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ROYAL CHARTERS.

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of Income and Expenditure of the said University shall once in every year be submitted, which Accounts shall be subject to such Examination and Audit as the said Commissioners may direct.

AND WE FURTHER WILL AND ORDAIN, That at the conclusion of every examination of the Candidates the Examiners shall declare the name of every Candidate whom they shall have deemed to be entitled to any of the said Degrees, and the Departments of Knowledge in which his proficiency shall have been evinced, and also his proficiency in relation to that of other Candidates ; and he shall receive from the said Chancellor a Certificate, under the Seal of the said University of London, and signed by the said Chancellor, in which the particulars so declared shall be stated.

PROVIDED ALWAYS, That all By-laws and Regulations made from time to time touching the examinations of Candidates and granting of Degrees, shall be submitted for the consideration of one of our Principal Secretaries of State, to be approved of by him.

AND LASTLY, WE do hereby, for Us, our Heirs, and Successors, grant and declare, That these our Letters Patent, or the enrolment or exemplification thereof, shall be in and by all things valid and effectual in Law according to the true intent and meaning of the same, and shall be construed and adjudged in the most favourable and beneficial sense for the best advantage of the said University, as well in all our Courts as elsewhere, notwithstanding any nonrecital, misrecital, uncertainty, or imperfection in these our Letters Patent.

IN WITNESS whereof We have caused these our Letters to be made Patent.

WITNESS Ourself, at our Palace of Westminster, this fifth day of December, in the First Year of our Reign.

VICTORIA, by the grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Queen, Defender of the Faith, To all to whom these presents shall come, greeting.

WHEREAS by our Letters Patent, under the Great Seal of our said United Kingdom, bearing date at Westminster the 5th day of December in the first year of our reign, We did grant, declare and constitute certain persons therein mentioned, and all the persons who might thereafter be appointed to be Chancellor or Fellows as thereinafter mentioned, One Body Politic and Corporate by the name of THE UNIVERSITY OF LONDON : And We did by our said Charter further will and ordain, that the Chancellor, Vice-Chancellor and Fellows for the time being of the said University should have full power from time to time to make and alter any By-laws and Regulations (so as the same were not repugnant to the laws of our Realm or to the general objects and provisions of that our Charter) touching the matters therein mentioned and in general touching all other matters whatsoever regarding the said University; and all such By-laws and Regulations, when reduced into writing and after the Common Seal of the said University should have been affixed thereto, should be binding upon all persons members thereof, and all Candidates for Degrees to be conferred by the same, all such By-laws and Regulations having been first submitted to one of our principal Secretaries of State, and approved of and countersigned by him : And We did further will and ordain, that once at least in every year the Chancellor, Vice-Chancellor and Fellows of the said University should cause to be held an Examination of Candidates for Degrees; and on every such Examination the Candidates should be examined either by Examiners appointed for the purpose from among the Fellows by the said Chancellor, Vice-Chancellor and Fellows, or by other Examiners so to be appointed: And We did thereby further will and ordain, that all persons should be admitted as Candidates for the respective Degrees of Bachelor of Arts, Master of Arts, Bachelor of Laws or Doctor of Laws, to be conferred by the said University of London, on presenting to the said Chancellor, Vice-Chancellor and Fellows a Certificate from any of the Institutions thereinafter mentioned, to the effect that such Candidate had completed the course of instruction which the said Chancellor, Vice-Chancellor, and Fellows, by regulation in that behalf, should determine; and that such Certificates as aforesaid might be granted from our college called University College, or from our College called King's College, both situate in London, or from such other Institution, corporate or unincorporated, as then was or thereafter should be established for the purposes of Education, whether in the Metropolis or elsewhere within our United Kingdom, and as We, our Heirs and Successors, under our or their Sign Manual should thereafter authorize to issue such Certificates : And We did further will and declare, that the said Chancellor, Vice-Chancellor and Fellows should have power after examination to confer the several Degrees of Bachelor of Arts, Master of Arts, Bachelor of Laws, Doctor of Laws, Bachelor of Medicine, Doctor of Medicine; and that such reasonable Fees should be charged for the Degrees conferred as the said Chancellor, Vice-Chancellor and Fellows, with the approbation of the Commissioners of our Treasury, should from time to time direct; and such Fees should be carried to one general fee fund for the payment of the expenses of the said University, under the directions and regulations of the Commissioners of our Treasury: And whereas it is expedient to extend the benefits of the said University, and for that purpose to enlarge the powers of the said Chancellor, Vice-Chancellor and Fellows.

Now KNOW YE, That WE DO, by virtue of our Prerogative royal, and of our especial grace, certain knowledge and mere motion, by these presents, for Us, our Heirs and Successors, will, grant and ordain, that all persons shall be admitted as Candidates for the respective Degrees of Bachelor of Arts, Master of Arts, Bachelor of Laws and Doctor of Laws, to be conferred by the said University of London, on satisfying the Chancellor, Vice-Chancellor and Fellows of the said University that such persons respectively have, in any of the Institutions hereinafter mentioned, completed such course of instruction as the said Chancellor, Vice-Chancellor and Fellows shall, as to the said respective Institutions by regulations made according to the provisions of our said recited Charter, from time to time determine: And that the Institutions in which such course of instruction may be completed shall be the Institutions hereinafter mentioned, (that is to say) the Institutions already in our said Charter named and thereby authorized to grant Certificates as therein mentioned, the Institutions already by Us under our Sign Manual authorized to grant such Certificates, the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge, and the several Colleges and Houses of Learning in such Universities respectively, the Universities of Durham, Edinburgh, Glasgow, and St. Andrew's, the King's College of Aberdeen, the Marischal College of Aberdeen, and the University of Dublin, and also such other Institutions, corporate or unincorporated, as now are or hereafter shall be established for the purposes of Education within our United Kingdom, or in any of our Colonies or Possessions abroad, or in our Territories under the Government of the East India Company, and as We, our Heirs and Successors, under our or their Sign Manual, shall hereafter prescribe to the said Chancellor, Vice-Chancellor and Fellows.

AND WE FURTHER WILL AND ORDAIN, That the said Chancellor, Vice-Chancellor and Fellows shall have power after examination to grant Certificates of Proficiency in such branches of knowledge as the said Chancellor, ViceChancellor and Fellows shall from time to time, by regulations made according to the provisions of our said Charter, in this behalf determine. And that in addition

ROYAL CHARTERS.

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to the examinations of Candidates for Degrees in our said Charter mentioned and ordained, the said Chancellor, Vice-Chancellor and Fellows may cause to be held from time to time examinations of persons who shall have prosecuted the study of such branches of knowledge, and who shall be Candidates for such Certificates of Proficiency as aforesaid, subject to such regulations as by the said Chancellor, Vice-Chancellor and Fellows shall from time to time be made in this behalf; and on every such examination the Candidates shall be examined either by Examiners appointed from among the Fellows by the said Chancellor, Vice-Chancellor and Fellows, or by other Examiners so to be appointed; and the said Chancellor, Vice-Chancellor and Fellows may, by regulations made as aforesaid, make provision for declaring the relative proficiency of such Candidates, or for classifying such Candidates according to their degrees of proficiency by the Certificates to be granted by them respectively, or by published lists of Candidates to whom Certificates shall have been granted, or otherwise as the said Chancellor, Vice-Chancellor and Fellows may think fit. And such reasonable fees shall be charged for such Certificates of Proficiency as the said Chancellor, Vice-Chancellor and Fellows, with the approbation of the Commissioners of our Treasury, shall from time to time direct; and the provisions of our said Charter with respect to the fees therein mentioned shall be applicable to the fees for such Certificates.

PROVIDED ALWAYS, That all Regulations made from time to time in relation to any of the matters hereinbefore mentioned shall be submitted to one of our principal Secretaries of State, and approved of and countersigned by him, as by our said Charter provided.

AND LASTLY, WE DO hereby for Us, our Heirs and Successors, grant and declare that these our Letters Patent, or the enrolment or exemplification thereof, shall be in and by all things valid and effectual in Law according

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