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and much more effectually, by taking a very small example of the same kind, and observing how he does it, than by recurring to a rule.
The practical examples at the commencement of each section and article, are generally such as to show the pupil what the combination is, and how he is to perform it. This will teach the pupil gradually to reason upon abstract numbers. In each combination, there are a few abstract examples without practical ones, to exercise the learner in the combinations, after he knows what these combinations are. It would be an excellent exercise for the pupil to put these into a practical form when he is reciting. For instance, when the question is, How many are 5 and 3? let him make a question in this way: If an orange cost 5 cents, and an apple 3 cents, what would they both come to ? This may be done in all cases.
The examples are often so arranged, that several depend on each other, so that the preceding explains the following one. Sometimes, also, in the same example, there are several questions asked, so as to lead the pupil gradually from the simple to the more difficult. It would be well for the pupil to acquire the habit of doing this for himself, when difficult questions occur.
The plates should be used for young pupils, but they are not necessary for the older ones. The plates for fractions, however, will frequently be useful to these. The first plate need not be used much, after the pupil is familiar with the multiplication table.
The book may be used in classes, where it is convenient. The pupil may answer the questions with the book before him or not, as the instructer thinks
oper. A very useful mode of recitation is, for s instructer to read the example to the whole
class, and then, allowing sufficient time for them to eroperform the question, call upon some one to answer Writ. In this manner every pupil will be obliged to
perform the example, because they do not know omen who is to answer it. In this way it will be best for who them to answer without the book. ham It will often be well to let the elder pupils hear
the younger. This will be a useful exercise for
them, and an assistance to the instructer. withi ze cu
Explanation of Plate I. This plate, viewed horizontally, presents ten rows of rectangles, and in each row ten rectangles.
In the first row, each rectangle contains one mark, each mark representing unity or one. In the sec. I ond row, each rectangle contains two marks ; in the ce third, three marks, &c.
The purpose of this plate is, first, to represent unity either as a unit, or as making a part of a sum ier of units: secondly, to represent a collection of
units, either as forming a unit itself, or as making a
part of another collection of units; and thus to com* pare unity and each collection of units with another les collection, in order to ascertain their ratios.
nie. All the examples as far as the eighth section ean she be solved by this plate. The manner of using it is bit explained in the Key for each section in its proper
The • place.
· The pupil, if very young, should first be taught to count the units, and to name the different assemblages of units, in the following manner :
The instructer, showing him the first row, which contains ten units insulated, requests the pupil to put his finger on the first, and say, one ; then on the second, and say, and one are two; and on the third, and say, and one are three ; and so on to ten : then, coma
mencing the row again, let him continue and say in ten and one are eleven, &c.
After adding them, let him begin with ten, and say, ten less one are nine, nine less one are eight, &c Then, taking larger numbers, as twenty or thirts, let him subtract them in the same manner.
Next, let him name the different assemblages, as twos, threes, &c. Afterwards, let him count the number of units in each row.
Note. The sections, articles, and examples, are referred to by the same marks which distinguish them in Part 1.
A. This section contains addition and subtraction, The first examples may be solved by means of beans, peas, &c., or by Plate I. The former method is preferable, if the pupil be very young, not only for the examples in the first part of this section, but for the first examples in all the sections.
The pupil will probably solve the first examples without any instruction.
Examples in addition and subtraction may be solved by Plate I. as follows:
How many are 5 and 3?* Select a rectangle containing 5 marks, and another containing 3 marks, and ascertain the number of marks in both.
How many are 8 and 6 ? Select a rectangle contain,
* Figures are used in the Key, because the instructer is supposed to be acquainted with them. They are not used in the first part of the book, because the pupil would not understand them so well as he will the words.
Ontinue a? bringing 8 marks, and another containing 6 marks, and
count them together. tad How many are 17 and 5? Keeping 17 in the
mind, select a rectangle containing 5 marks, and
& add them thus :-17 and 1 are 18, and I are 19, and wenty or
1 are 20, and I are 21, and 1 are 22. anner.
If you take 4 from 9, how many will remain ? assemble. Select a rectangle containing 9 marks, and take him cOUG away four of them.
18 less 5 are how many ? Keeping 18 in mind, exam. select a rectangle containing 5, and take them away Ech distuk 1 at a time.
In this manner all the examples in this section may be solved.
B & C. The articles B and C contain the common addition table as far as the first 10 numbers. In the first the numbers are placed in order, and in the second out of order.
The pu pil should study these until he can find the answers readily, and then he should commit the answers to memory.
subtract ans of bel I metho not only ion, but
D. In this article, the numbers are larger than in the preceding, and, in some instances, three or more numbers are added together. In the abstract examples, the numbers from one to ten are to be added to the numbers from ten to twenty,
E. This article contains subtraction.
F. This article is intended to make the pupil familiar with adding the nine first numbers to all others. The pupil should study it until he can answer the questions very readily. G. In this article, all the preceding are combined
Tis supposed first part of the well as he wa
together, and the numbers from 1 to 10 are added to all numbers from 20 to 100; and subtracted in the same manner.
18. 57 and 6 are 63, and 3 are 66, and 5 are 71, and 2 are 73, less 8 are 65.
H. This article contains practical questions which show the application of all the preceding articles.
6. 37 less 5 are 32, less 8 are 24, less 6 (which he kept himself) are 18; consequently he gave 13 to the third boy,
This section contains multiplication. The pupil will see no difference between this and addition. It is best that he should not at first, though it may be well to explain it to him after a while.
A. This article contains practical questions, which the pupil will readily answer.
1. Three yardß will cost 3 times as much as 1 yard.
N. B. Be careful to make the pupil give a similar reason for multiplication, both in this article, and elsewhere.
This question is solved on the plate thus : in the second row, count 3 rectangles, and find their sum. 2 and 2 are 4, and 2 are 6.
11. A man will travel 4 times as far in 4 hours as he will in 1 hour. In the third row, count 4 times , and ascertain their sum.
15. There are 4 times as many feet in 4 yards as in 1 yard, or 4 times 3 feet.