Εικόνες σελίδας
PDF
Ηλεκτρ. έκδοση

as preliminary to the solution of problems by the written process.

Oral Arithmetic is not ignored. The author believes in its valuable features. In no case, however, are the problems and processes carried to such an extent as to make them mere puzzles for testing the retentive power of the pupil's memory. The problems for oral solution are introductory to a fuller discussion by the written process. The written problems will be found to contain many of a more complex character than could be solved with profit orally. The author claims that by this arrangement a better knowledge of Arithmetic can be gained in a much shorter time and at much less expense than by the method of teaching Mental Arithmetic from one book and Written from another, the class usually studying and reciting on the same day topics having no connection and in no way related, except that they both belong to the science of Arithmetic.

This book, as well as its predecessor, is believed to be strictly and systematically graded, from the simplest problem for oral analysis to the most complex for written solution.

It is also practical: the problems are drawn from the various business interests of life, and are so presented as to evolve thought on the part of the pupil.

The author desires to call the special attention of teachers and others to the methods of treatment of Longitude and Time, Compound Proportion, Interest, Annual Interest, Notes, Partial Payments, Banking and Discount, Bonds, Interest on Monthly Payments, Interest on Instalments, including building association shares, Interest on Deferred Payments, Annuities, and Circulating Decimals. Many new processes are introduced also in the remaining topics discussed.

As the pupil gains growth in the proper use of language, he is called upon, in many cases, to give his own explanation of the written solutions; and as his mental strength increases still more, he is required to frame his own rules from the preceding solutions and principles. Thus he is trained to think from the beginning, and master the whole subject in such a way as will not only make him a thorough practical arithmetician, but at the same time develop in him sound mental strength.

The author hopes the progressive, practical teachers of America will find this book suited to their wants, and that by its aid the subject of Arithmetic may be thoroughly taught without the consumption of more time than necessary.

A. N. R. CENTRAL STATE NORMAL SCHOOL,

June 27, 1877.

1*

SUGGESTIONS TO TEACHERS.

THE author takes the liberty of offering a few suggestions here as to the manner of using this book. He hopes that they may be of much service, especially to inexperienced teachers. A few of them are in a measure repetitions of those given in the author's Elementary Arithmetic.

Beginners need much practice in both reading and writing numbers. Give, therefore, a great number of examples for exercise from other sources.

The author has given a number of practical problems under each rule; it will be well for the teacher to add largely to the number.

Combination problems—that is, problems which combine the operations of several rules in their solution—will do much to evolve thought on the part of the pupil. Since the pupil cannot solve these problems by any one rule, it is necessary that he " think out” his own method of solution. It also shows him the practical application of Arithmetic. The teacher should add to those given by the author.

Thorough and frequent drill should be given in Addition, particularly in the addition of ledger columns.

Give a thorough drill in all the fundamental rules; all others are based on these.

See that the work in Written Arithmetic, whether on the slate or on the blackboard, is neat and in proper order. See also that pupils give all their solutions, analyses and explanations in grammatical language.

Give the class frequently problems selected from actual business operations and from other books. Encourage them to think for themselves and give original solutions.

Have your pupils originate problems to illustrate the principles and rules, and thus make an application of the science as they learn it.

Be sure that the pupils understand each part of their work before they pass to the next. Be thorough!

« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »