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Is used in-ascertaining the contents of surfaces, when both the length and breadth are measured. In Ireland, plantation or Irish Measure is most generally used, but in some places, especially in the neighbourhood of large cities or towns, where land is of greater value than where not contigious thereto, Statute or English measure is common; I have, therefore, given the divisions of both, in this, and in the preceding article. An Irish plantation perch contains 49, and an English statute perch but 30+ square yards, each of which, being multiplied by 4, to take away the fraction, gives 196 for the former, and 121 for the latter, which is, therefore the proportion of Irish to English perches or acres, 121 Irish being equal to 196 English. ** ; : A square inch foot, perch, &c. is one inch, foot, perch, &c. long, and the same broad. --- - - -

12×12=144 Square Inches.....make... One Square Foot. 3x 3= 9 Square Inches........... One Square Yard.

5%. X5}=304 Square Yards..... ....... One Perch English 7X7 = 49 Square Yards ............ One Perch Irish. 40 Square Perches..... ..... One Rood. 4 Roods. .............. ... One Acre. § W. 7.8%. Inches............... One Link English. *s 10, #w Inches............... One Link Irish. s 25×25-625 Square Links...... ... One Square Perch,

100000 Square-Links........ One Acre.

The dimensions of Land are commonly taken by a chain, containing 4 perches or 100 links, as before mentioned, or more commonly by one, containing only 2 perches, or 50 links.

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, SOLID MEASURE,

Not only the measure of every thing that has length, breadth and depth, but all measures of capacity are included in this article, whether liquid or dry, whether of one bulk or .collective bulks.

A solid foot is 12 inches long, 12 inches broad, and 12 inches deep, therefore contains 1728 solid inches. The denominations most in use are as follows :

27 Solid feet. . . . . . make ..... One solid yard. 40 Solid feet................ One ton square timber. 50. Solid feet................ One ton round timber. 50 Solid feet.................One load of square timber. 42 Solid feet...... . . . . . . . . ...Qneton of shipping 343 Solid yards............... One solid perch.

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LIQUID MEASURE.

4 N ins: a - ....... make....... One Pint....... P. 2 i.o.o. - - - - - - - - . . . . One Quart.....Qt. .2 Quarts... ::::::.................. One Pottle.....Pot. 2 Pottles or 8 Pints.................. One Gallon... Gai, 42 Gallons......................... One Tierce.....T. § 9-lons......................... One Hogshead. His *Sollons......................... One Puncheon.

2 *:::::::::..................... One Pipe or Butt. 2 Pipes or 4 Hhds... • * * * * * * * * * * * * * *.*.*. One Tun.

The gallon appointed to be used for measuring all kinds of liquids, or such dry goods as are sold by measure in Ireland, oxcept as relates to the duty on spirits, is 217,4 cubic or solid inches, and 40 gallons are a barrel of ale, though the vessel usually holds 42. - - - - - - -

In England, the wine gallon is 231, and the ale and beer gallon 282 cubic or solid inches. - Hnd gat pte Gal

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DRY MEASURE

In England, is used to measure Corn, and other dry goods; but as they are generally sold by weight in Ireland, the measure is but little used. The denominations are as follow :

2,Pints.......... make ........ . . . . One Quart.
2 Quarts..... * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * . . . . . . . One Pottle.
2 Pottles............................ One Gallon.
2 Gallons................. . . . . . . . . . . One Peck.
4 !”: ............................... One Bushel.
4 Bushels........ . . . . . . . . . . . . ....... One Barrel.
2 Barrels......... * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * . . . One Quarter.
5 Quarters.......... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . One Wey.
? Weys............................ One Last.

--N, B.-The *rter-wey and last are wholly in disuse in Ireland.

The Winchester bushel is a round measure, 18% inches in diameter, and 8 inches deep, and contains 2150} cubic or solid inches.

The chaldron of coals at London, contains 36 heaped Winchester bushels, and weighs on an average about 28%. Cwt. according to the quality of the coals.

A Newcastle chaldron weighs 53 cwt. 8 chaldrons or 21 ton; 4 cwt. make a keel.

Dry measure being, as before observed, of little use, examples of addition are not necessary.

TIME.

A thread or bar 394 inches long, with a small weight at one end, and freely suspended at the other, being set in motion, each vibration or swing in this latitude, is the measure of a second, hence the following division.

60 Seconds (sec.)...... make ......... One Minute....... M.

60 Minutes . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - One Hour............H. 24 Hours. . . . . . - - - - - - - - . . . . . . . . . . One Day...........D. 7 Days . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . One Week..........W.

go ... . . . . . . . . . . One common Year. Fr.

365+ days, or 8766 hours make one Julian year; 365 days, 5 hours, 48 minutes, 48 seconds, one Solar year. This oecasions every fourth year to have 366 days, which is called leap year, but as this is rather too much, every hundredth year is counted a common year, except such complete cemturies as are exactly divisible by 4, as 2000, 2400, &c.

The year is also divided into 12 unequal calendar months, the names of which are:—first, January ; second, February : third, March; fourth, April; fifth, May : sixth, June; seventh, July ; eighth, August ; ninth, September ; tenth, October ; eleventh, November, and twelfth, December. Of these, April, June, September, and November have 30 days each, and the rest, except February, have 31 days each. In leap years, February has 29 days, and in common years 28 days. The

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