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on every consideration, and from the best information he could obtain, were in lis judgment most. likely to answer the great end.

Under these impressions he placed Col. Hamilton at the head of the Treasury Department.. .

At the head of the Department of Foreign Affairs, he placed Mr. Jefferson. is

General Knox was continued in the Department of War, which he had filled under the old Congress.

The office of Attorney General was assigned to Mr. Edmund Randolph.

These composed the cabinet council of the first president. .

The judicial department was filled as fol. lows;

John Jay, of New York, Chief Justice.
John Rutledge, of South Carolina,
James Wilson, of Pennsylvania,. .
William Cushing, of Massachusetts, .
Robert Harrison, of Maryland, and
John Blair, of Virginia, Associate Judges..

The officers who had been appointed by the in-
dividual states to manage the revenue, which, uni-
der the old system, was paid into the state treasu-
ry, were reappointed to corresponding offices un-
der the new constitution, by which the revenue
had been transferred from the local to the general
treasury of the union."
. It was among the first cares of Washington to
make peace with the Indians: Gen. Lincoln, Mr.
Griffin, and Col. Humphrevs, very soon after the
inauguration of the president, were deputed by
him to treat with the Creek Indians. These met

GEORGE

GEORGE WASHINGTON.

251

ASHINGTON.

:' with M'Gillvray, and other chiefs of the nation,

with about two thousand men, at the Rock Land. ing, on the frontiers of Georgia. The negotiations were soon broken off by M'Gillvray, whose personal interests and connexion with Spain were sup. posed to have been the real cause of their abrupt and unsuccessful termination. The next year brought round an accomplishment of the presi. dent's wishes, which had failed in the first attempt. Policy and interest concurred in recommending every prudent measure for detaching the Creek Indians from all connexion with the Spaniards, and cementing their friendship with the United States. Negotiations carried on with them in the vicinity of the Spanish settlements, promised less than negotiations conducted at the seat of government. To induce a disposition favourable to this change of place; the president sent Col., Willet, a gallant and intelligent officer of the late army, into the Creek country, apparently on private bu. siness, but with a letter of introduction to M‘Gillvray, and with instructions to take occasional op. portunities to point out the distresses which a war with the United States would bring on the Creek nation, and the indiscretion of their breaking off the negotiation at the Rock Landing; and to ex

hort him to repair with the chiefs of his nation to " New York, in order to effect a solid and lasting

peace. Willet performed these duties with so much dexterity, that M'Gillvray, with the chiefs of his nation, were induced to come to New York, where fresh negotiations, commenced, which, on the 7th, of August, 1790, terminated in the establishment of peace.

THE LIFE OF

232

THE LIFE OF
The pacific overtures made by Washington
to the Indians of the Wabash and the Miamis,
failed of success. Long experience had taught
the president, that on the failure of negotiations
with Indians, policy, economy, and even human.
ity, required the employment of a sufficient force
to carry offensive war into their country, and lay
waste their settlements. The accomplishment of
this wás, no easy matter. The Indian nations
were numerous, accustomed to war, and not with.
out discipline. They were said to be furnish. .
ed with arms and ammunition froin the British
posts held within the United States, in violation
of the treaty of peace. Generals Harmar and Sin..
clair were , successively defeated by the Indians ;
and four or five years elapsed before they were
subdued. This was accomplished by Gen.
Wayne, in 1794. Soon after that event, a peace
was concluded, under his auspices, between these
Indians and the United States. In the progress
of this last Indian war, repeated overtures of peace
were made to the North Western Indians, but
rejected. About the same period a new system
was commenced for turning them off from hunt-
ing to the employments of civilized life, by fur-
nishing them with implements and instructions for
agriculture and manufacturés.

In this manner, during the Presidency of George
Washington, peace was restored to the frontier
settlements both in the north and southwest,
which has continued ever since, and it is likely to
do so, while, at the same time, the prospect of me.
liorating the condition of the savages is daily
brightening; for the system first began by Wash-

ington with the view of civilizing these fierce sons of nature, have been ever since steadily. pursued by all his successors. Indian wars are now only known from the records or recollection of past events; and it is probable that the day is not far distant when the United States will receive a considerable accession of citizens from the civilized red men of the forest.

CHAPTER XII.

Gen. Washington attends to the foreign relations of the United States.

Negotiates with Spain..... Difficulties in the way..... The free naviga. tion of the Missisippi is granted by a treaty made with Major Pinckney..... Negotiations with Britain..... Difficulties in the way..... War probable..... Mr. Jay's mission.....His treaty with Great Britain ....Ops position thereto....Is ratified..... Washington refuses papers to House of Representatives.... British posts in United States evacuated.... Nego. tiations with France....Gepet's arrival..... Assumes illegal powers, in violation of the neutrality of the United States.....Is frattered by the people, but opposed by the executive..... Is recalled..... Gen. Pinckney sent as public minister to adjust disputes with France..... Is not receive ed..... Washington declines a re-electior, and addresses the people. His last address to the national legislature..... Recommends a navy, a military academy, and other public institutions.

Events which had taken place before the inaugu. tation of Washington, embarrassed his negotiations for the adjustment of the political relations between the United States and Spain.

In the year 1779, Mr. Jay had been appointed by the old Congress to make a treaty with his Catholic Majesty ; but his best endeavours for

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