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(2) F. W. Aston, Mass Spectra and isotopes, p. 130 (Longmans, Green & Co., New York, N. Y., 1942). (3) R. Bentley, The use of stable isotopes in biological chemistry, Mass Spectrometry, pp. 117-26 (1950). (4) G. B. Brown, Precursors of nucleic acids, J. Cellular Comp. Physiol. 38 supp., 121 (1951).

(5) R. H. Burris, F. J. Eppling, H. B. Wahlin, and P. W. Wilson, Detection of nitrogen fixation with isotopic nitrogen, J. Biol. Chem. 148, 349 (1943). (6) K. Clusius and E. Becker, Atomic-weight determination of N15-rich nitrogen by means of the gasdensity balance, Z. anorg. u. allgem. Chem. 251, 92 (1943).

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(10) J. George, Decrease of nitrogen15/nitrogen1 ratio measurement as a function of pump-out timefor Nier-type isotope-ratio mass spectrometer, Anal. Chem. 24, 1662 (1952).

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oxygen, carbon and nitrogen in organic compounds, Anal. Chem. 21, 386 (1949).

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(13) S. G. Hindin and A. V. Grosse, Determination of nitrogen in organic materials, Application of the mass spectrometer, Anal. Chem. 20, 1019 (1948). (14) M. Hoch and H-R Weisser, Reactions with N15. II. A spectroscopic micromethod for determination of N15, Helv. Chim. Acta (in German) 33, 2128 (1950).

(15) J. R. Holmes, Isotope shifts in some previously unexplored lines of nitrogen, Phys. Rev. 73, 539 (1948). (16) J. A. Hunter, R. W. Stacy, and F. A. Hitchcock, Mass spectrometer for continuous gas analysis, Rev. Sci. Instr. 20, 333 (1949).

(17) D. A. Hutchison, Efficiency of the electrolytic separation of potassium isotopes, J. Chem. Phys. 14, 401 (1946).

(18) A. D. Kirshenbaum, S. G. Hindin and A. V. Grosse, Elementary isotopic analysis: Determination of nitrogen, Nature 160, 187 (1947).

(19) H. Kruger, The enriching of the N15 isotope and some spectroscopic investigations on N15, Z. Physik 111, 467 (1939).

(20) J. Mattauch, Double focusing mass spectrograph and the masses of N15 and O18, Phys. Rev. 50, 617 (1936).

(21) J. Mattauch, Stable isotopes, their measurement and application, Angew. Chem. (in German) [A] 59, 37 (1947).

(22) E. Moles, The precision obtainable with the method of limiting densities, Arch. sci. phys. et nat. 20, 59 (1938).

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(25) A. O. Nier, A mass spectrometer for isotope and gas analysis, Rev. Sci. Instr. 18, 398 (1947).

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(30) D. Rittenberg, Some applications of mass spectro-
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(36) R. Schoenheimer, D. Rittenberg, G. L. Foster, A. S.
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(37) E. Schumacher, H. Mollet, and K. Clusius, Gas-
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(40) D. B. Sprinson and D. Rittenberg, The rate of util-
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(41) R. C. Taylor, R. A. Brown, W. S. Young, and C. E.
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(43) H. von Ubisch, The mass spectrometer and its use.
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4.4. Use

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Sperber, Tracer studies of N assimilation in yeast,
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(2) R. Abrams, E. Hammarsten, and D. Shemin,
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(3) C. F. H. Allen and C. V. Wilson, Use of N15 as a
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glycine by avian erythrocytes and reticulocytes
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(5) A. R. Amell and F. Daniels, Kinetics of the exchange
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(6) E. P. Anderson and S. E. G. Aqvist, A double pre-
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(8) M. H. Aprison and R. H. Burris, Time course of
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(9) M. H. Aprison, W. E. Magee, and R. H. Burris,
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(10) S. E. G. Aqvist, Amino acid interrelationships dur
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(11) S. E. G. Aqvist, Metabolic interrelationships among
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(12) H. R. V. Arnstein and A. Neuberger, Hippuric acid
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(13) H. Arvidson, N. A. Eliasson, E. Hammarsten, P.
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(14) H. S. Bailey and J. E. Christian, The distribution
of nitrogen15 in rat tissues following the intra-
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(15) W. V. Bartholomew, L. B. Nelson, and C. H. Werk-
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(17) A. Bendich, S. S. Furst, and G. B. Brown, On the role
of the 2,6-diaminopurine in the biosynthesis of
nucleic acid guanine, J. Biol. Chem. 185, 423
(1950).

(18) A. Bendich, W. D. Geren, and G. B. Brown, Study
of the metabolism of 2,4-diaminopyrimidine, J.
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(19) J. D. Benedict, P. H. Forsham, and D. Stetten, Jr.,
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human studied with the aid of isotopic uric acid,
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(20) J. D. Benedict, M. Roche, T. F. Yu, E. J. Bien,
A. B. Gutman, and D. Stetten, Jr., Incorporation
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man, Metabolism 1, 3 (1952).

(21) J. D. Benedict, T. F. Yü, E. J. Bien, A. B. Gutman,
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tion of dietary glycine nitrogen for uric acid
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(22) M. Berenbom and J. White, Metabolism of N15.
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(23) M. Berenbom and J. White, The metabolism of
intravenously administered ammonium glutamate
and glutamine, J. Biol. Chem. 182, 5 (1950).
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(25) J. Bigeleisen, The effects of isotopic substitution on
the rates of chemical reactions, J. Phys. Chem.
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liver, J. Biol. Chem. 179, 1245 (1949).

(27) K. Bloch and R. Schoenheimer, Protein metabolism.
XI. The metabolic relation of creatine and
creatinine studied with isotopic nitrogen, J. Biol.
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(28) K. Bloch and R. Schoenheimer, The biological for-
mation of creatine, J. Biol. Chem. 133, 633 (1940).
(29) K. Bloch and R. Schoenheimer, The biological pre-
cursors of creatine, J. Biol. Chem. 138, 167 (1941).
(30) K. Bloch, R. Schoenheimer, and D. Rittenberg,
Rate of formation and disappearance of body
creatine in normal animals, J. Biol. Chem. 138,
155 (1941).

(31) D. M. Bonner and E. Wasserman, The conversion
of N15-containing indole to niacin by niacin-
requiring strain 39401 of neurospora, J. Biol.
Chem. 185, 69 (1950).

(32) A. A. Bothner-By and L. Friedman, A nitrogen15
tracer study of organic azide reactions. I. The
Curtis rearrangement of 3,5-dinitrobenzazide-N15,
J. Am. Chem. Soc. 73, 5391 (1951).

(33) G. B. Brown, Precursors of nucleic acids, J. Cellular
Comp. Physiol. 38, supp. 121 (1951).

(34) G. B. Brown, M. L. Petermann, and S. S. Furst, The
incorporation of adenine into pentose and desoxy-
pentose nucleic acids, J. Biol. Chem. 174, 1043
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(35) G. B. Brown, P. M. Roll, and L. F. Cavalieri, The
in vivo oxidation of uric acid, J. Biol. Chem. 171,
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(36) G. B. Brown, P. M. Roll, A. A. Plentl, and L. F.
Cavalieri, Utilization of adenine for nucleic acid
synthesis and as a precursor of guanine, J. Biol.
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(37) V. C. E. Burnop, D. E. Richards, W. M. Watkins,
and A. Wormall, Combination of nitrogen15-
labeled nitrogen mustard with proteins, Nature
168, 251 (1951).

(38) R. H. Burris, Distribution of isotopic N in Azoto-
bacter vinelandii, J. Biol. Chem. 143, 509 (1942).
(39) R. H. Burris, F. J. Eppling, H. B. Wahlin, and P.
W. Wilson, Detection of nitrogen fixation with
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(40) R. H. Burris, F. J. Eppling, H. B. Wahlin, and P.
W. Wilson, Studies of biological nitrogen fixation
with isotopic nitrogen, Soil Sci. Soc. Amer., Proc.
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(41) R. H. Burris and C. E. Miller, Application of N15 to
the study of biological nitrogen fixation, Science
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(42) G. C. Butler, Tracers in biology, Proc. Conf. Nuclear
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159-166.

(43) R. Caren and M. E. Morton, Pyrimidine metabo-
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(44) L. F. Cavaliere, J. F. Tinker, and G. B. Brown,
Degradations in the purine series studied with
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(45) Fu-Chuan Chao, C. C. Delwiche, and D. M. Green-
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(46) E. Chargaff, M. Ziff, and D. Rittenberg, Determina-
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(47) E. Chargaff, M. Ziff, and D. Rittenberg, Study of
the nitrogenous constituents of tissue phos-
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(48) K. Clusius and H. Hurzeler, Reactions with N15.
X. Reduction and oxidation of hydrazoic acid,
Helv. Chim. Acta (in German) 36, 1326 (1953).
(49) K. Clusius and H. R. Weisser, Reactions with N15,
III. Mechanism of the Fischer indole synthesis,
Helv. Chim. Acta (in German) 35, 400 (1952).

gen15. V. Mechanism of the rearrangement of
diazoaminobenzine to p-aminoazobenzine, Helv.
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(51) K. Clusius and H. R. Weisser, Reactions with N15.
VI. Structure of Phenylazide, Helv. Chim. Acta
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(52) K. Clusius and M. Vecchi, Reactions with N15.
VII. Proof of the nitrate ion in liquid nitrogen
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(53) K. Clusius and M. Vecchi, Reactions with N15.
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(54) K. Clusius and M. Vecchi, Reactions with N15.
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Traube, Helv. Chim. Acta (in German) 36, 1324
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(56) C. C. Delwiche, The assimilation of ammonium and
nitrate ions by tobacco plants, J. Biol. Chem. 189,
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(57) C. C. Delwiche, W. D. Loomis, and P. K. Stumpf,
Amide metabolism in higher plants II. The
exchange of isotopic ammonia by glutamyl trans-
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(58) F. J. DiCarlo, A. S. Schultz, P. M. Roll, and G. B.
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the body, Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. 92, 127 (1948).
(61) V. Du Vigneaud, M. Cohn, G. B. Brown, O. J. Irish,
R. Schoenheimer, and D. Rittenberg, A study of
the inversion of d-phenylaminobutyric acid and
the acetylation of l-phenylaminobutyric acid by
means of the isotopes of nitrogen and hydrogen,
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(62) R. R. Edwards, Isotopic tracers in chemical systems,
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(64) D. Elwyn and D. B. Sprinson, Certain interrela-
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(65) D. Elwyn and D. B. Sprinson, Reaction of folic acid
to the metabolism of serine, J. Biol. Chem. 184,
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(66) D. Elwyn and D. B. Sprinson, Role of serine and
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(67) D. Elwyn and D. B. Sprinson, The synthesis of
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(68) G. L. Foster, Some amino acid analyses of hemo-
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(69) G. L. Foster, R. Schoenheimer and D. Rittenberg,
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(70) L. Friedman and J. Bigeleisen, Oxygen and nitrogen
isotope effects in the decomposition of ammonium
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(71) J. S. Fruton, The role of proteolytic enzymes in the
biosynthesis of peptide bonds, Yale J. Biol. and
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(72) J. S. Fruton, R. B. Johnston, and M. Fried, Elonga-
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A. Gajdos, Use of nitrogen15 in the study of the
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(75) D. A. Goldthwait and A. Bendich, Effects of a folic
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(76) J. Graff and H. D. Hoberman, Metabolism of
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(77) S. Graff, D. Rittenberg, and G. L. Foster, The
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(78) C. H. Gray, Isotope studies in porphyria, Brit.
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(79) C. H. Gray, I. M. H. Muir, and A. Neuberger,
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(87) E. Hammarsten, P. Reichard, and E. Saluste,
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(88) E. Hammarsten, P. Reichard, and E. Saluste,
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