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And The 49.291
Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1849, by
TEMPERANCE C. COLBURX, Widow of Warren Colburn, In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the District of Massachusetto.
ADVERTISEMENT TO THE REVISED EDITION.
The character of Colburn's First Lessons is too widely and thoroughly known to make it necessary to give, In this edition, any extended statement of its principles and method. Ideas which were now at the frst publicaHon of this work have now, through the “ great change” that has taken place in elementary instruction in Arithmetic, through its Influenco, booome the common possession of all intelligent teachers.
The careful revision of the work which has now been made has suggestad very fow points in which any change seemed to be required. It has been thought that a more easy and gradual introduction would render the work more useful to the most youthful beginners.*
The use of the book with beginners demands of the teacher considerable labor in the way of proposing original questions, and devising modes of Kastration; and a short course of Introductory Lessons is prefixed, which the teacher may use as materials and hints in the first steps of the study.
• In the city of Lowell, where this book has been used from its first pab. Bcation, the School Committee passed a vote in December, 1846, exclading call other Arithmetics in their Primary Schools; thus showing, in the opin. be of intelligent men who acted upon their experience, that Colburn's First Lessons is sufficiently easy for the most juvenile scholar
GENERAL VIEW OF THE PLAN.
EVERY combination commences with practical examples. Care has been taken to solent such as will aptly illustrate the combination, and assist the Imagination f the pupil in performing it. In most instances, immediately after the practical, abstract examples are placed, containing the same pumbers and the same operations, that the pupil may the more easily observe the connection. The instructer should be careful to make the pupil observe the connection. After these are a few abstract examples, and then practical questions again.
The numbers are small, and the questions 80 simple, that almost any child of five or six years old is capable of understanding more than half the book, and those of seven or eight years old can understand the whole of it.
The examples are to be performed in the mind, or by means of sensible objects, such as beans, nuts, &c. The pupil should first perform the exam. amples in his own way, and then be made to observe and tell how he did them, and why he did them 80." *
Several examples in each section are performed in the Key, to show the method of solving them. No answers are given in the book, except where
* It is remarkable, that a child, although he is able to perform a variety of examples which involve addition, subtraction, multiplication, and divislon, recognizes no operation but addition. . Indeed, if we analyze these operations when we perforia them in our minds, we shall find that they all roduce themselves to addition. They are only different ways of applying the same principle. And it is only when we use an artificial method of performing them, that they take a different form.
If the following questions were proposed to a child, his answers would be in substance, like those annexed to the questions. How much is five less than eight ? Ans. Three. Why? Because five and three are eight. What is the difference between five and eight? Ans. Three. Why? Because five and three are eight. If you divide eight into two parts, such that one of the parts may be five, what will the other be? Ans. Three. Why? Be cause five and three are eight.
How much must you give for four apples at two cents aplece ! Ang Fight centa. Why? because two and two are four, and two are six, and two are eight.
How many apples, at two cents apiece, can you bay for eight cents! Ans. Four. Why? Because two and two are four, and two are six, and two are eight.
We shall be further convinced of this, if we observe that the same table serves for addition and subtraction; and another table which is formed by addition, server ooth for multiplication cod division. In this treatise the
plate serves for the four operations. This remark shows the necessity of making the papil attend to his man per of performing the examples, and of explaining to him the differene between them.
GENERAL VIEW OF THE PLAN.
It is necessary to explain something to the pupil. Most of the explanations are given in the Key ; because pupils generally will not understand any ex planation given in a book, especially at so early an age. The instructor must, therefore, give the explanation viva voce. These, however, will 00cupy the instructer but a very short time.
The first section contains addition and subtraction; the socond, multiplica tion. The third section contains division. In this section the pupil learns the first principles of fractions, and the terms which are applied to them. This is done by making him observe that one is the half of two, the third of three, the fourth of four, &c.; and that two is two thirds of three, two fourths of four, two fifths of five, &c.
The fourth section commences with multiplication. In this the pupil taught to repeat a number a certain number of times, and a part of another time. In the second part of this section, the pupil is taught to change a certain number of twus into threes, threes into fours, &o.
In the fifth section the pupil is taught to find t, f, 1, &c., and 14, &c., of numbers, which are exactly divisible into these parts. This is only an extension of the principle of fractions, which is contained in the third section.
In the sixth section the pupil learns to tell of what number any number, 28 2, 3, 4, &c. is one half, one third, one fourth, &c.; and also, knowing
*, $, &c. of a number, to find that number. These combinations contain all the most common and most useful opera tions of vulgar fractions. But, being applied only to numbers which are exactly divisible into these fractional parts, the pupil will observe no principles but multiplication and division, unless he is told of it. In fact, fractions contain no other principle. The examples are so arranged, that almost any child of six or seven years old will readily comprehend them. And the questions are asked in such a manner that, if the instructer pur. sues the method explained in the Key, it will be almost impossible for the pupil to perform any example without understanding the reason of it. Indeed, in every example which he performs, he is obliged to go through a complete demonstration of the principle by which he does it ; and at the same time he does it in the simplest way possible. These observations apply to the remaining part of the book.
These principles are sufficient to enablo the pupil to perform almost all kinds of examples that ever occur. He will not, however, be able to solve questions in which it is necessary to take fractional parts of unity, though the principles are the game.
After section sixth, there is a collection of miscellaneous examples, in which are contained almost all the kinds that usually occur. There are Rone,
however, which the principles explained are not sufficient to solve. In section eight and the following, fractions of unity are explained, and, It is believed, so simply as to be intelligible to most pupils of soven or eighi years of age. The operations do not differ materially from those in the preceding sections. There are some operations, however, peculiar to fracdions.
When the pupil is made familiar with all the principles contained in this book, he will be able to perform all examples, in which the numbers are 80 small, that the operations may be performed in the mind. Afterwards he has only to learn the application of figures to these operations, and his baowledge of arithmetic will be complete.
TB) Arst instructions given to the child in Arithmetio are usually given on the supposition that the child is already able to count. This indeed sooms a suficiently low requisition; and if children were taught to count at home in a proper manner, they would have this power in a sufficient degree when they enter the primary school. But it will be found on trial that most children, when they begin to go to school, do not know well how to oount. This may be proved by requiring them to count 20 beans or kernels of corn. Few of them will do it without mistake. The difficulty is they have been taught to repeat the numerical names, one, two, three, in order, without attaching ideas to them. They loarn to count without counting things. This point then calls for the teacher's first attention to lead the child to apprehend the meaning of each numerical word by using it in connection with objects.
The kind of objects to be employed as counters should of course bo slm lar, as marks on the blackboard, beans, pieces of wood, or of cork, or the balls in a numeration frame. Provided they are similar, and large enough In be seen without effort by all the class, it is of little consequence what chey are; the simpler the better, and those which the teacher devises or makes will, other things being equal, be best of all. Not more than ten should be used or exhibited to the children in the first few lessons.
Let the class have their attention oalled to the teacher; and when he lays down a counter, when all can see it, let them say one; let the teacher lay down another, and the class say two; and so on up to ten. If any of the class become inattentive, let the teacher stop at once; and, after the attenton is fully contred on him, let him begin again.
• The Nameration Trame should have ten balls on a bar. Three bars will be suficient for all the necessary illustrations. It is sometimos proposed to employ a Frame with only nine balls on a bar: the use of such a Frame, however, would be a great error in the First Lessons of Mental Arithmetis. The Frame with nine balls is designed to illustrate the idea of local value in the decimal notation, and has as many balls as thore are signifi. cant figures. Bat Mental Arithmetic begins with the numerical words, and requires for its illustration on a Frame as many balls as there are simple bumerical words. These are the first ten, those above being compound. Eloven is formert of two obsolete words, signifying, ons and ton; so twelve is a compound of two words, signifying two and ten. The names above these, thirteen, fourteen, &c., sufficiently indicate of themselvos the Almper' Pords of whioh they are formed.