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stance, may be the instrument of good, it is the customary weapon by which free governments are destroyed. The precedent must always greatly overbalance in permanent evil, any partial or transient benefit which the use can at any time yield.

“Of all the dispositions and habits which lead to political prosperity, religion and morality are indispensable supports. In vain would that man . claim the tribute of patriotism, who should labour to subvert these great pillars of human happiness; these firmest props of the duties of men and citi. zens. The mere politician, equally with the pi. ous man, ought to respect and to cherish them. A volume could not trace all their connexions with private and public felieity. Let it simply be asked, where is the security for property, for reputation, for life, if the sense of religious obligation desert the oaths, which are the instruments of investigation in courts of justice ? And let us with caution indulge the supposition, that morality can be maintained without religion. Whatever may be conceded to the influence of refined education con niñds of peculiar structure, reason and expė. rience both forbid us to expect that national morality can prevail in exclusion of religious principles.

“ It is substantially true, that virtue or morality is a necessary spring of popular ·government, The rule indeed extends with more or less force to every species of free government. Who that is a sincere friend to it can look with indifference apon attempts to shake the foundation of the fabu Fie ?

* Promote, then, as an object of primary im. portance, institutions for the general diffusion of knowledge. In proportion as the structure of a government gives force to public opinion, it is essential that public opinion should be enlightened.

. . “As a very important source of strength and security, cherish public credit. One method of · preserving it is to use it as sparingly as possible, avoiding occasions of expense by cultivating peace; but remembering also, that timely disbursements to prepare for danger; frequently prevent much greater disbursements to repel it, avoid ng like. wise the accumulation of debt, not only by shun. ning occasions of expense, but by vigorous exertions in time of peace, to discharge the debts which unavoidable wars may have occasioned, not ungenerously throwing upon posterity the burden which we ourselves ought to bear. The execua'. tion of these maxims belongs to your representa, tivès ; but it is necessary that public opinion should.co-operate. To facilitate to them the performance of their duty, it is essential that you should practically bear in mind, that toward the payment of debts there must be revenue ; that to have revenue there must be taxes ; that no taxes.

can be devised which are not more or less incon. * venient and unpleasant ; that the intrinsic embar. rassment inseparable from the selection of the proper objects, which is always a choice of difficulties, ought to be a decisive motive for a candid construction of the conduct of the government in mak. ing it, and for a spirit of acquiescence in the measures for obtaining revenue which the public exis gencies may at any time dictate.

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ed and bloody contests. The nation, prompted by ill will and resentinent, sometimes impels to war the governnrent, contrary to the best calcula. tions of policy. The government sometimes par. ticipates in the national propensity, and adopts through passion, what reason would reject; at other times, it makes the animosity of the nation subservient to projects of hostility instigated by pride, ambition, and other sinister and pernicious mo. tives. The peace often, sometimes perhaps the liberty of nations, has been the victim.:

“So, likewise, a passionate attachment of one nation for another, produces a variety of evils. Sympathy for the favourite nation, facilitating the illusion of an imaginary common interest in cases where no real common interest exists, and infus. ing into one the enmities of the other, betrays the former into a participation in the quarrels and wars of the latter, without adequate inducements or jus. tification. It leads also to concessions to the favourite nation, of privileges denied to others, which are apt doubly to injure the nation making the concessions, by unnecessarily parting with what ought to have been retained ; and by excit:ng jealousy, ill will, and a disposition to retaliate, in the parties from whom equal privileges are withheld ; and it gives to ambitious, corrupted, or deluded citizens, who devote themselves to the favourite nation, facility to betray, or sacrifice the interests of their own country; without odium, sometimes even with popularity ; gilding with the appearan.. ces of a virtuous sense of obl gationa comnienda. ble deference for public opinion, or a laudable zeal

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