31. 4235+1063 + 2714 + 3026 + 8124 + 3654 184 24 381 298 33. 2146 401 8002 84 5423 34. 2401 7103 516 511 27 35. 1020 24 871 4820 36. 36427 38. 72412 39. 43675 40. 12341 367 3412 45326 + 52674 + 38956 +2138 254 68240 388 54 4102 Minuend, 748 Subtrahend, 236 315 284 33 4123 2. From 7658 Ans. 4231 7. From 87426 41. A grain-dealer bought 375 bushels of wheat of A, 564 bushels of B, 2346 bushels of C, and 897 bushels of D; how many bushels of wheat did he buy? 3529 87006 61. 42. I paid $3464 for a farm, $4875 for a house, $15625 for a mill, and $3875 for 30 shares of the Boston and Maine Railroad stock; how much did I pay for all this property? 43. How many are 63 + 79 +144 + 28 ? Ans. 314. 44. How many are 469 +8742+92748 +869 ? SUBTRACTION. 9. BY SUBTRACTION we take a less number from a greater number to find their difference. The greater number is called the MINUEND; the less number, the SUBTRAHEND; the difference, the REMAIN DER. 10. To subtract when no figure in the subtrahend is larger than the figure over it. Ex. 1. From 748 take 236. OPERATION. 3. 5703 4301 8. 70827 40326 Taking 6 from 8 leaves 2, 3 from 4 leaves 1, and 2 from 7 leaves 5; therefore, the remainder is 512. 4694 5368 2846 3714 168 12. A farmer bought a farm for $3625, and sold it for $4986; how much did he gain? Ans. $1361. 13. In 1860 the population of Maine was 628276, and that of New Hamsphire was 326072; how many more people were there in Maine than in New Hampshire? 11. To subtract when any figure in the subtrahend is greater than the figure over it. 14. From 982 take 137. As we cannot take 7 units from 2 units, one of the tens is put with the two units, making 12 units; and then 7 units from 12 units leave 5 units. Now as one of the 8 tens has been put with the 2 units, only 7 tens remain in the minuend, and 3 tens from 7 tens leave 4 tens; and, finally, 1 hundred from 9 hundreds leaves therefore, the entire remainder is 845. hundreds; 12. In the same manner solve the following examples, taking each lower number from the one over it in each example; also subtract in the manner indicated by the signs. 15. S 6379 2184 7683 16. 5947 8725 { { { { 19. {6948 17. 6943 18. 5402 4802 4062 OPERATION. Min. 982 20. 21. 22. $ 7829 943 3245 1528 3846 - 1072 3684 2948 3712 824 · 3879 2983 6420 784 - 4682 .3486 6849 5986 23. Washington was born in 1732, and died in 1799; at what age did he die? 24. Methuselah died at the age of 969 years, and Washington at 67; what was the difference of their ages ? 25. A merchant sold goods for $3427, and thereby gained $1224; what did the goods cost him? 26. In a certain battle 27345 men were engaged on one side, and 23598 on the other; how many more were engaged on one side than on the other? 27. The distance round the earth is about 24856 miles, and the distance through it is about 7912 miles; how much further round it than through it? 28. How many years have passed since the discovery of America in 1492? MULTIPLICATION. 13. BY MULTIPLICATION we find how many units there are in any number of times a given number. The number to be repeated is called the MULTIPLICAND; the number which shows how many times the multiplicand is to be taken is called the MULTIPLIER; the result of the multiplication is called the PROduct. The Multiplicand and Multiplier are called FACTORS. 14. To multiply by a single figure. Ex. 1. In 1 bushel there are 32 quarts; how many quarts are there in 9 bushels ? OPERATION. = Having set the factors as in the marMultiplicand, 32 gin, we say, 9 times 2 units are 18 units Multiplier, 9 1 ten and 8 units; write the 8 units Product, 288 in units' place, and then say, 9 times 3 tens are 27 tens, which, increased by the 1 ten previously obtained, make 28 tens 2 hundreds and 8 tens, and these, written in the place of hundreds and tens respectively, give the true product, 288qt. = 1 13. If 1 horse is worth $125, what are 7 horses worth? 15. If the President of the United States saves $5648 16. How many yards of cloth are there in 9 bales, each 17. Multiply 356 by 7. 15. To multiply by two or more figures. 25. How many quarts are there in 49 bushels? OPERATION. 26. True product, 1568 16. In the same manner solve the following examples, 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. { ( 345 X 24 432 X 243 { 4326 X 28 5648 X 59 364 X 38 3564 X 48 2435 X 84 5642 X 67 325 X 84 First multiply by 9, as though 9 504 X 32 56 X 45 524 X 325 464 X 426 6304 X 56 542 X 72 21. 3742 X 8 ? 4008 X 63 3604 X 75 9604 X 49 376 X 84 4768 X 95 347 X 46 7063 X 25 540 X 367 3068 X 384 247 X 265 5308 X 872 2046 X 635 6350 X 358 4635 X 496 3465 X 386 7308 X 947 32. If a steamboat sails 288 miles per day, how far will DIVISION. 17. BY DIVISION We find how many times one number The number to be divided, is called the DIVIDEND; 18. To perform Short Division. Ex. 1. How many weeks are there in 364 days? OPERATION. Divisor, 7)364 Dividend. In dividing we first say, 7 in 19. Divide 161 by 7. 4. 8)432 9. 3)2847 14. 8)4320 24. 9732 25. 1768 26. 7648 27. 4428 28. 3762 5. 6)456 10. 5)3465 16. How much sugar, at 9 cents a pound, can be bought 17. How many pigs, at $5 each, can be bought for $285 ? 15. 6)3816 |