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estimate of the vast benefit which must be derived by the next generation from the diffusion, through so many different channels, of religious and other knowledge, among the youth of this district. Several of the Sunday schools have juvenile libraries, from which the more advanced scholars obtain the loan of various publications, not only of a moral and religious tendency, but also on general subjects. The good effect of these institutions has been remarkable : many who were formerly scholars are now themselves gratuitous teachers; and numbers have become exemplary characters merely in consequence of the instruction they received, and the habits they imbibed, while attending these schools."

In addition to all these marvels of improvement, including the erection of a printing press, and the weekly publication of the very respectable Journal from which the preceding passage is extracted, an infant school, a temperance society consisting of a thousand members, and a branch savings bank, in which even many of the Hottentots, who have renounced the practice of dram drinking, are in the habit of depositing their unappropriated earnings, have been, within the last three years, established in the same place.

“ As the influence of religion," continues Mr. Kay, " has diffused and extended itself throughout the settlement, a missionary spirit also has been gradually kindling among the people. Hence the Albany missionary society has now assumed a degree of importance far exceeding our most sanguine expectations ; and the annual meetings, held at Graham's town in January or February, generally excite intense interest among all classes of the inhabitants. On the platforms may be seen Kaffer chiefs, and ministers of all denominations around ús—Episcopalian, Independent, Baptist, and Presbyterian; which, of course, forms one of the most interesting features of the occasion. The amount of subscriptions, inclusive of various small sums from the Caffrarian stations transmitted to the parent society in London last year, was no less a sum than 365l. Os. 3d. But it is not by gold and silver only that this transplanted people are zealously assisting us in the grand work of evangelization: the great Head of the Church is raising up from among them men also to proceed with the everlasting Gospel in their hands to the savage hordes of the interior. of the emigrants are now employed as missionaries, and seven or eight others as artisans or school masters. Like the vine, therefore, the Church is here spreading forth her branches over the wall; and the wandering sons of Ham are sitting down under its shade, and partaking of its fruit. The wilderness and the solitary place shall be glad for them: the desert shall rejoice, and blossom as the rose.'

That the remote clans of native Kaffers, into whose fastnesses the missionaries have been enabled to penetrate, should, after so short a term of moral and religious cultivation, exhibit the same aspect of recovered nobleness of spirit, is not to be expected. But all that could have been accomplished by strenuous exertion and ever-active philanthropy, accompanied by that benediction from on high which never fails to attend its fearless labors, the missionaries have assuredly achieved. And when we think of those darker scenes, in the imme. diate vicinity of such a colony as that described in the foregoing quotationswhen we conceive of that vigorous benevolence which seems

Vol. V.-July, 1834. 22

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to actuate the great majority of the British residents in Albany, a benevolence which prompts them even now to the performance of such unusual acts of liberality, as those we have had the delight of recording in these pages--when we thus call to mind their truly admirable beneficence and generosity, and think moreover of their constant efforts to impress upon the youth of every origin and color in the settlement the same exalted disposition of charity,--the prospect which arises to our sight is heart-refreshing and consolatory. We cannot refrain from adding to our already lengthened extracts from the work before us the concluding and really eloquent appeal of Mr. Kay.

" Let it never be forgotten,” he says, “ that Christianity led the way in opening an intercourse with the tribes; that she laid the foundations of commerce, and inspired them with a wish for peace with the colony ; and that where her mild sway is most fully established, there is our intercourse likely to be most peaceful and permanent. These being facts that defy refutation, it is sincerely hoped that, whatever measures 'the powers that be' may adopt, the utmost care will be taken to guard against every thing that might, in the least degree, tend to impede her progress; and that the friends of missions will continue to afford increased aid, in order that her cheering rays may be extended to the remotest extremities of the land. To the latter alone, the tribes are looking for effectual deliverance from the galling yoke of heathenism. Government, indeed, may do much in protecting them from foes without ; but theirs is not the province to put down or subjugate the enemy within. Ignorance and superstition will still bear down into eternal darkness whole, nations of men, unless Christians unweariedly exert themselves in sending forth the light of truth. Much has been done toward checking the horrid rites and sanguinary orgies, connected with idolatry in India, by appeals to the British legislature ; and much, we trust, will ere long be done for the enslaved African in the west, by similar measures ; but these, alas, can do little or nothing for the pagan nations of Africa itself, inasmuch as they are wholly independent of our jurisdiction. With a country of their own, and government of their own framing, they are placed beyond the reach of every thing, save Christ and his Gospel. Hence, if the friends of religion come not forth to their help, millions of poor children must remain for ever untaught; entire regions be left altogether destitute of schools, and of churches, as well as of teachers; and generation must continue to follow generation into eternity without so much as ever seeing a book! Nay, thousands of miserable females must still be tortured; multitudes of innocent individuals annually sacrificed ; and tens of thousands dragged, while struggling with death, into glens and jungles, as food for beasts of prey! On the ground, therefore, of common humanity, as well as of Christian duty, we once more press the matter upon every Briton's conscience in the sacred and imperative language of Holy Writ:- If thou forbear to deliver them that are drawn unto death, and those that are ready to be slain ; is thou sayest, Behold, we knew it not; doth not He that pondereth the heart consider it? and He that keepeth thy soul, doth not He know it? and shall not He render to every man according to his work?'"

It appears, then, from this very interesting record, that the benefits

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of foreign commerce, of intellectual and moral education, and everyday communication with an eminently Christian people, have been, in our own day, and chiefly by the agency of evangelical teachers, bestowed upon the long-degraded and much-injured races of the Hottentots and Kaffers. It is encouraging and satisfactory to know that the experiment has hitherto so well succeeded; and that the present aspect of affairs in Africa gives promise of still farther and far more illustrious triumphs.

Before we quite dismiss the subject, it behoves us to remind our readers that this important African mission has a peculiar and imperious claim on the assistance and enlarged support of an enlightened public. Let us not, in this case, take credit to ourselves for any great abundance of “ the quality of mercy :" we have not yet done all that we are bound by every principle of rigid justice to perform for the amelioration of the moral state of that vast and darkened continent. The record of our deepest national crimes is written on her sands, and stamped on her imperishable rocks. They have been stained and trampled, in the passage over them, of thousands of our countrymen, with feet that were swift to shed blood, and garments reeking with the rank, hot incense of murder, and inhuman spoliation. Oppression, perfidy, malignant passion, and restless violation of the rights of others, have marked the footsteps of ten thousand Europeans across the steppes and wildernesses of that desert land. Despair, and death, and misery, manifold and worse than death, have followed in their ghastly train ; and rioted, as with infernal drunkenness of delight, amidst the myriad scenes of agony which have branded on the memory of those horrible invasions the curses of inexpiable guilt. That which is past, which has been done under the sanction, too often, under the express direction, of so called Christian governments, can never be atoned for, never be compensated, by any possible extremity of sacrifice or self devotion. Yet is repentance and a resolute abjuration of these damning practices, and every thing akin to them, our plain, imperative, and sacred duty. And if, in the plenitude of his compassion, that God, whose majesty we have thus awfully despised, defied, insulted, shall see fit to confer on us, in token of the pardon of our black offences, the honorable distinction of being made the ministers of civilization, moral improvement, and eternal life, to the degraded children of our former victims,-if indeed we may hope that such surpassing mercy is reserved for us, shall we not joyfully accept the high commission, with all its fearful obligation and responsibilities, and be thankful unto Him our Maker?

It is only requisite in conclusion to say, that Mr. Kay's volume reflects great credit upon his judgment and research. It contains information respecting the minutiæ of the Kaffer customs and habits which will be sought for in vain in the works of any of our African travellers ; but its principal interest and value arise from the authentic intelligence which it contains of the progress of Christianity, and of the comforts of civilized life, among a people proverbially barbarous and wretched; and, as such, we cordially recommend it.

REVIEW OF THE LIFE OF DR. ADAM CLARKE.

(Continued from page 224.) We concluded our remarks, in our last number, on the Life of Dr. Clarke with some testimonies in favor of his literary character and attainments. The following additional testimonies arose out of his connection with the British and Foreign Bible Society :

• It has often been observed that those individuals who can and who will work, have always an abundance of employment. The truth of this was probably never more fully exemplified than in the case of the subject of these memoirs ; for the extraordinary talents and industry he possessed, were soon called to yet a wider sphere of usefulness, which, however, did not supersede, but was rather added to all the rest.

The British and Foreign Bible Society," which was then in its infancy, soon nominated him a member of its committee, and his Biblical knowledge and oriental studies constituted him a powerful auxiliary in many of its important objects. His brother-in-law, Mr. Butterworth, who was one of its earliest members, besought him to add this one other duty to his already long catalogue of engagements; and the importance of the object itself, joined to his desire for the instruction and salvation of all the human race, determined him to give a portion of his time and attention to this new call from God and this servants.

The subject of printing a Bible in the Arabic language occupied at this time the deep attention of the comunittee.

On this subject there is a rough copy of a letter addressed to the Right Hon. Lord Teignmouth, president of the British and Foreign Bible Society, a nobleman equally known for his literary acumen, as for the benevolence and urbanity of his character. This nobleman ever treated Mr. Clarke's opinion on all subjects with the most respectful attention, and he felt for him the kindest personal regard. The letter in question will give some notion of the nature of the arduous labor which devolves upon the committee of the British and Foreign Bible Society, and the cautious wariness with which they are ever obliged to act:

“ MY LORD,~I am favored with a note from the Rev. Mr. Usko, enclosing a sheet of the quarto Arabic Bible now printing at Newcastle, at the same time expressing a desire that I would transmit it to Mr. Dawes, at the Sierra Leone office, for his opinion. I did so, and have only received it back this morning, when I lost no time in immediately laying my opinion on the subject of a new edition of the Arabic Bible before the committee; they desired me to transmit the substance of it to your lordship, which I most gladly do, fully convinced that your judgment on this case is that by which both the committee and myself ought to be governed. In reference to the printed specimen,

1. I allow that the type for its size is very beautiful, and seems to be well distributed over the page ; so that the words are every where sufficiently distinct, which is not a common case in the Arabic or Persian books, printed either here or at Calcutta.

2. The paper is good enough, the ink very good, and the typographical execution very respectable. But I object first to the form, which I think is not the most convenient. Few Arabic or Persian books are written in quarto : even where the page is quarto the written part is very narrow in proportion, and often is no wider than what would be proportionate to an octavo page. Long lines on a quarto page, especially where the characters are small, are very inconvenient to be read, as it is difficult to carry back the eye over such a length of surface, so as to begin at the proper ensuing line. I would therefore advise-it to be printed in quarto, and in two columns, to be separated by a neat double brass rule. Secondly, the character, though beautiful, is too small. I believe your lordship knows that the Asiatics hate our small types ; and though many Persian works, especially the poets, are written in small characters, yet the penmanship is so very elegant, (far surpassing any thing which can be imitated by movable types,) that they are very easily read; yet I believe Arabic works are seldom written so. Arabic writers seem to delight in a large, bold character, with the nexus greatly protracted in most of those letters which can admit of it, which is not only an eleganes in their notions of calligraphy, but serves greatly to relieve and conduct the eye.

The college De Propaganda Fide have carefully consulted this taste of the Mohammedans, and therefore have issued among them both the Scriptures and other theological works in a large, well-cut, beautiful character, resembling, as nearly as possible, those in their best written MSS. The same line is pursued at the Catholic establishment on Mount Lebanon, at the monastery of Mar-HannaShouair, where they have a printing press, from which, as Mr. Usko informs us, parts of the Holy Scriptures and certain devotional books have been issued in Arabic, executed in a large and beautiful type, and with great typographical accuracy.

3. This edition is without the vowel points. I have no doubt that Arabic, as well as the Hebrew, was originally destitute of its present vowel points, and consequently shall say nothing against or for the origin, necessity, and utility of this system, merely considered in itself; but I beg leave to observe to your lordship that the points are considered by the Mohammedans themselves as essential to a Divine revelation.

Hence the Koran is invariably written with the points, in all the forms in which it appears ; indeed, so scrupulously attached are they to these points, that though in all their own works, except those of an elementary kind, they omit them; yet they affix them to every passage they quote from the Koran, in their other works, and often distinguish it by a different letter. Your lordship is no doubt well acquainted with the Tufseer Husseng, a celebrated commentary on the Koran, and

you may have observed that though the text is introduced in very small parcels, often only in single words, yet the points are continually affixed with the most scrupulous exactness. Now, my lord, as the points are always added among the Mohammedans to every portion of what they call a Divine revelation, not only in token of profound respect, but also as essential to the fixing of the sense of that

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