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the negotiations which were pending with Tunis and Tripeli, he observed; “ To an active exter. nal commerce, the protection of a naval force is indispensable. This is manifest with regard to wars in which a state is itself a party. But beside this, it is in our own experience, that the most sincere neutrality is not a sufficient guard against the depredations of nations at war. To secure respect to a neutral flag. requires a naval force, organized and ready to vindicate it from insult or aggression. This may even prevent the necessity of going to war, by discouraging belligerent powers from committing such violations of the rights of the neutral party, as may first or last leave no other option. From the best information I have been able to obtain, it would seem as if our trade to the Mediterranean, without a protecting force, will always be insecure, and our citizens exposed to the calami. ties from which numbers of them have but just been relieved.
“ These considerations invite the United States to look to the means, and to set about the gradu. al creation of a navy. The increasing progress of their navigation, promises them at no distant peri. od, the requisite supply of seamen, and their means in other respects, favour the undertaking. It is an encouragement likewise, that their particular situation will give weight and influence to a moda erate naval force in their hands.. Will it not then be adviseable to begin without delay, to provide and lay up the materials for the building and equipping of ships of war, and to proceed in the work by degrees, in proportion as our resources shall render it practicable, without inconvenience ; so. that a future war of Europe may not find our com. merce in the same unprotected state in which it was found by the present ?" .
Hi then recommended the establishment of national works for manufacturing implements of defence ; of an institution for the improvement of agriculture ; and pointed out the advantages of a military academy; of a national university ; and the necessity of augmenting the salaries of the of ficers of the United States.
In respect to the disputes with France, he ob. served ; " While in our external relations some serious inconveniences and embarrassments have been overcome, and others lessened, it is with much pain and deep regret I mention, that circumstances of a very unwelcome nature have late. ly occurred. Our trade has suffered, and is suf. fering, extensive injuries in the West Indies, from the cruisers and agents of the French republic ; and communications have been received froin its minister here, which indicate the danger of a surther disturbance of our commerce by its authority; and which are in other respects far from agreea: ble.
" It has been my constant, sincere, and earnest wish, in conformity with that of our nation, to maintain cordial harmony, and a perfectly friend. ly understanding with that republic. This wish remains unabated, and I shall persevere in the endeavour to fulfil it, to the utmost extent of what shall be consistent with a just and indispensable regard to the rights and honour of our country; Bor will I easily cease to cherish the expectation, that a spirit of justice, candour, and friendship, on
the part of the republic, will eventually ensure suc. dess.
“ In pursuing this course, however, I cannot forget what is due to the character of our govern. ment and nation, or to a full and entire confidence. in the good sense, patriotism, self respect, and for. titude of my countrymen.”
This address was concluded in the following pathetic terms;
“ The situation in which I now stand for the last time, in the midst of the representatives of the people of the United States, naturally recalls the period when the administration of the present form of government commenced ; and I cannot omit the occasion to congratulate you and my country on the success of the experiment, nor to repeat my fervent supplications to the Supreme Ruler of the universe, and sovereign arbiter of nations, that his providential care may still be extended to the United States ; that the virtue and happiness of the people may be preserved'; and that the governiment which they have instituted for the protection of their liberties may be perpetual.”
Washington rejoices at the prospeot of retiring..... Writes to the Secre
tary of State, denying the authenticity of letters said to be from him to J. P. Cystis and Lund Washington, in 1776.... Pays respect to his successor, Mr. John Adams..... Review of Washington's administration. He retires to Mount Vernon... Resumes agricultural pursuits... .Hears with regret the aggression of the French republio....Corresponds on the subject of his taking the command of an army to oppose the French .....is appointed Lieutenant General.....His commission is sent to him by the Secretary of War.....His letter to President Adams on the receipt thereof..... Directs the organization of the proposed army, Three Envoys Extraordinary sent to France, who adjust all disputes with Bonaparte, after the overthrow of the Directory.....Gen. Wash. ingtos dies.....Is honoured by Congress, and by the citizens..... His character.
The pleasing emotions which are excited in ordina. ry men on their acquisition of power, were inferi. or to those which Washington felt on the resignation of it. To his tried friend, Gen. Knox, on the day preceding the termination of his office, he observed in a letter ; “ To the weary traveller who sees a resting place, and is bending his body there. on, I now compare myself. Although the pros.
pect of retirement is most grateful to my soul, and I have not a wish to mix again in the great world, or to partake in its politics, yet I am not without regret at parting with, perhaps never more to meet, the few intimates whom I love. Among these be assured you are one."
The numerous calumnies of which Washington was the subject, drew from him no public animadversions, except in one case. A volume of let. ters, said to be from Gen. Washington to John Parke Custis and Lund Washington, were pub. lished by the British, in the year 1776, and were given to the public as being found in a small port. manteau, left in the care of his servant, who it was said by the editors, had been taken prisoner in Fort Lee. These letters were intended to produce in ine public mind, impressions unfavourable to the integrity of Washington's motives, and to rep. resent his inclinations as at variance with his profession and duty. When the first edition of these spurious letters was forgotten, they were repub. lished duriog Wishington's civil administration, by some of his fellowcitizens who differed from him in politics. On the morning of the last day of his presidency, he addressed a letter to the Sec. retary of State, in which, after enumerating all the facts and dates connected with the forgery, and declaring that he had bitherto deemed it unneces. sary to take any formal notice of the imposition, he concluded as follows; “But as I cannot know how soon à more serious event may succeed to that which will this day take place, I have thought it a duty that I owed to myself, to my country,