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rising above that condition. We know that efforts have long been made to remove their disabilities, and elevate their rank in society. But we see no approximation yet to the object. Our halls of legislation are not yet open to them. No black man occupies the judicial. bench, or pleads at our bars of justice, or enters our colleges or seminaries, or is permitted to exercise the functions of a pastor over a white congregation. Even they of the most ultra views on this subject seem yet hardly to think of carrying them out to their full extent. They are scarcely more disposed to give and take in marriage among the colored people than others. * And until it actually comes to this, there will and must be a distinction between us.
We do not say a superiority or inequality, but a distinction or separation ; such a one, too, as must give rise to envy, jealousy, and a vast deal of unpleasant feeling, which will be as unhappy for one class as for the other.T Now we do not undertake in this place to argue the right and the wrong of the matter. With that subject, at present, we have nothing
* Since this discourse was delivered, we have been informed that a black man was pastor of a white congregation in one of the eastern states. Still our remark, as a general one, is correct; and this instance was but a solitary exception. We never heard of any other case, and presume no other ever existed.
We have also seen the singular advertisement from West Chester, Pa. But the shock which that proposition gave to the public mind shows what is the state of feeling on the subject. But the doctrine of intermarriage between blacks and whites has been publicly disclaimed by the abolitionists of our city; and it is therefore no longer a subject of argument. Indeed, what motive or obligation can induce men to break over the natural barriers that Heaven has interposed between the two races, and thus propagate a mongrel tribe in the world, it is difficult for a reasonable mind to conceive. It strikes us as being not less repugnant to common sense, than to some other senses.
| It is also a consideration that has no doubt occurred to many minds, that the nearer the blacks are brought to an equality with the whites, without the privilege of intermarriage, the greater will be the difficulties between the two classes. It is a well-known principle in psychology, that jealousy or rivalry can only exist where there is a near approach, or, at least, a claim to equality. Thus, for instance, a beggar never attempts to rival a king, nor a fool a philosopher. Where the inequality is evident and admitted, there is an end to competition. This latter is put forth just in proportion to the approach to equality, and is sustained only by the hope of excelling. Now if reason or nature sanctioned the principles of amalgamation, there would be no objection to this equality, or the competition that would grow out of it. But since public feeling never has been, and, we believe, never will be reconciled to intermarriages, what must be the state of feeling engendered by the constant association of the two classes in schools, in social circles, in public and civil relations, in the most intimate familiarities of social life, and yet the right of intermarriage entirely denied ? The consequences would be most deplorable. We should not only have the constant exasperations of jealousy and envy, but we should have revenge and madness, with shocking debauchery and profligacy. We should have a state of universal concubinage such as now exists in the West Indies, where, with all their vaunted views of perfect equality, connections between the sexes of different color are hardly to be found in any other way; where the mulatto carries the stamp of illegitimacy on his skin.
We are referred to the existence of the Jews as a distinct race, without any of the above jealousies and exasperations resulting. But they who urge this objec* tion to our views, seem to forget, not only that their preservation is a fulfilment of
prophecy, and is a work of special providence; but also, what is more important io our arguinent, that the repugnance to intermarriage is as great on one side as on the other. It never has been either claimed or refused; consequently we stand on equal ground. But the blacks are far otherwise. As early as this they have told us, that the whites would be benefited by having a little negro blood in their veins. Of course a very different state of feeling must ensue. For what would they say, if denied intermarriage, when otherwise admitted to equality ? VOL. V.-October, 1834.
to do. We merely state the fact that such distinction does exist; and we fully believe that it will for ever exist.
This being the case, we should conscientiously advise them to run away from it as fast as possible, as the only method of meliorating their condition. For as long as it exists, this country is evidently no home for them. They labor under insuperable disabilities and privations. To urge that it is wrong, that it ought to be done away; and then to stand arguing and contesting the point with a view to change public opinion and feeling, is a slow and hopeless way of coming at the remedy: it is a mode, too, not adopted in other somewhat similar
Our pilgrim fathers were laboring under disabilities in England, which deprived home of its attractions. Were not their oppressions as unreasonable, as unjust, as assailable by reason and argument, and as remediable too, as the evils of our colored race? But did they stay at home until public opinion and the laws should be altered in their favor? No, certainly. They preferred to emigrate, and found a new empire ; and we, their children, enjoy the fruit of their labors and privations. But were they wise in this step, or were they not? Let the triumphs of the star-spangled banner' give the answer. Let the rejoicings of our nation's birth day, and the joyous beating of millions of free and happy hearts, respond. Do we put the question, Were they wise ? From all the mountains and valleys of our extended continent echo will send you back the deep-toned response. And to these add the testimony of thousands of pious bosoms, assembled this day in the houses of their God, glowing with thankfulness to Him who .executeth righteousness and judgment for all that are oppressed.'
Such blessings we anticipate for Africa. The colored man, therefore, we can cordially invite to go; and to the wealthy we would appeal in his behalf for aid. If this cause meet the public countenance and support, nothing can prevent its triumphant success. There are means and funds sufficient in these states to drain off the entire black population, if that be desirable. But, at any rate, to send the light of science and Christianity to Africa, and regenerate her entire continent.
And surely this is a worthy object, if even it should not accomplish all that its friends anticipate. We appeal then to the public, and call upon you for aid. This work is before you ; and it is for you to say whether it shall be done. Africa may be made • light in the Lord; and her sons, though • black as the tents of Kedar, may be comely as the curtains of Solomon.' Then shall the Lord indeed have .executed righteousness and judgment for them; and then Africa, thou shalt no more be termed Forsaken; neither shall thy land any more be termed Desolate; but thou shalt be called Hephsibah, and thy land Beulah: for the Lord delighteth in thee, and thy land shall be married. For as a young man marrieth a virgin, so shall thy sons marry thee; and as the bridegroom rejoiceth over the bride, so shall thy God rejoice over thee.'
ESSAY ON A THEOLOGICAL EDUCATION.
Written by request of the “ Junior Preachers' Society of the New England
BY REV. LA ROY SUNDERLAND,
Member of the said Conference.
No other merit is claimed for the following remarks than that they are written on a subject of great importance; and in which, it is believed,
many of the most pious and eminent ministers and laymen of the Methodist Episcopal Church feel a very lively interest.
It was in the hope of calling the attention of our people more generally to this subject that this essay was at first presented for insertion in the Christian Advocate and Journal; but the senior editor, who has since resigned, thought it unadvisable to insert it, as the subject had not been discussed in that paper. The next week the subject was proposed in the Advocate, in an editorial article, under the head of • An educated ministry among us;' but it was soon after discontinued.
Perhaps it were but justice to add here, that confidence in the judgment of a number of brethren in two or three different conferences, and for whom the writer feels it a pleasure to indulge the most profound respect, induces him to submit the following pages to the candor and pious reflection of the friends and members of the Methodist Episcopal Church.
New-York, Aug. 1, 1834.
The infinite God is the great Author and Patron of science. He is the • Father of lights ;' the lights of natural, moral, intellectual, and religious knowledge all emanate from Him.
The highest and most profitable science which has ever engaged the attention of men comes from the Book, of which God is the Author. And hence from the beginning God has shown Himself the constant Patron of theological learning, especially in that He has made a revelation of His will adapted to man's condition, and put within his reach all desirable means for acquiring a thorough and saving knowledge of its nature and design. He has, moreover, from the earliest ages of the world, designated men, and made it their peculiar duty to engage in the study and acquisition of this kind of learning, that such might become the suitable guides and teachers of others.
The science of Christian theology is loved and patronized by the angels in heaven. From the untold joys of that bright world, those happy spirits, we are informed, turn down their anxious minds to look into the mysteries of salvation. And this science has been patronized, studied, and taught by the wisest and best of men; and so it has been made the greatest blessing to the world. Hence we perceive why the ministers of religion hold such a distinguished place in the economy of salvation ; and the reason also why God has declared, that the priest's lips should keep knowledge. He that teaches others should, above all things, know himself the science which he teaches, and the most appropriate means by which it may be communicated to the salvation of his fellow men.'
But how can one teach what he himself has never learned? How can any one learn without study? And how can any one study to any good purpose without having the necessary means and time at his command ?
Hence the Bible and ecclesiastical history unite in the testimony, that, by nearly every Christian Church, which has ever been distinguished by the Divine approbation, a theological education has been considered an indispensable prerequisite for persons entering upon the duties of the Christian ministry:
And by almost every Church in Christendom, of any considerable reputation for zeal in the cause of God, some standard has been fixed on, by general consent or otherwise, as to what constitutes a Christian education, and without which no one can be considered as fully qualified for the responsible office of a public teacher of religion ; and, by almost every Church which has ever existed, from the days of St. John to the present time, some provision has been made for the avowed and express purpose of educating and fitting men for the work of the Gospel ministry.
In this respect, excepting, of course, our own people, as a Church, the generality of Christians, from the earliest ages to the present, have not differed materially, either among themselves, or from the Mohammedans, Jews, and even the heathen, as to their sense of the importance of knowledge in all persons previously to their becoming ministers of religion. Indeed, there does not seem ever to have been a time since men were first called to the duty of proclaiming the word of God, when some conviction as to the necessity of superior learning and extraordinary qualifications for this holy work was not felt and acknowledged by most men, both religious and profane. Hence we read of the schools of the prophets, which existed as long ago as the days of Samuel, and more than a thousand years before the Christian era, which were established for the purpose of propagating theological learning.
The first time in which these schools or colleges are mentioned in the Bible we find in 1 Sam. X, 5, where Saul is directed to proceed to the ‘hill of God, and informed that he should meet 'a company of prophets coming down from the high place ;' that is, as all commentators are agreed, the place where the school or college was kept, which that company of the prophets attended. And that Samuel was the principal of that school, or that it was kept under his supervision, is highly probable from the fact that he was, at this time, the only prophet to be found in that quarter ; and from what is said in another place of his being a preceptor among the prophets. In 1 Sam. xix, 20, we read of another company of the prophets, prophesying, and Samuel standing, as appointed over them;' from which it undeniably follows, that Samuel was president of the school kept in that place for the education of the prophets.
• The students in these colleges were called sons of the prophets,' as one learned author observes, who are frequently mentioned in after ages, even in the most dangerous times. Thus we read of the sons of the prophets that were at Bethel; and of another school at Jericho; and of the sons of the prophets at Gilgal.' And the sons of the prophets that were at Bethel came forth to Elisha, and said unto him, Knowest thou that the Lord will take away thy masterthat is, thy instructor, preceptor—from thy head to-day? 2 Kings ii, 5. And so also we find Elisha is mentioned in another place, 2 Kings iv,. 38, as a teacher in the school of the prophets. “In these schools,' says Watson, from Dr. Goodwin, “young men were educated under a proper master, who was commonly, if not always, an inspired prophet, in the knowledge of religion and sacred music, and were thereby qualified to be public preachers ; which seems to have been part of the business of the prophets on the Sabbath days and festivals. It should seem that God generally chose the prophets, whom he inspired, out of these schools. Amos, therefore, speaks of it as an extraordinary case, that, though he was not one of the sons of the prophets, but a herdsman,“ yet the Lord took him as he followed the fock, and said unto him, Go, prophesy unto my people, Israel,” Amos vii, 14.* That is, his being called to prophesy, without such an education as it was usual for all such to receive who were endowed with the prophetic office, is considered by him as a thing so extraordinary, and so far out of the common course of God's proceeding, that it was worthy of being recorded on the page of inspiration.
These schools of the prophets, it appears, were continued down from the time mentioned above to the Babylonian captivity, and after which they were succeeded by the synagogues, which are so frequently mentioned in the New Testament. In these it was usual for the doctors to lecture and expound the law to their disciples and others, and also to answer questions. Hence it is said of Christ, that, at twelve years of age, he went to hear the doctors, and to ask them questions. We know that the extraordinary gifts of the Holy Spirit superseded the necessity of an acquired education in the case of the apostles. But, then, even these miraculous gifts, bestowed upon the apostles, prove most conclusively the necessity of qualifications for the sacred office ; and qualifications which no one can, or ever did possess, merely by feeling it his duty to enter into this office. A man's being moved by a laudable desire to become a merchant, certainly does not make him one ; nor does an honest desire to become a mechanic constitute any one a mechanic who indulges it; any more than a person's being moved by the Holy Ghost to call sinners to repentance qualifies him, in every sense of the word, for the most successful performance of this work. How long the extraordinary gifts of the Holy Spirit were continued to the Church after the apostolic age, we have no means of determining precisely; but there are conclusive reasons for believing that these gifts were withheld as the necessity ceased to exist for which they were at first bestowed. Hence we find, that, as early as about one hundred and thirty years after the ascension of Christ, a theological school was established at Alexandria in Egypt, by the successors of the apostles, for the purpose of educating men expressly for the work of preaching the Gospel. Of this school it is thought some of the early Christian fathers appear to speak as having existed in the first century after Christ; and Jerome refers to a tradition which existed in his time, that attributed its foundation and commencement to St. Mark. Whe.