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and James McKay, directors. Louis McLane, Jr., was appointed to the responsible post of agent in San Francisco. Up to that time Wells, Fargo & Co. had not owned any lines in the interior of California ; but for the sake of greater security in the receipt and delivery of valuable parcels in places beyond San Francisco, they adopted the policy of buying out the local Expresses in California, or establishing new lines, which they gave in charge of their own agents.

Wells, Fargo & Co.'s Express lines within the limits of California have become very numerous, and radiate throughout the State. Under the supervision of Louis McLane, Jr., the experienced and judicious general agent, and the immediate management of Samuel Knight, the worthy and efficient superintendent of the Express department, these interior Expresses were admirably operated and rendered profitable. They were so many channels for the streams of gold dust which poured into the company's coffers at San Francisco, and thence, in half-million shipments, twice a month, were consigned to the house in New York. The company had quite a number of express offices in Oregon and on the south coast ; also, an Express to Frazer River.

Among the most useful and highly valued of the many employees who have distinguished themselves by their fidelity to Wells, Fargo & Co., in California, besides those already mentioned, are G. W. Bell, superintendent of the Express package department, J. J. Kelly, Henry Norton, A. B. McNiel, W. H. Simmons, J. M. Vansyckle, T. B. Anthony, and Edw. W. Tracy, travelling agent. The latter gentleman, for several years the very popular and efficient agent of Adams & Co., at Shasta, has two brothers, also in Wells, Fargo & Co.'s employ, viz., Theodore F. and Felix Tracy.

Wm. H. Harnden, a son of The Original Expressman, was in the San Francisco office. Old Block(Delano), whose thrilling sketches of California life, from 1849 to 1854, rendered him a prodigious favorite throughout the “diggins," after having served Wells, Fargo & Co. for a long time as messenger, and afterwards as a local agent, at length retired from the business, and settled down at Grass Valley, where, in 1858, he was still residing.

During three or four years past, Wells, Fargo & Co. have had offices of their own in the principal Atlantic cities, entirely independent of other Express companies. August 2, 1858, they made a semi-annual dividend of five per cent., and the annual exhibit of their treasurer showed the amount of gold transported by this company over the various lines within the State of California, during the year ending December 31, 1857, to have exceeded fifty-nine millions eight hundred and eighty-four thousand dollars. Their ocean transportation of the precious metal must have been about nine millions of dollars.

The New York office of this immense business was remarkable for the thoroughness of its details and the superiority of its management. The same, we are told, may be said with truth of the San Francisco office.

CHAPTER VI.

THE UNITED STATES EXPRESS COMPANY. THE N. Y. & ERIE EX

PERIMENT.-HOWARD's.-LEONARD.—BEN CHENEY.-FISKE &
CO.—THE STUDLEY BAGGAGE EXPRESS SYSTEM. -CLOSE OF
THE FIRST TWENTY-ONE YEARS' HISTORY.

The present company bearing this name (another, it will be remembered, had been previously merged in the American Express Company), was organized in 1854, with the view of doing a western business over the N. Y. & Erie Railroad. Its capital stock was $500,000.-D. N. Barney, president; H. Kip, superintendent, and Theo. B. Marsh, treasurer. This Express had about 200 agencies, and many employees worthy of particular mention for their fidelity and untiring service. Its field of operations includes the most remote settlements in the western country. T. B. Marsh, its New York agent for several yeare, to the entire satisfaction of the directors and the public, was, for some time previously, one of the most valuable men in the American Express business. H. Kip, the superintendent, resides at Buffalo, where he has an enviable reputation as an Express manager. He has been in the business since 1846, being about that time a pioneer expressman in the Western Express of Livingston & Fargo.

Under his lead the company has come into line with the pioneer institutions.

The N. Y. & Erie Railroad Company, in 1854 or 1855, decided to do the Express business on their route themselves, and did so accordingly, making H. D. Rice (since deceased) its superintendent. The experiment, however, as might have been expected by any one entirely familiar with the details of Express business, was not destined to be successful, although managed during the last year or two by a very able man, to the best of his ability. The liability of their Express to make

. good any loss of money parcels intrusted to it for conveyance, became a cause of serious concern to many of the N. Y. & Erie Railroad stockholders, and, finally, the directors determined to give it up and stick to their legitimate business. Accordingly, on the first of August, 1858, their Express was transferred to the United States Express Company. An experienced expressman, C. A. De Witt, was superintendent of the Erie Railroad division.

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HOWARD & Co.'s EXPRESS, PHILADELPHIA.-We have before referred to N. G. Howard, as the agent of Harnden & Co., at Albany, N. Y., in the summer of 1842. In the following year he became associated with E. C. Bailey, a very worthy and enterprising young man from Boston, under the style of Bailey & Howard. Bailey had a warm personal friend in Nat. Greene, who was then in the firm of Harnden & Co. Owing to his variance with Henry Wells, in 1843, to which allusion has already been made in our history of him, Harnden was desirous of “connecting," at Albany, with some other Express than Pomeroy & Co.'s; and it was at his instigation that Bailey & Howard attempted to establish an Express line to Buffalo in competition with that successful concern. Bailey & Howard soon dissolved their copartnership, and Bailey returned to the Boston post-office, where, a few years later, he became postmaster; and so continued, to the entire satisfaction of the merchants and citizens, until he resigned in 1857, to make room for Nahum Capen. He became editor and proprietor of a penny newspaper of large circulation and influence, The Boston Daily Herald, and made it a very valuable property; proving that he was a better newspaper king than he was an expressman.

Shortly after abandoning his Albany and Buffalo enterprise, Howard joined E. H. Virgil in running an Express between Albany and Montreal ; but this, too, was up hill work, and having, in the spring of 1844, a good offer from Harnden, he went to Philadelphia and took charge of Harnden & Co.'s Express in that city.

The Pottsville and Reading Express, via Philadelphia and Reading Railroad, was commenced by Livingston, Howard & Co. shortly after this. A few years after, E. W. Earl, of Reading, Pa., purchased an interest, and the firm became Howard, Earl & Co. The business was under the immediate superintendence of one of the partners at each principal place; Howard at Philadelphia, Earl at Reading, and R. F. Weaver at Pottsville.

In January, 1854, Earl disposed of his interest to the remaining partners, and the firm became Howard & Co. In November, 1854, the Catawissa, Williamsport and Erie, and the Williamsport and Elmira Railroads formed a connection with the Philadelphia and Reading Railroad at Port Clinton, and Howard & Co.'s Express ran through to Elmira, N. Y., daily, there forming a connection with the American Express Company, and opening a new and more direct route from Philadelphia to the northwestern States.

Howard and Co.'s Easton Express was commenced on the completion of the Belvidere and Delaware Railroad to Lambertville, N. J., and thence by wagons to Easton, a distance of 36 miles. The railroad being gradually opened, the distance for wagoning was lessened, until, in the latter part of the year 1853, the Belvidere and Delaware Railroad was completed to Phillipsburg (opposite Easton). The Express was then run to Easton entirely by railroad. The firm was represented by N. G. Howard and A. L. Randall at Philadelphia, and John Smylie, Jr., at Easton. At this time the Lehigh Valley Railroad was being constructed, and Howard & Co. placed their teams on the route from Easton to Mauch Chunk. In 1855, the Lehigh Valley Railroad being completed, the Express was run through from Philadelphia to Mauch Chunk by railroad.

Howard died of consumption in 1859, and F. Lovejoy became superintendent.

THE HOWARD EXPRESS COMPANY (P. Janney, Phila., agent) is another institution, having its headquarters in the same office in Philadelphia with the Harnden and Howard & Co., where Geo. R. Dunn was general agent of all three. F. A. Phillips was chief clerk.

EDWARDS, SANFORD & Co.'s EUROPEAN EXPRESS, favorably known for a few years prior to 1855, became in that year, by a union with Livingston, Wells & Co., “the AmericanEuropean,” under the management of H. S. Lansing. Subse

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