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The chief difficulty is the Baidlee nullah, which must be bridged as soon as possible, but I fear it cannot be done till the country is more healthy, as the site of the bridge is about the very worst place in Canara for fever. For this river an iron girder bridge of 60 feet waterway is required. I have only just received the section, and will submit my proposal as soon as possible.

37. Road from Beitkul to the Arbyle Road, near Ankola.—This line was cleared to 12 feet in width last season from Ankola, as far as Ahmedhully; the Hyderghur Ghaut was cleared of rock and widened, and a passable road completed to Konay by the 14th April last. This was only a temporary line, the correct line running from Ahmedhully along the coast to Urghy, Binghy, and Beitkul. During the monsoon the proper road has been steadily proceeded with. One party has been employed forming and mooruming the road at the Ankola end to a width of 18 feet; they have advanced as far as the first range of hills, about 41 miles. Another party worked from Beitkul, and have made a road 28 feet wide up to the Saddle H, and 24 feet mean width down the hill side to the low rice ground in Binghy Bay.

38. Since the crops have been gathered labour has come in pretty plentifully on this line. There are a good many villages on the coast, fish can be obtained, and there is no fever. In addition to two companies of sappers and miners employed in blasting rock, we have 2,607 coolies on this line. By the 1st March there will be a good road 18 feet minimum width from Ankola to Ahmedhully, 10 miles, and from Beitkul to Urgy, 3 miles. Between Urgy and Ahmedhully is a flat of six miles over rice fields ; this will be raised, and the portions near the hills will be moorumed by coolie labour. The chief difficulty is in procuring carts to moorum the distant portions. I have applied to the collectors and engineers of Dharwar and Belgaum for assistance. The collector of Belgaum has answered to the effect that Canara has so bad a reputation for fever and want of food that he fears he cannot send me a single cart.

39. Feeling sure I should meet with this difficulty, I have during the monsoon prepared a considerable number of wheelbarrows and hand carts. Mooruming the road in this way must necessarily take time, and will be very expensive; but I think I am right in my belief that the Government will readily sanction expensive work when they understand that it is necessary, and that if cheap work alone is to be done it will not be done at all.

40. Over the Bellikerry creek a timber pile bridge of 210 feet waterway in seven bays of 30 feet each, will be erected. This will not be ready by the 1st March, but as at low tide there is very little water in the creek, sometimes it is only vine inches deep, cotton carts can easily cross. In this there is no hardship, as bullocks and men must rest somewhere, and the village of Aorsa at the bridge site is the natural halting place. The carts can be halted on either side according to the state of the tide, being taken across the creek when it is low water.

41. Should the mooruming be incomplete, an alternative line over the Hyderghur Ghaut to Konay and Beitkul is available. The cotton merchants have only to go themselves or send their agents over each line, and choose the one they like best; it is only a 20-mile ride from Beitkul viá Binghy to Ahmedhully, and back via the Hyderghur; a ride any one of them may make in one morning before breakfast.

42. Last season Dr. Forbes, Mr. Haywood, and others seemed to doubt my statements that carts could be brought to Konay with ease, and declared I only got them over the line by the assistance of coolies. I immediately placed myself at their disposal, and offered to go up the Kyga and down the Arbyle with all or any of them. No one felt disposed even to take a ride a few miles out and back. I have again suggested to the agent of the Manchester Cotton Company the advisability of their engineer, Mr. Fleming, accompanying me as far as Ankola at least; it was arranged that he should do so, but the trip was put off by him. I would respectfully request that it should be intimated to the agents of the Company, and of Messrs. Nicol & Co., that they should personally inspect my roads before they make official complaints condemning them.

43. I have now answered, as fully as I can, para. 3 of the Despatch. Before concluding, however, I will take his opportunity of laying clearly before Government the results of my experience in North Canara, and my views of future requirements. 44. In Canara we have to contend with four most serious disadvantages :

1. Want of labour.
2. Want of food,
3. Deadly fever about the ghauts.

4. Cholera on the coast during the monsoon.
The first two wants result from the last two disadvantages.

45. The district is in a most pitiable state. From all accounts it was healthy enough a few years ago, when the Devamany and Arbyle roads were made. But fever becomes worse and worse every year. There is hardly a soul in Canara, man, woinan, or child, who is not constantly ill for days together with fever of a bad kind. If any escape, it is only those whose occupations never take them from the coast, and who can avoid exposure to the sun and rain. The impossibility of procuring proper food predisposes every one to fever.


46. As before stated, fever has rendered impossible the vigorous prosecution of the Kyga road and Arbyle road repairs. In August last I sent an assistant to Coondapoor, provided him with ample funds for advances, and directed him to engage and send to me for the Ankola and Beitkul road the 2,500 men who used formerly to come every year for work in North Canara and Dharwar. He succeeded in engaging about 800 by the middle of September, and despatched about 400 in gangs of 50 or 100 each. There had been a good deal of cholera all along the coast during the monsoon, but by that time it was disappearing. However, immediately on arrival of the first gang of 59 men, one was attacked and died; two or three others died a few hours afterwards; the rest ran away, stopped the others on the road, and all Mr. Powell's exertions and advances have gone for nothing.

47. From the above only one conclusion can be arrived at. If work is to be done in North Canara, labour must be supplied by Government; shelter must first be provided for officers and men, and a commissariat must be established. For work on the coast; permanent labour on high wages must be engaged from Cochin and Malabar; for works inland, every convict in the Presidency should be sent to Canara. Good and experienced medical aid, with an ample supply of medicine, especially quinine, is required. In fact, Government must do as private firms do, viz., first procure the labour and superintendence, and make them comfortable; then commence work.

48. Beitkul is head quarters ; next monsoon there will be a large number of Europeans here belonging to this departinent alone; it will be absolutely necessary that Government should sanction a partial suspension of work in April, to enable us to build huts for ourselves, prisoners, and guards, before the monsoon. And as even grass cadyans and such like materials are procurable only in small quantities and with great difficulty, any assistance that Government can give us in supplying wooden houses or iron barracks from Bombay, would be very acceptable.

49. We might get contractors froin Bombay, perhaps, to build stone, brick, or mud houses, but they cannot procure either labour or materials as long as there is such a demand for the immediate construction of so many miles of road, wharves, lighthouses, &c. &c., and we have only 735 labourers, includiny 110 convicts and 14 sappers, for all Beitkul works.

50. The Manchester Cotton Company have obtained about 300 coolies from Cochin, give them houses and 6 rupees per mensem.

We must send an officer and one or two subordinates to Cochin and Malabar, and obtain at least 3,000, and it possible, 5,000 men from thence; we must pay them probably seven rupees per mensem, provide them with food and medicine, give them advances, and build lines for them; but above all, we want every convict and every sapper who is available; then and then only will the works progress as fast as every one wishes. There is at present no road at all hetween Beitkul and Mullapoor; for this, for the completion of the Ankola line, for the Beitkul wharves and roads, for town roads, and for the river groin, we require as many coolies as we can colleci. For works in the water we require a small steamer, half a dozen cargo boats, two ships' cutters, a dredge and barges. Were the latter here, the filling in behind the wharf wall would proceed with rapidity and cheapness, and deeper water would be obtained in the cove at the pier site.

51. The superintendent and assistant magistrate ought to be here to make sanitary arrangements. I am held strictly responsible for this by the superintending engineer, but I can do nothing; I may give as many orders as I please, but I cannot enforce them or punish those who offend against them. Now already the necessity for some arrangement is most disagreeably apparent.

52. Postal arrangements are very bad. It is useless for the auditor to inform me regularly every month that I am reported for the non-submission of some return; a telegram from Captain Ker from Poona was six days on its road from Dharwar to Beitkul; Mr. Chief Secretary Robertson's telegram of 26th instant reached me on the 30th, 24 hours after the Honourable Mr. Inverarity had left Sedashegar. It takes 11 or 12 days in the monsoon for letters from Bombay to reach Beitkul; the superintending engineer's letters take 8 or 9 days to reach me from Belgaum, and my own letters to my subordinates in Soopa and other distant places are 19 days in transit.

53. The mail cart from Dharwar can easily, during the fair season, come as far as Mullapoor; it can all the year round go to Coompta, or at any jate, to Munky Ferry, three miles from Coompta, and there is no reason why the post office should still be kept at Sedashegar, on the opposite side of the river.

54 The extension of the telegraph from Dharwar is also a work requiring early attention to enable the residents here to communicate speedily with Bombay. The benefit the cotton trade would receive from the telegraph is apparent.

55. If the above arrangements are made, good roads can be completed next season down the Kyga and Arbyle Ghauts, and ample accommodation provided at Beitkul for present traffic; if not, it will take years to complete the approaches to Sedashegar.

56. I have

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56. I have not alluded to the road from Sircy viâ Devenhully and the Abcheway Ghaut, to join the Ankola line to Beitkul, or to the road from Dharwar viâ Hullial and the Unshý Ghaut to Boree Bunder, opposite Mullapoor. Neither of these lines can be touched till the more important ones down the Kyga and Arbyle Ghauts are completed.

(signed) W. A. Baker, Captain,

Executive Engineer, North Canara.

List of Tools, &c. lent to the Manchester Cotton Company (Limited) not yet returned. 1 Tramway waygon complete.

1 Chain , inch 18 feet long. 248 Feet bridge rails for ditto.

1 Ditto

20 1 Anvil, 4 cwt.

2 Steel jumpers. 1 Mooring screw.

1. Block (brass) and sheave, single 6 inches. 2 Chains 1 inch 200 feet long.

1 Ditto ditto double 6 inches. 1 Ditto 150

1 Hand hammer. 1 Ditto


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a. p.

List of Articles, &c. belonging to Government expended by the Manchester Cotton

Company and not yet paid for. Wear of 20 pickaxes issued new, and now 150 Canara baskets. nearly gone

100 Coir hawser 12 inches. 10 Iron crowbars repairs at 4 annas each. 12 Carpenters

at 8 each. 3 Steel jumpers, wear of, at ditto.

7 Coolies assisting ditto at 2 8 1 Priming needle, issued new and returned 1} Blacksmiths

at 7 5 broken.

4. Hammer-men

at 2 8 1 English axe new (native axe returned). 2 Blacksmiths

at 9 3 lbs. round bolt iron.

2 Hammer-men

at 2 8 17 2 inch flat iron bar.

1 Blacksmiths

at 14 22 Screw bolts weighing 67 lbs.

3 Hammer-men

at 3 2 Coils Europe rope hemp, new, 4 inches. 21 Carpenters

at 9 2 1 Ditto ditto

2 Coolies

at 3
Ditto ditto

5 Candies charcoal at 6 3 a candy. 1 Ditto


1 Log Jungle wood No.53144 candies at 8 275 Feet ditto ditto

1 Do ditto

76 / rupees per candy. 2 Hand saw files.

Sawing ditto i kody, 10 guz, 10 angulas. 242 Nails weighing 121 lbs.

Repair of boat; 1 carpenter for 3 days at 10 lbs. powder blasting.

8 annas a day. 2) Maund coir rope.

i Cubic foot teak wood for ditto at 1} rupees. 50 Bombay baskets.

List of Articles lent to the Manchester Cotton Company and returned by triem. 1 Crane, 2 tons, chain, spare stay, complete. 1 Five foot rod, 1 Double purchase crab complete, extra

1 Steel jumper. pieces of iron and 4 foot bolts.

9 Billhooks. 20 Pickaxes, old.

7 Double blocks. 20 Mamoties, good.

7 Single ditto. 10 Crowbars, repairable.

1 Four sheaved ditto. 1 Brass lamping bar.

2 Iron blocks. 1 Broken copper priming needle.

1 Chain 1 inch 200 feet long. i Vent wire.

1 Ditto

60 1 Iron jamping bar.

1 Ditto

22 11 Axes.

1 Ditto i 32 1 Native axe (returned for an English one).

1 Ditto

16 2 Iron wedges.

1 Ditto

15 1 Mason's level.

W. A. Baker, Captain, Sedashegar, 1 January 1863.

Executive Engineer, North Canara.

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From Dr. G. F. Forbes, Superintendent of Sedashegar, North Canara, to Captain

E. Holland, Under Secretary to Government, Bombay. Sir, I have the honour to acknowledge receipt of the Government Despatch, No. 19, dated India Office, London, 13th November 1862, and bearing your endorsement, No. 6437, of the 19th instant, for my immediate report. In reply, I beg to state, first, with regard to the company's complaint that "they have suffered considerable pecuniary loss by reason of works not being completed by the time that they had been led to expect that they would be available for conveying cotton to the site of their presses,” &c.

2. Before cotton can be pressed, the presses musi be set up. This is the work of the company, and though they have now been there upwards of eight months, as I can testify from having visited the spot yesterday, even the foundations of the building which are to hold the presses have not yet been commenced upon, although they have obtained their land, and have their materials on the spot. If all the cotton of Dharwar was now at their doors, they could neither press, nor export

, a single bale of it, and all the Public Works required for conveyance of cotton from the interior to the port are likely to be ready long before the company can be prepared to receive any; to say, therefore, that they have suffered pecuniary loss from the cause mentioned is entirely out of the question.

3. They state that “having sent out presses to Sedashegar at great expense, they could not for some time land them for want of a pier.” Their first vessel

, the “ Seringapatam,” arrived at Sedashegar on the 6th of May last; at daylight next morning, as the records of the company will show, boats were sent alongside, and from that time forward, until the whole of the cargo was landed, the unloading of it went on as quickly as the crew could deliver it over the side; to say, therefore, that they could not for some time land their presses for want of a pier is simply untrue.

4. The company's engineer and manager, Mr. Fleming, having expressed himself unable to make the necessary preparations for landing the ship’s cargo, I was asked, as a special favour towards the company, to undertake that duty, and before the arrival of their vessel I had prepared a convenient landing place, which was provided (from the Government stores) with a tramway, cranes, and shears, and also with sheds for the protection of the stores. It is true that this work was done at the company's expense, but the cost was something very trifling.

5. Besides the above work, which I calculate may have cost about 60 l. or 70 1. at the outside, the company have, since the monsoon, constructed a small jetty contiguous to their own ground at a spot where Government never contemplated building a pier, which is entirely useless to any one but themselves, and which they would have built for their own convenience, whether the Government pier had been ready or not. The cost of this erection cannot have exceeded 100 l,

6. From the date above-mentioned, at which the first company's vessel arrived at Sedashegar, it will be seen that the season was very far advanced, but up to that time the company had made no preparation whatsoever towards providing shelter for their stores and machinery upon their own land (obtained a year ago), though their agent had been out for several months, and might with the greatest ease have done so. Accordingly when I undertook the duty I had no such preparation to fall back upon, and with the prospect of the immediate approach of the rains it became expedient that I should avail myself of the spot most conveniently situated, towards enabling me to carry out the unloading of the vessel. Had the company's store sheds upon their own land been ready before the ship arrived, I should have been saved a great deal of trouble, and the whole of the ship's cargo could have been placed in them, instead of the spot which I was obliged to select.

I have, &c.

(signed) G. F. Forbes, Camp Belikery, 29 December 1862.

Superintendent of Sedashegar.

EXTRACT from the Proceedings of Government in the Public Works Department, No. 17,

dated 8 January 1863. Read the following letter, No. 3418, dated 220 December 1862, from the Superintending

Engineer, Southern Circle. I have the honour to report that I have inspected the road in progress from Beitkool to near Ankola, and also from the latter point to Iddagoonjee, the top of the Arbyle Ghaut.

2. The road between Beitkool and the point near Ankola is a new line; from near Ankola to Iddagoonjee the work now to be done consists of the completion of a partially finished road commenced some years since.

3. I will speak of these portions separately.

5. You are aware that cart communication was made practicable last season by a road, on a narrow trace, from the point near Ankola to Beitkool; this road passes over the Hyderghur Gbaut. The passage over the Hyderghur Ghaut (a saddle of some 700 feet of elevation) was, however, considered only a temporary arrangement. The ghaut had several years since been nearly opened out to 12 feet, and as it could be completed to that width quicker than a new road on a better line could be constructed, it was adopted for last year's use only.

6. The road now in progress does not force the traffic over such high levels, and is shorter. It was selected by Colonel Turner during his visit to North Canara last year, and ordered to be adopted as the permanent line. In distinction, it is called the Bhinghy Bay line, and, as it will be observed, it joins the Hyderghur Ghaut road at Amadully, south of which point the line is common to both.

7. I shall

7. I shall now speak only of the Bhinghy Bay line.

8. Leaving Beitkool, the road, starting from the head of the cove, crosses a saddle of inconsiderable elevation, over which it is out to full width and nearly completed.

9. Bhinghy Bay has then to be crossed by an embankment through rice fields. This embankment is in progress, and on it about 350 coolies were employed at the date of my visit; more labour is, however, wanted, and I trust will soon be forthcominy.

10. South of Bhinghy Bay a second range of hills of no great height is crossed, and this part on which occurs the greatest quantity of rock on the whole line is now in vigorous progress. The 3d company of sapiers and miners and 1,200 coolies are at work at it, and this force will soon clear it out.

11. Passing this saddle the low land is attained, and the road is thenceforward as far as Amudully nearly on' a dead level, and through rice fields. Over this part a 12 feet slightly embanked road already exists; a portion of the old coast line executed many years since, by, I believe, the Revenue Department. This line, which is as nearly direct and level as possible, will be generally adhered to; thus saving labour, and, what is of more consequence, diminishing the amount of valuable land to be taken up.

12. On this part there are numerous small irrigation channels required, but very little natural drainage has to be provided for. Over the most considerable stream a brick bridge already exists, which, though narrow and awkwardly placed, will serve till a better crossing can be provided for.

13. The line bere has been staked out, but work on it has not yet been commenced for want of sufficient labour; but arrangements will, I trust, shortly be made for pushing it forward, and for procuring the requisite number of carts to bring the surface material from the neighbouring hills. It is here, however, that the greatest difficulty in respect to opening the whole line may be expected. With fresh drafts of prisoners, however, and increased exertion to get more coolies, as well as by sending those now employed to this part on the completion of the work on which they are at present engaged, I hope and think the executive engineer will be able to complete this section sufficiently early to be of use for this season's traffic.

14. Should he from any cause be prevented from doing so, it is a fortunate circumstance that the unfinished part will lie north of the Hyderghur Ghaut Junction, and that this branch can, therefore, be made available for communicating with Beitkool.

15. South of Amadully to the Bellikery river, the 2d company of sappers and miners, and about 1,000 coolies are now employed, and will, I trust, finish the work, which is mostly over hilly ground and in siding section, in a month, and they can then be transferred to the northern part of the line.

16. The Bellikerry river is the only stream of any importance which intersects the road. It is 240 feet wide, has a hard bott m (shingle), and is perfectly fordable at half tide at ordinary springs; it has 31 feet of water in it, and at low tide only about 9 inches.

17. On my visit to this ford, I took borings of the bed to enable me to determine the description of bridge most applicable to the case, and I have ordered the erection of a timber bridge on piles. This, I hope, will be ready in three months from hence; at least I can see no reason why it should not. In the meantime, and until the river fills in the monsoon, there is no impediment whatever for laden carts at the crossing.

18. From the Bellikerry ford to the junction with the Ankola line the road has been completed with drains, except at one inconsiderable nullah, and with moorum surface; this part nas been very well done.

19. The total length of the line is about 18 miles, of which about six miles are over hilly ground, and 12 miles over level land, mostly rice fields. Twelve miles have been completed or are in progress, and six miles have yet to be taken in hand. On the whole distance, two companies of sappers and about 2,200 coolies were working when I passed along, and I hope there will shortly in addition to this be 700 convicts, numerous carts, and a considerable reinforcement of coolies, With this force the whole ought to be finished at least as soon as the Manchester Cotton Company, or Messrs. Nicol & Co., are prepared to receive cotton at Beitkool.

20. The road from Ankola to the top of the Arbyle Ghaut was constructed some years since, and is a very good fair-weather road as far as the village of Houmbulibyle, or for a distance of 15 miles from the junction of the new road to Beitkool. Up to this village there is no made surface and few drainage works; the line is merely cleared.

21. On this part one considerable river and several formidable mullahs are met with, over which I have directed the executive engineer to lose no time in throwing timber bridges. At the smaller streams a good deal of material has been collected, which I have ordered to be used up into drains and small bridges. I have also instructed Captain Baker to get a surface on some of the worst parts as soon as he can.

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