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31. 4235+1063 + 2714 + 3026 + 8124 + 3654
32. 6004 2130

184

24

381

298

33. 2146

401

8002

84

5423

34. 2401

7103

516

511

27

35. 1020

24

871 4820

36. 36427
37. 54163

38. 72412

39. 43675

40. 12341

367

3412

45326 + 52674 + 38956 +2138
3402
4672

254

68240

388

54

4102

Minuend, 748

Subtrahend, 236
Remainder, 512

315

284

33 4123

2.

From 7658
Take 3427

Ans. 4231

7.

From 87426
Take 45105

41. A grain-dealer bought 375 bushels of wheat of A, 564 bushels of B, 2346 bushels of C, and 897 bushels of D; how many bushels of wheat did he buy?

3529

87006

61.

42. I paid $3464 for a farm, $4875 for a house, $15625 for a mill, and $3875 for 30 shares of the Boston and Maine Railroad stock; how much did I pay for all this property? 43. How many are 63 + 79 +144 + 28 ? Ans. 314. 44. How many are 469 +8742+92748 +869 ?

SUBTRACTION.

9. BY SUBTRACTION we take a less number from a greater number to find their difference.

The greater number is called the MINUEND; the less number, the SUBTRAHEND; the difference, the REMAIN

DER.

10. To subtract when no figure in the subtrahend is larger than the figure over it.

Ex. 1. From 748 take 236.

OPERATION.

3.

5703

4301

8.

70827

40326

Taking 6 from 8 leaves 2, 3 from 4 leaves 1, and 2 from 7 leaves 5; therefore, the remainder is 512.

4694

5368

2846

3714

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168

12. A farmer bought a farm for $3625, and sold it for $4986; how much did he gain? Ans. $1361.

13. In 1860 the population of Maine was 628276, and that of New Hamsphire was 326072; how many more people were there in Maine than in New Hampshire?

11. To subtract when any figure in the subtrahend is greater than the figure over it.

14. From 982 take 137.

As we cannot take 7 units from 2 units, one of the tens is put with the two units, making 12 units; and then 7 units from 12 units leave 5 units. Now as one of the 8 tens has been put with the 2 units, only 7 tens remain in the minuend, and 3 tens from 7 tens leave 4 tens; and, finally, 1 hundred from 9 hundreds leaves therefore, the entire remainder is 845.

hundreds;

12. In the same manner solve the following examples, taking each lower number from the one over it in each example; also subtract in the manner indicated by the signs. 15. S 6379

2184

7683

16.

5947

8725

{ { { { 19. {6948

17.

6943

18.

5402 4802

4062

OPERATION.

Min. 982
Sub.
137
Rem. 845

20.

21.

22.

$ 7829

943

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3245

1528

3846

- 1072

3684

2948

3712

824

· 3879

2983

6420

784

- 4682

.3486

6849

5986

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23. Washington was born in 1732, and died in 1799; at what age did he die?

24. Methuselah died at the age of 969 years, and Washington at 67; what was the difference of their

ages

?

25. A merchant sold goods for $3427, and thereby gained $1224; what did the goods cost him?

26. In a certain battle 27345 men were engaged on one side, and 23598 on the other; how many more were engaged on one side than on the other?

27. The distance round the earth is about 24856 miles, and the distance through it is about 7912 miles; how much further round it than through it?

28. How many years have passed since the discovery of America in 1492?

MULTIPLICATION.

13. BY MULTIPLICATION we find how many units there are in any number of times a given number.

The number to be repeated is called the MULTIPLICAND; the number which shows how many times the multiplicand is to be taken is called the MULTIPLIER; the result of the multiplication is called the PROduct. The Multiplicand and Multiplier are called FACTORS.

14. To multiply by a single figure.

Ex. 1. In 1 bushel there are 32 quarts; how many quarts are there in 9 bushels ?

OPERATION.

=

Having set the factors as in the marMultiplicand, 32 gin, we say, 9 times 2 units are 18 units Multiplier, 9 1 ten and 8 units; write the 8 units Product, 288 in units' place, and then say, 9 times 3 tens are 27 tens, which, increased by the 1 ten previously obtained, make 28 tens 2 hundreds and 8 tens, and these, written in the place of hundreds and tens respectively, give the true product, 288qt.

=

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13. If 1 horse is worth $125, what are 7 horses worth?
14. In 1 year there are 365 days; how many days are
there in 3 years?

15. If the President of the United States saves $5648
in 1 year, how much, at the same rate, will he save in 4
years?

16. How many yards of cloth are there in 9 bales, each
bale containing 625 yards?

17. Multiply 356 by 7.
18. Multiply 874 by 3.
19. Multiply 368 by 5.
20 Multiply 759 by 4.

15. To multiply by two or more figures.

25. How many quarts are there in 49 bushels?

OPERATION.

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26.

True product, 1568

16. In the same manner solve the following examples,
multiplying each upper number by the one under it in each
example; also multiply in the manner indicated by the signs.

27.

28.

29.

30.

31.

{

( 345 X 24
37 X 56

432 X 243
724 X 36

{
{
{
{

4326 X 28
325 X 32

5648 X 59

364 X 38

3564 X 48

2435 X 84

5642 X 67

325 X 84

First multiply by 9, as though 9
were the only figure in the multi-
plier; then multiply by 4, and set
the first figure of this product under
the 4; finally, add the partial prod-
ucts together, and the sum will be
the true product.

504 X 32

56 X 45

524 X 325

464 X 426

6304 X 56

542 X 72

21. 3742 X 8 ?
22. 6536 X 6 =?
23. 3042 X 2
24. 7608 X

4008 X 63

3604 X 75

9604 X 49

376 X 84

4768 X 95

347 X 46

7063 X 25
62 X 74

540 X 367
842 X 304

3068 X 384

247 X 265

5308 X 872

2046 X 635

6350 X 358

4635 X 496

3465 X 386

7308 X 947

32.

If a steamboat sails 288 miles per day, how far will
she sail in 27 days?

DIVISION.

17. BY DIVISION We find how many times one number
is contained in another.

The number to be divided, is called the DIVIDEND;
the number by which to divide is called the DIVISOR;
the number of times the dividend contains the divisor is.
called the QUOTIENT. If anything is left after dividing,
it is called the REMAINDER.

18. To perform Short Division.

Ex. 1. How many weeks are there in 364 days?

OPERATION.

Divisor, 7)364 Dividend.
Quotient, 52

In dividing we first say, 7 in
36, 5 times and 1 remainder;
set the quotient, 5, under the 6
of the dividend, and then, im-
agining the remainder, 1, placed before the 4, say, 7 in 14,
2 times; set the 2 under the 4, and thus we find the quo-
tient, 52,
is called Short Division.
This process

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19. Divide 161 by 7.
20. Divide 204 by 6.
21. Divide 475 by 5.
22. Divide 345 by 3.
23. Divide 846 by 9.

4.

8)432

9.

3)2847

14.

8)4320

24. 9732

25. 1768

26. 7648

27. 4428

28. 3762

5.

6)456

10.

5)3465

16. How much sugar, at 9 cents a pound, can be bought
for 342 cents, or $3.42 ?
Ans. 38lb.

17. How many pigs, at $5 each, can be bought for $285 ?
18. If a horse travels 7 miles per hour, in how many
hours will he travel 1001 miles?

15.

6)3816

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