After going through this addition & few times in this form, it may be varied thus. The teacher laying down the counters, one by one, as before, the class may be led to say, one and one are two, two ad one are three three and one are four, &o. The above mode of adding may be shortened by leading the class to 889 as follows: One and one are two, and one are three, and one are four, &c. At any time the word designating the counter may be used along with the number, as beans, balls, pieces, marks, or books, as the case may be. At times it will be well to give some fictitious designation to the counters, such as the teacher, or still better such as some one of the class, may choose, calling them men, sheep, horses, &o. Next to Addition, as illustrated above, should como Subtraction. Haying counted ten, let the teacher take away one, and the class be made to may, ono from ten leaves nine one from nine leaves eigbt, &o. In Subtraction the same variations may be introduced as in Addition. No further Illustrations of this operation need be given, as the teacher's discretion wil supply all that is necessary. In connection with these exercises, let the pupil be taught to repeat into versed order the numerical words they have employed, counting from on up to ten, and then in reverse order from ten to one. It is not to be supposed that the whole of the foregoing lesson can be learned at one exercise. It is only a small part of it that children will en Orst have suficient power of attention to go over with profit. The same remark may be made respecting the following Introductory Leasons. osoa . LESSON II. Let the teacher call the attention of the class, and require them to couns, and then lay down, one by one, a small number of counters, Bay, for ex ample, five; then let him separate them into two parte, as one and four, thus, • •..., and say,“ one and four are fwe," and require the class to say the same. Then let him divide the number into different parts, ad two and three, three and two, four and one, lue and one and three, &c., requiring the class with each division to name the parts and make the addition. Let them always begin at the left end of the line of counters as they face them. Having exhausted the combinations of ive, let the number six be taken, giving combinations like the following: •• ••••; . • • •; &o. It may be found that a lower number than five should be made the first step in this exercise. After the combinations of six have been exhaustod, the number sovon may be taken, and then successively, eight, nine, and ten. & part of this Lesson, each question in addition should be converted into a question in subtraction ; thus, five and three are eight; then, having put the two parts together which make eight, remove the three, and lead the class to say, “ three from eight leaves five." The following exercise is important in this connection. Let the teacher select some number, and give one part of it, and require the class ea quick 29 possible to name the complementary port. Thus let aix be the number, the exercise will be as follows. Teacher. "Now attend, six is the number: I am going to name one part of it; when you hear me nange it, do you all Dame the other part as quick as you can now be ready ; five." Class : * Onc." - Teacher: * Four." Class : « Tro." - Teacher: “ Tarcs." Ola : "Thron.thea Tonchar : "Ons." Class : “ Fino," & This exercise should not be pressed too fast, but carried on gradually as the pupil's strength of mind will allow. Special pains should be taken that the number ten be perfectly mastered on this form of combining its parts This will give the pupil the most important aid in all his calculations in larger Dambers. LESSON III. For a number of days after beginning the above exercises, the child should not have the book at all in his hands. If the child has the book in his possession, it will be well for the teacher to take it for a few days, and let the pupil employ himself at his seat in writing on & slate, or with other books. In this way the child has awakened within him the idea of calculation in numbers, without having become wearied with the reading of what excites no interest. After a few days, however, the book may be put into the pupil'e hands, and he may be directed to get a lesson in Section I In the meanwhile the Introductory Lessons should be continued, and form a part of each day's exercise till they are finished. In this way, the pupil, in studying his first lesson from the book, will already have learned the use of counters, and will naturally resort to them at his beat, using beans or marks on his slate for this purpose. It will be far better for him to come to the use of counters in this natural way, than to be enjoined to use them before he has been interested in witnessing their application. The pupil, in the preceding lessons, has become acquainted with all the numbers as far as ten, regarding them either as units, or as grouped into parts of a larger whole. The next step is to carry him through the numbers from ten to twenty. First let the class count with the objects before them from one up to twenty ; then, removing all but ten, let the ten be grouped in a pile; or, if they are marks on the board, let them be enclosed by a line drawn around them, and begin to count upward from ten. “ One and ten are eleven ; two and ten are twelve ; three and ten are thirteen;"-here pause, and examine the composition of the word, thirteen-three ten, or three and ten Show how the three is spelt in thirteen, and also how the ten is spelt. Then proceod," four and ten are fourteen,"examining the word as in the former case; "five and ten are fifteen ; six and ten are," - perhaps some one in the class will now be able to give the compound word ; then go on," seven &nd ten, eight and ten, nine and ten, ten and ten." When they can give the compound words readily from the simple ones, then give them the compound word, and let the class separate it into its two component words; thus: Teacher: “Seventeen." Clase: “Seven and ten," &o. Thus far let the teacher be careful tơ present the name of the smaller of the two numbers first, for that is the order in which the compound word presents them; let the teacher say four and ten, and not ten and four. After the class have caught the analogy between the simple words and the compounds which they form, 80 that one instantly suggests to them the other, then the order of the words may be changed, and the ten pat first. The caution here suggested may seem to some annecessary; but a careful observation of the mental habits of children will not fail, I think, to show its importance. In the analysis of the corn pound words from ten to twenty, eleven and twelve should be omitted till the last ; for, as the simple words of which they are formed are disguised or obsolete, they tend to obscure rather than eluoldate the subject to the mind of a child. Having obtained the idea through the other words in the series, he may take the statement respecting those on trust LESSON IV. Having counted twenty, and grouped the number in two tebe, let the class count ten more, making in all thirty, or three teng. Keeping the tens separate, let the class count ten more, making forty, or four tens. Let the class then answer such questions as the following:- Twenty are how many beno ? Thirty are how many tens? Forty are how many tons? Four tens are what number! Three tens are what number! Two tens are what aumber? After this, they may proceed with the higher multiples of ten, inty, sixty, seventy, eighty, ninety, a hundred. Through the whole of this exercise, each multiple of ten should be presented in groups of ten, so as to aid the idea by the visible representation. The pupils should be led to see the significancy of each numerical name; that thirty-seven, for example, means three tens and seven ; fifty-six means five tens and six. In this way the pupils may be led to understand the Decimal Ratio at this early stage, and no further trouble need be taken in that direction. When, in a later stage of study, he comes to the Decimal notation in written Arithmetic, he will find it only a natural mode of expressing ideas already rendered familiar in practice. LESSON V. 11 Let the teacher stand at the board, and call the attention of the class to what he shall write ; then, making t many marks on the board?” When the class have answered, let the teacher write two more, and ask, “ How many now?” and so on to the number of twelve or more. Then take & writing book or sheet of paper, and covering all but two of the marks, let the glass re 11 peat the same process while the teacher removes the book, so as to bring two more into view at each remove; the numbers read by the class being two, four, six, eight, ten, &c. Then let the process be reversed, subtracting two successively, which gives, beginning with sixteen, the following, -sixteen, fourteen, twelve, ten, &c. Again the teacher may say to the class, "When I made those marks. how many did I make at a time?" Class : “Two." - Teacher: "Did t make two more than once?” Class : “ Yes, sir, a good many times.) Then the teacher, covering up all but two: “Now look, how many times two are there?” Class : “Once." Teacher: “Once two are how many ? » Then, after the class have answered, showing two more, “How many Hmes two do you see?” “Twice two are how many ? " Then go on In the same way with three twos, four twog, &c., to the end. At this point the pupils may be taught the distinction between even and odd oumbers, and be trained to repeat rapidly the even numbers, from two ap to twenty. The pupils may derive important aid in adding and multiplying, by group Ing the numerical names with the voice, in something like tho following manner. Teacher: “ Listen now to me; one, two -- three, four - five, :17. How many twoo did I count?" Class : " Three twos.” Tescher: “ Coux three twos just me I did." Thon let the teacher ask, “Three L:A con ar how many ?" Then require them to count four twos, Ave twoe, &o. This method may be brought in aid of all their earlier attempts in adding and multiplying. Care should be taken in this exercise that the words be pronounced in a quick and neat manner, with a distinct pause between the groups. If rightly conducted, this exercise furnishes one of the best aids for overcoming the habit of counting, instead of adding, – that fatal clog which keeps back many scholars in arithmetic from making any rapid progress. Il eleven. The successive additions of two, beginning with one, Il nine. farnish the series of odd numbers. This and the pre Il deven. ceding exercise exhibit all the results made by the ad. Il five. ditions of the number two. Il three. I one. The pupil should, in connection with this exercise, be taught to group the numerical names by twos, beginning from one, so as to furnish the series of odd numbers, thus: one - two, three-four, five, &o. Finally, let him count the even series, ap to twenty, and then down, till Lot him count the odd series up to twenty-one, up and down. ho can do let him count the two, three — four 50 as to furnish noup the LESSON VI. To teach the pupils to add the number three, let the teacher make three marks on the board, and require the class to name the III fifteen number ; then three more, and so on. Then, covering Ill twelve all but the lower three, let the class name the number in Ill nine view, as the teacher exhibits successively three more at III six| ench remove, or three less. IT three The pupils may then be led to count in groups of three ; thus, one, two, three four, five, six - seven, eight, nine, &c. From this they may be readily led to name the multiples of three; threc, six, nine, twelve, &c. The first variation from the above method in the addition of three may be made by beginning with two, which gives the follow Ill fourteen ing numbers. In order to secure the necessary amount Ill eleven of repetition in these exercises, and yet to avoid weari- { lll eight ness, it will be well often to change the manner of addIng.' Thus, in the accompanying example, the pupils [ 11 two may simply name the series made by the successive additions; as, two, five, sight, eleven, fourteen ; or, they may state the process more fully, thus: two and three are iive, and three are eight, and three are eloven, &c. A still faller statement of the operation would be thus : two and three are five, five and three are eight, eight and three are eleven, &c. The only remaining variety in adding three will be exhibited by beginning with one, which may bo illustrated in the same psy as the others, giving the numbers, ons, four Copen, ton, &o. Buccessiv pupils LESSON VII. After the numbers have been mastered in the manner above suggested they should be combined in a variety of ways by means of marks on the board. The columns of marks subjoined are given merely as examples and hints on this point. Il UM A single column may be made to furnish exercise sufficient for a realtadon; for, by adding or erasing a single mark at the beginning, a change is made through the whole. LESSON VIII. The addition of the number four may be Illustrated in the same way as the precoding numbers. It presents the following variations : TIIT sixteen, &o. |||| Afteen. III fourteen. Ill thirteen. 1111 twelve. Till eleven. 1111 ten. 1111 nine. llll eight. 1111 seven. 11 six. IIIl five. ||1| four. Ill three. || two. | one. The number four may then be combined with the preceding numbers in a great variety of ways. This will serve as a review of what has gone before, and at the same time will extend the discipline on the new element which the lesson contains. The same mode of illustration may be pursued in relation to the largez Dambers, five, six, &o., if the teacher shall find it neceseary. |