to pride, or affectation, or condescension; his spirits were, in advanced life, so gay that he was always younger than the youngest; his relish of conversation was such that, after lingering to the latest moment he joined whatever party a sultry evening (or morning as it might chance to prove) tempted to haunt the streets before retiring to rest. How often have we accompanied him to the door of his own mansion, and then been attended by him to our own, while the streets rang with the peals of his hearty merriment, or echoed the accents of his refined and universal wit. -Brougham, in Edinburgh Review, October 1838, p. 237.

November 18, 1805.-Wasn't you sorry for Lord Nelson? I have followed him in fancy ever since I saw him walking in Pall Mall (I was prejudiced against him before) looking just as a hero should look.-Charles Lamb to Hazlitt.

David Wilkie opened at No. 87, on May 1, 1812, an exhibition of his pictures and finished studies, twenty-nine in number. He lost money by it, and did not repeat the experiment, but it helped to extend his reputation. The witty, wilful Mrs. Abington died, March 4, 1815, "at her apartments in Pall Mall." Sir Charles Bunbury died at his

house in Pall Mall, 1821. Sir Walter Scott, on his visit to London 1826-1827, stayed at the house of his son-in-law, Lockhart, No. 25 Pall Mall. Many entries in his Diary are dated from this house, but the whole frontage has since been altered.

Among the events which Pall Mall has witnessed, one of the most remarkable was the murder of Mr. Thynne, February 12, 1682, by Colonel Vratz and Lieutenant Stern, the hired agents of Count Konigsmark. These mean villains were hanged in Pall Mall on March 10, but the greater assassin was allowed to escape. At the Star and Garter Tavern, William, fifth Lord Byron (d. 1798), killed (1765) his neighbour and friend, Mr. Chaworth, in what was rather a broil than a duel.

June 13, 1782.-As Lady Chewton and her sisters came from the Opera, they saw two officers fighting in Pall Mall, next to Dr. Graham's and the mob trying to part them. Lord Chewton and some other young men went into the house and found a Captain Lucas of the Guards bleeding on a couch. It was a quarrel about an E. O. table: I don't know what. This officer had been struck in the face with a red-hot poker by a drawer, and this morning is dead.-Walpole to Lady Ossory (Letters, vol. viii. p. 232).

These quarrels and duels were not the only strange scenes Pall Mall beheld a century ago.

January 8, 1786.-The mail from France was robbed last night in Pall Mall,1 at half an hour after 8. The chaise had stopped, the harness was cut, and the portmanteau was taken out of the chaise itself. A courier is gone to Paris for a copy of the despatch. What think you of banditti in the heart of such a capital ?— Walpole to Mann (Letters, vol. ix. p. 35).

The It was here that,

It was in Dalton's print warehouse, Pall Mall, in a building erected for Lamb the auctioneer, and having therefore the advantage of a "great room," that the Royal Academy had its original home. building adjoined Old Carlton House on the east. at the formal opening of the Academy, January 2, 1769, Sir Joshua Reynolds delivered the first of his fifteen Presidential Discourses. Here the first of the annual exhibitions was opened on April 26, 1769; and here the Academy met and the exhibitions were held till January 14, 1771, when the Academy met for the first time in their new apartments in Somerset House. The building was afterwards occupied by Christie, the picture auctioneer. At the King's Arms in Pall Mall met in 1734 the Liberty or Rump Steak Club, consisting exclusively of peers in eager opposition to Sir Robert Walpole; there is a list of the club in the Marchmont Papers, vol. ii. p. 20.

There was a club held at the King's Head in Pall Mall, that arrogantly called itself The World. Lord Stanhope then (now Lord Chesterfield), Lord Herbert, etc. etc., were members. Epigrams were proposed to be written on the glasses, by each member after dinner; once when Dr. Young was invited thither, the doctor would have declined writing because he had no diamond; Lord Stanhope lent him his, and he wrote immediately:

Accept a miracle instead of wit;

See two dull lines, with Stanhope's pencil writ.

Spence's Anecdotes, by Singer, p. 377.

1 The foreign Post-Office was at this time in Albemarle Street.

At the Star and Garter (1760-1770) used to meet the Thursday Night Club, of which the George Selwyn and Lord March set were members, as was also Sir Joshua Reynolds. Sir Joshua was regular in his attendance, although his bad whist playing, and manners the reverse of fast, caused him to be less highly appreciated here than he was at the Turk's Head. Another noted house was the Smyrna Coffee-house [which see].

O bear me to the paths of fair Pell Mell,

Safe are thy pavements, grateful is thy smell!
At distance rolls along the gilded coach,
No sturdy carmen on thy walks encroach;

Shops breathe perfumes: thro' sashes ribbons glow
The mutual arms of ladies, and the beau.

Gay's Trivia, B. ii. p. 257.

Yet who the footman's arrogance can quell,
Whose flambeau gilds the sashes of Pell Mell,
When in long rank a train of torches flame,
To light the midnight visits of the dame?

Ibid., B. iii. p. 156.

Pell Mell, it will be seen, was the genteel pronunciation of the name in the days of Queen Anne, and so it has continued to be down to the present day.

If we must have a villa in summer to dwell,
O give me the sweet shady side of Pell Mell.

Captain Morris, The Contrast.

This celebrated street was, January 28, 1807, the first street in London lighted with gas, by a German named Winsor. The second was Bishopsgate Street. Observe. On the south side, Marlborough House, now the residence of H.R.H. the Prince of Wales; 69, the London Joint-Stock Bank; 70, the Guards' Club; 71 to 76, the Oxford and Cambridge Club; 86, the War Office; 94, Carlton Club; 104, Reform Club; 106, Travellers' Club; 107, Athenæum Club; 116-117, United Service Club. On the north side, 52, the Marlborough Club (formerly the British Instititution, founded 1805); 36-39, the Army and Navy Club; 29, Royal Exchange Assurance, rebuilt 1884-1885, by George Aitchison, A.R.A.; 30-35, Junior Carlton Club; and refer to each for particular descriptions. In Pall Mall East, Observe, on north side United University Club; Royal Society of Painters in Water Colours; and on the south, the Royal College of Physicians, and next to it Colnaghi's famous print-shop. Here, too, is the bronze equestrian statue of George III. by Mathew Coates Wyatt.

Palmer's Village, WESTMINSTER, the name given so late as 1831 (Elmes) to some scattered houses between the grounds of Elliot's brewery and Little James Street. Palmer's Almshouses, founded by James Palmer, B.D., in 1654, "at Tothill Side, Westminster," are on the north side of Victoria Street. Maitland, writing in 1739, says (p. 675), "Here is a chapel for the use of the scholars and pensioners, wherein the Founder himself, for some time, preach'd and pray'd

twice a day to them." These almshouses were handsomely rebuilt in 1881.

Palsgrave Court, originally PALSGRAVE'S HEAD COURT, afterwards PALSGRAVE PLACE, in the STRAND, near Temple Bar, was so called from a tavern having for its sign the head of the Palsgrave Frederick, the husband of the Princess Elizabeth, only daughter of James I. There was also a Palatine Head in Soho. William Faithorne, the engraver, lived "at the sign of the Ship, next to the Drake, opposite to the Palsgrave Head Tavern, without Temple Bar." Here Prior and Montague make the Country Mouse and the City Mouse bilk the hackney coachman :---

But now at Piccadilly they arrive,

And taking coach, t'wards Temple-Bar they drive,

But at St. Clement's Church, eat out the back;

And slipping through the Palsgrave, bilkt poor hack.

Prior and Montague, The Hind and Panther Transvers'd. When, 1691, Archbishop Sancroft had to quit Lambeth Palace, he took boat at Lambeth Bridge and went to "the Palgrave's Head, near Temple Bar," where he remained from June 23 to August 5, when he retired to Fressingfield in Suffolk, his native place. Tokens of the tavern are extant. This court was abolished when the large building called the Outer Temple was built partly on its site.

Pancras Lane, CITY, runs on the south and parallel to Cheapside, from Queen Street to Bucklersbury. It seems to have been so called after the Great Fire, to perpetuate the memory of the ancient church of St. Pancras, which stood on the north side of it and was not rebuilt. Previously the portion to the west of Size Lane had been called Needelers' Lane, and to the east Pencritch [Pancras] Street, (Stow, p. 98). Here are still the cemeteries of the two churches of St. Pancras and St. Benet Sherehog; the latter is nearest to Bucklersbury.

Pancras (St.) In the Fields, a prebendal manor in Middlesex, belonging to the Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's, containing the old parish church, now made a district church, situated on the north side of the road leading from King's Cross to Kentish Town; and a new church, the present parish church, described in a succeeding article.

St. Pancras is so called in the Domesday Survey [Sm. Pancratium]. The manor of Pancras belonged to the Dean and Canons or Chapter of St. Paul's; as also did the prebendal manors of Totenhall (Tottenham Court), and Cantelows, now Kentish Town. Ruggemere, or Rugmere, was another prebend in this parish, but the site of the prebendal estate is now unknown. The parish is of great extent, reaching from St. Andrew's, Holborn, and St. George's, Bloomsbury, to Hampstead, Highgate, and Finchley, and including the Gray's Inn, Tottenham Court, Euston and Hampstead Roads, Somers Town, Camden Town, and Kentish Town, Ken (or Caen) Wood, and part of Highgate, a portion of the Regent's Park, and the whole of the extensive London

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