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and North-Western, Midland, and Great Northern Railway termini. In 1801 there were 31,779 inhabitants in the parish; in 1881 there were nearly a quarter of a million (236,209).

Pancras Church standeth all alone, as utterly forsaken, old and weather-beaten, which, for the antiquity thereof, is thought not to yield to Paules in London. About this church have bin many buildings now decayed, leaving poor Pancras without companie or comfort, yet it is now and then visited with Kentishtowne and Highgate, which are members thereof; but they seldom come there, for they have chapels of ease within themselves; but when there is a corpse to be interred, they are forced to leave the same within this forsaken church or churchyard, where (no doubt) it resteth as secure against the day of resurrection, as if it laie in stately Paule's.Norden, Spec. Brit., 4to, 1593.


This interesting little church, partly of Norman, but in the main of Early English date, had in the course of time been greatly altered and covered with plaster. It consisted of a nave and chancel, and at the west end a tower, on which in 1750, when Chatelain's view was taken, was a short shingled spire, but which somewhat later was superseded by an odd sort of dome. In 1847-1848 the church was almost entirely rebuilt in the Norman style (Messrs. Gough and Roumieu, architects), and enlarged, with a tower on the south side at the east end of the nave. It was reopened for divine service, July 5, 1848. Whatever was of interest in the church has passed away, but the monuments deserve examination. The church was restored internally in 1888, when a chancel-screen and choir stalls were added. The old sedilia were discovered on removing the plaster from the walls. The appearance of the interior was somewhat improved, but it is still very heavy in consequence of a gallery which runs round three sides of the nave portion. Observe. Against the north wall of the nave a monument, much defaced (circ. 1500), but without name or inscription; recesses for brasses alone remaining. In the south-east corner of the nave at the entrance to the chancel is a tablet, surmounted by a palette and pencils, to Samuel Cooper, the miniature painter (d. 1672): the arms are those of Sir Edward Turner, Speaker of the House of Commons in the reign of Charles II., at whose expense it is probable the monument was erected. And on the south wall of the church a monument, with two busts, to William Platt (d. 1637), the founder of an important charity, and wife, repaired at the expense of St. John's College, Cambridge, in 1743, and removed hither from the chapel at Highgate in 1833. In the churchyard have been interred an unusual number of remarkable persons. This has been in a great measure owing to its having been for a long series of years the chief burial-place for Roman Catholics resident in London, though the eminent persons buried here are by no means confined to the professors of that faith. "Of late," says Strype, writing at the beginning of the 18th century, "those of the Roman Catholic religion have affected to be buried here." 1 Till the churchyard was closed for interments, it continued to be a favourite Roman Catholic cemetery. For this preference various reasons have been assigned. A 1 Strype, App., p. 136.



popular tradition was that it was the last London church in which mass was performed. Roman Catholics, said Dr. Johnson, "chose St. Pancras for their burying-place because some Catholics in Queen Elizabeth's time had been burnt there." Lysons was told that it was because 66 masses were said in a church in the south of France, dedicated to the same saint, for the souls of the deceased interred at St. Pancras in England." Mr. Markland dismisses all these reasons without ceremony. "I learn," he says, "from unquestionable authority, that it rests upon no foundation;" but is " mere prejudice.' This may be; but even the prejudice must have had an origin. The probable explanation is, that it having been, from accident of residence, chosen as the burial-place of some distinguished member of the church, others of a like faith wished to be laid near him, and—there being no recognised Roman Catholic burial-ground in London-the prejudice would every year extend and strengthen, as more and more of those who were regarded with veneration came to be laid there. These interments include many prelates and priests, members of old Catholic families, Howards and Arundels, Cliffords, Blounts, Tichbornes, Doughtys, Constables, Honars, many Jacobites and Nonjurors, and a large number of French emigrés, victims of the first French Revolution, who took up their residence in Somers Town.


The French Revolution tended materially to fill St. Pancras churchyard. Writing in 1811, Lysons says that "about thirty of the French clergy have on an average been buried annually at Pancras for some years past; in 1801 there were forty-one; in 1802 thirty-two." Among them were several prelates and other dignitaries of the church : Angelus Franciscus de Talaru de Calmazel, Bishop of Coutance (d. 1798). Augustinus Renatus Ludovicus Le Mintier, Bishop and Count of Treguier (d. 1801). Louis André Grimaldi, Bishop of Noyon (d. 1804). Arthur Richard Dillon, Archbishop of Narbonne (d. 1806). Jean François Comte de la Marche, Bishop of St. Pol de Leon (d. 1806). The Rev. Arthur ["Father"] O'Leary (d. 1802). Father Nicholas Pisani, of the Order of St. Anthony (d. 1803). Louis Charles, Comte D'Hervilly, Field-Marshal of France, MajorGeneral in the Russian, and Colonel in the British army, died of a wound received at Quiberon (1795). Lieut.-General Comte Montboissier (d. 1797). François Claude Amour, Marquis de Bouillé, Governor and Commander-in-Chief of the French islands in the West Indies (d. 1800). Louis Charles Bigot de St. Croix, "dernier Ministre de Louis," as the now illegible inscription on his monument recorded (d. 1803). Marie Louisa d'Esparbes de Lussan, Comtesse de Palastron, "Dame de Palais de la Reine de France" (d. 1804). Antonio Moriano Domenico Mortellari, the musical composer, "pensioner of Louis XVI., whom he served eighteen years." Henry Marquis de Lostange, "Grand Seneschal de Quercy, Mareschal des Camps et Armées de Roi de France" (d. 1807). Claude Joseph Gabriel, Viscomte de 2 Lysons, vol. ii. p. 619, note 40.

1 Note to Croker's Boswell, p. 840.

Vaulx, Field-Marshal of France and Governor of Valence in Dauphiny (d. 1809). Baroness de Montalembert (d. 1808). L. F. E. Camus, Seigneur de Pontcarré, "premier Président du Parlement de Normandie, Conseiller du Roi en tous ses conseils" (d. 1810).

Against the exterior of the church, at the south-west end of the nave, is a headstone to William Woollett the engraver (d. 1785) and his widow (d. 1819). In a part of the ground now taken by the Midland Railway Company was a pedestal-like altar-tomb to William Godwin, author of Political Justice and Caleb Williams (d. 1836), and his two wives; Mary Wolstonecraft Godwin, author of A Vindication of the Rights of Women, the mother of Mrs. Shelley (d. 1797); and Mary Jane (d. 1841), in whose name the "Juvenile Library" in Skinner Street was carried on. At this grave, in 1813, when it only contained the body of Mary Wolstonecraft, a remarkable scene took place :

Shelley's anguish, his isolation, his difference from other men, his gifts of genius, and eloquent enthusiasm, made a deep impression on Godwin's daughter Mary, now a girl of sixteen, who had been accustomed to hear Shelley spoken of as something rare and strange. To her, as they met one eventful day in St. Pancras churchyard, by her Mother's grave, Bysshe, in burning words, poured forth the tale of his wild past-how he had suffered, how he had been misled, and how, if supported by her love, he hoped in future years to enrol his name with the wise and good who had done battle for their fellow men, and been true through all adverse storms, to the cause of humanity. Unhesitatingly she placed her hand in his, and linked her fortunes with his own.-Lady Shelley's Memorials, p. 57.

The remains of Godwin and his first wife, Mary Wolstonecraft, were removed in 1851 and laid beside those of their daughter, Mrs. Shelley, in Bournemouth churchyard. It was in Old St. Pancras Church that Godwin and Mary Wolstonecraft were married, March 29, 1797, "Marshal and the clerk of the church being the witnesses. Godwin takes no notice whatever of it in his Diary."1

Among the stones was one to "Daniel Tullum, gent., page of the Backstairs to the Queen of the late King James the Second,” “and was abroad with them many years in all their troubles," and also with "the King's daughter Lewisa, who died in France." He died, October 14, 1730, in his seventy-seventh year. Others were those of Amy, wife of Cuthbert Constable and daughter of Hugh Lord Clifford (d. 1731); Sir James Tobin (d. 1735); Elizabeth, Countess of Castlehaven, and a few more. The plain headstone to John Walker, author of the Pronouncing Dictionary of the English Language and other works (d. 1807), has been replaced by a larger and more conspicuous one erected by the Baroness Burdett-Coutts. The St. Giles's portion of the ground is comparatively modern, having been consecrated in 1803. Here is the large and elaborate tomb of Sir John Soane, R.A., the architect of the Bank of England (d. June 30, 1837), his wife and son; another is that of Sir John Gurney, Baron of the Exchequer (d. March 1, 1845). The register of burials includes those of Abraham Woodhead (d. May 4, 1678), in his day the stoutest champion of Roman Catholicism.

1 Kegan Paul's William Godwin, vol. i. p. 234.

Wood gives a long account of him, and adds "that he was buried in the churchyard of St. Pancras, about 22 paces from the chancel, on the south side. Afterwards a raised altar-monument, built of brick, covered with a thick plank of blue marble, was put over his grave.' Obadiah Walker (d. 1699). He was buried near his friend, Abraham Woodhead, with this short inscription : :

>> 1



OB. JAN. 31, A.D. 1699, ÆT. 86.

The interment of these prominent Catholics might be thought to have induced or favoured the preference shown for St. Pancras churchyard by others of the creed, but it is pretty certain, despite of Strype, that the practice had been for some time in existence.

I told 'em of Pancras church where their scholars
(When they have killed one another in duel)
Have a churchyard to themselves for their dead.

Davenant, Playhouse to be Lett, 1663 [printed 1673]. John Ernest Grabe, D.D. (d. 1711), Orientalist and editor of a valuable edition of the Septuagint. There is a monument to his memory in Westminster Abbey.

Poor Dr. Grabe's receiving the absolution from Dr. Smalridge, the communion from Dr. Hicks, and being buried in St. Pancras church (where the Roman Catholics dying in or near this city have been commonly interred) occasions talk.—White Kennet, MSS., Life of Robert Nelson, p. 221.

Thomas Dungan, Earl of Limerick. (d. 1715). Hon. Esme Howard, son of Henry, Earl of Arundel (d. 1728). Edward Walpole of Dunston, Lincolnshire (d. 1740). Elizabeth, Countess of Castlehaven (d. 1743). Sir Thomas Mackworth, Bart. (d. 1744). Jeremy Collier (d. 1726), the writer against the immorality of the stage in the time of Dryden. Ned Ward (d. 1731), author of the London Spy. He kept a punch-house in Fulwood's Rents in Holborn. His hearse was attended by a single mourning coach, containing only his wife and daughter, as he had directed it should be in his poetical will, written six years before he died. Bevil Higgons (d. 1735); he wrote against Burnet's History. Lewis Theobald (d. 1744), the hero of the early editions of the Dunciad, and the editor of Shakespeare.2 Lady Henrietta Beard, daughter of an Earl of Waldegrave, widow of Lord Edward Herbert, and wife of Beard, the singer (d. 1753). Pope's Martha Blount (d. January 12, 1763, aged seventy-three) and Theresa Blount (d. October 7, 1759, aged seventy). Henry Racket (d. 1775) and Robert Racket (d. 1779), Pope's nephews, and mentioned in his will. S. F. Ravenet, the engraver (d. 1764). In this church (February 13, 17181719), Jonathan Wild was married to his third wife; in this churchyard he was buried in 1725.

After his execution his body was carried off in a coach and four to the sign of the Adam and Eve near Pancras Church, in order to be interred in the churchyard there, where one of his former wives was buried.-Defoe, vol. iii. p. 392.

1 Ath. Ox., ed. 1721, vol. ii. p. 618.

2 Nichols's Illustrations, vol. ii. p. 745.

A few nights afterwards the coffin was dug up and flung in the roadside near Kentish Town. James Leoni, the architect and editor of Palladio and Alberti (d. 1746). The Hon. Thomas Arundell, Count of the Holy Roman Empire and son of Henry, fifth Lord Arundell of Wardour (d. 1752). Peter Van Bleek, the portrait painter (d. 1764). Peter Pasqualino, a famous player on the violoncello, who first brought that instrument into fashion (d. 1766). Robert Paxton, the noted English player on that instrument (d. 1787). Thomas Mazzinghi, unrivalled in his day as a violinist (d. 1776). Maria Teresa, Duchess of Wharton (d. 1777), widow of the famous Philip, Duke of Wharton. Baron de Wenzel, the eminent oculist (d. 1790). Count Ferdinand Lucchese, Neapolitan Ambassador (d. 1790). The Duke of Sicigniano, Neapolitan Ambassador, who committed suicide at Gregnier's Hotel, May 31, 1793, shortly after his arrival in England. Count Filippo Nupumecceno Fontana, formerly Ambassador from the Court of Sardinia to that of Spain. Peter Henry Treyssac de Vergy, the opponent of the Chevalier D'Eon, died October 1, 1774, but not buried till March 3, 1775; and that anomalous personage himself, "Charles Genevieve Louis Auguste André Timothée D'Eon de Beaumont, died May 21, buried May 28, 1810, aged eighty-three years," for so the entry stands in the parish register. The French Revolution having deprived him of his pension, D'Eon's last years were spent in extreme penury.

General Pasquale de Paoli, "died February 5, 1807, aged eightytwo years, buried 13th." His remains were exhumed on August 31, 1889, and conveyed to Corsica. Edward Edwards (d. 1806), Professor of Perspective in the Royal Academy, and author of the dull but useful Anecdotes of Painters, which he wrote as a continuation of Horace Walpole's lively work with a nearly similar title. Henry F. J. De Cort, the landscape painter (d. 1810). Thomas Scheemakers, sculptor, the junior of that name (d. 1808). Mrs. Isabella Mills, as Miss Burchell, a famous vocalist (d. 1802). John Hayman Packer (d. 1806), an actor of celebrity in genteel comedy. Peter Woulfe, an eminent chemist (d. 1803). Tiberius Cavallo, F.R.S., a distinguished writer on physics (d. 1809). James Peller Malcolm, F.S.A., author of Londinium Redivivum (d. 1815).

It is greatly to be regretted that when the churchyard was converted into a garden, means were not taken to indicate the graves of the more remarkable of the persons interred here, and to renew, while renewal was possible, the inscriptions on the tombs and headstones. A memorial was erected by the Baroness BurdettCoutts in the St. Giles's portion of the ground, on which a list of such names is inscribed-but too high and in too small characters to be read by ordinary eyes. It forms, however, a pleasing object in the garden. St. Pancras has long ceased to be "in the Fields." "Brother Kemp," says Nash in Queen Elizabeth's time to Kemp the actor, "as many alhailes to thy person as there be haicocks in Iuly at Pan

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