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APOTHECARIES' MEASURES

Used only in compounding medicines.

Weight

20 grains (gr.)
3 scruples

8 drams

12 ounces

= 1 scruple (sc. or 9)

= 1 dram (dr. or 3)

=

= 1 ounce (oz. or 3)

1 pound (lb.).

=

=

Liquid

=

60 minims (m.) = 1 fluid dram (m. lx. or f. 3)
1 fluid ounce (fl. drm. viij. or f. 3)
= 1 fluid pint (fl. oz. xvj. or 0.)
= 1 gallon (Cong.)

8 fluid drams
16 fluid ounces
8 pints

The apothecaries' ounce contains 480 grains.
The apothecaries' pound contains 5760 grains.

SURVEYORS' MEASURES

Length

7.92 inches = 1 link (1.)

= 1 rod (rd.)

25 links
4 rods

= 1 chain (ch.)
80 chains 1 mile (mi.)

=

1 mi. 80 ch. 320 rd. = 8000 1.

= 63,360 in.

Surveyors generally use a steel tape 50 ft. or 100 ft. long, subdivided into feet and tenths of a 1 sq. mi. foot.

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Surface

16 square rods

= 1 square chain (sq. ch.) 10 square chains = 1 acre (A.) 640 acres = 1 square mile (sq. mi.)

= 1 section (sec.) = 1 township

=

=

1 square mile 36 sections

(T.)

=

= 640 A. 6400 sq. ch.

=

=

= 102,400 sq. rd.

[1 degree of latitude;

1 degree of longitude at

the equator

THE METRIC SYSTEM OF MEASURES

The Metric System of measures is used by many nations. In the United States its use is permissive, but not compulsory.

the meter. (The meter

The primary unit of the metric system equals 39.37 in., nearly.)

The decimal parts of each standard unit are indicated by Latin prefixes, thus: milli, meaning .001; centi, meaning .01; deci, meaning.1. The multiples of each standard unit are indicated by Greek prefixes, thus: deka, meaning 10; hekto, meaning 100; kilo, meaning 1000.

In writing abbreviations of the units in each measure, fractional parts of the standard unit are indicated by small letters; multiples by capital letters.

In the following tables the units most commonly used are indicated by blackfaced type.

LINEAR MEASURE

The standard unit of linear measure is the meter.

10 millimeters (mm.) = 1 centimeter (cm.)

10 centimeters

1 decimeter (dm.)

10 decimeters

10 meters
10 dekameters

10 hektometers

10 kilometers
1 centimeter

= 1 meter (m.)

= 1 dekameter (Dm.)

1 hektometer (Hm.)

=

=

- 1 kilometer (Km.)

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SQUARE MEASURE

The units of square measure are obtained by squaring the units of linear measure. The standard unit is the square meter.

100 square millimeters (sq. mm.) = 1 square centimeter (sq. cm.)

= 1 square decimeter (sq. dm.)

100 square centimeters 100 square decimeters

=

- 1 square meter (sq. m.)

426

100 square meters
100 square dekameters

100 square hektometers
square kilometer

1

In measuring land,

1 square meter

1

square

dekameter

1 square hektometer = 1 hektare (Ha.)

In measuring wood,

= 1 square dekameter (sq. Dm.)
= 1 square hektometer (sq. Hm.)
= 1 square kilometer (sq. Km.)
= 1,000,000 square meters

= 1 centare (ca.)

= 1 are (a.)

CUBIC MEASURE

The units of cubic measure are obtained by cubing the units of linear measure. The standard unit is the cubic meter.

1000 cubic millimeters (cu. mm.) = 1 cubic centimeter (cu. cm.)
1000 cubic centimeters
1000 cubic decimeters

= 1 cubic decimeter (cu. dm.)
= 1 cubic meter (cu. m.)

1 cubic meter = 1 stere (st.)

=

CAPACITY MEASURE

The standard unit of capacity measure is the liter, which is equal in volume to a cubic decimeter.

10 milliliters (ml.) = 1 centiliter (cl.)

10 centiliters

1 deciliter (dl.)

10 deciliters

10 liters
10 dekaliters

10 hektoliters
1 centiliter

=

= 1 liter (1.)

= 1 dekaliter (Dl.)

1 hektoliter (Hl.)

1 kiloliter (Kl.)

.01 of a liter; 1 hektoliter = 100 liters.

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WEIGHT MEASURE

The standard unit of weight is the gram; this is the weight of a cubic centimeter of distilled water at its maximum density. Our 5-cent piece weighs 5 grams.

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10 dekagrams
10 hektograms

10 kilograms

10 myriagrams
10 quintals

=

1 centigram (K.), = 1000 grams.

The following shows the interrelation of the different measures: = 1 cubic centimeter in volume =

1 milliliter of water

1 gram in

.01 of a gram; 1 kilogram, commonly called a kilo

= 1 hektogram (Hg.)

=

1 kilogram (Kg.)
= 1 myriagram (Mg.)

= 1 quintal (Q.)

= 1 tonneau (T.)

weight.

1 liter of water = 1 cubic decimeter in volume = 1 kilogram in weight.

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Approximate equivalents in United States measures:

1 meter

= 1% yd.
mi.

1 kilometer

1 liter

1 liter

1 qt. (dry)

= 1 qt. (liquid)

=

1 hectare

1 stere

1 gram

=

oz. (avoir.) 1 kilogram = 2} lb. (avoir.)

= 21 A.

=

= cd.

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