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of its various adherents, embracing, as they did, men who, like Dr. Woods and Dr. Spring, never diverged widely from that old Calvinism which they more and more closely approximated through life, down to the school of Emmons, teaching that the soul is only a chain of exercises, and those exercises, alike the sinful and the holy, the immediate work of God. Says Dr. Spring, “the late Dr. Miller, of Princeton, once remarked to me, I should hesitate to lay hands on Dr. Emmons; but, though I do not approve of all Dr. Hopkins has written, I would ordain any man, otherwise qualified, who could honestly say, that he believed every word of Dr. Hopkins's system. Id. p. 6.

Dr. Spring was, as is well understood, opposed to the Dissolution of the Four Synods, and some other antecedent measures, which issued in the disruption of the Presbyterian Church. He belonged to the class who believed that the heresies and disorders which led to them, might have been surmounted with less violent remedies, while, as we have already seen, he, especially thirty years ago, adhered less closely than some to every one of the ipsissima verba of the Confession of Faith. His attitude on these subjects is sufficiently apparent in the following language:

« I love the Confession of Faith of the Presbyterian church, and always loved it. I have not altered in my preaching; iny publications speak for themselves. I do not concur in all the peculiarities of old Calvinism, nor did I ever; nor do I with any of the New Haven Theology. If I must choose between old 'Calvinism and the New Haven Theology, give me old Calvinism. Old-fashioned Calvinists and old-fashioned Hopkinsians are not far apart: the more closely they are united in opposing modern errors, the better. These sentiments were uttered more than thirty years ago.” Vol. i. p. 271.

Dr. Spring makes some noteworthy memoranda regarding the founding of Andover Seminary, in which his father had a leading part. Some letters from Dr. Woods to his father, here first published, put it beyond doubt, that Dr. Woods was a moderate Hopkinsian, and under pledges to the Hopkinsians when appointed to the Chair of Theology at Andover. He was to teach Hopkinsianism, but so prudently as not to alarm or

rouse into opposition the old Calvinists. He, however, himself gradually, as he advanced in life, “sustained a change in favour of the Calvinism of the Westminster Assembly,” as abundantly appears from his writings. It still further appears, that, according to the constitution of that Seminary, its professors as well as its students may be either Presbyterians or Congregationalists; while some of the more rigid Independents were at one time disposed to force their own ecclesiastical polity exclusively upon the institution.

Dr. Spring has two chapters on the Southern rebellion, and its suppression. His indignant and eloquent denunciations of this mad and wicked insurrection are well known. It is unnecessary to repeat them, or to repeat the discussion concerning the propriety of making a declaration to that effect by the Assembly of 1861. But we wish to record on our pages his sentiments on two subjects growing out of the rebellion, which are now of deepest concern to us—sentiments which seem to us to be alike the dictates of Christian wisdom and love. The first respects the spirit to be cherished towards the conquered.

“But our nationality is saved, and we can afford to be magnanimous. While I hope that the leaders of the rebellion will be for ever disfranchised, I still hope that, in the exercise of a sound discretion, the Government will see fit to extend to them all the lenity which is consistent with the welfare of the nation. Times have altered; the South has altered; the spirit of the North has altered; there has been suffering enough; no man calls for blood now. Our erring sisters' have seen their error, and all we ask of them is to return to their first love. One thing is obvious, and that is, if we remain a prosperous, peaceful, and happy people, we must treat our Southern friends with kindness. The demon of secession cast out and purged of slavery, we ask of them nothing but loyalty and confidence." Vol. ii. p. 214.

He gives the following judgment as to the political status and franchises of the freedmen:

“There is one thought on the subject of slavery, which I may not omit. Utterly rejecting the doctrine of human servitude, or the right of property and ownership in man, I would not be in haste to elevate the coloured race to a position for

which they are not fitted. I would not, from an enthusiastic attachment to "liberty and equality,' violently thrust them into offices of trust and responsibility, or give them the elective franchise, until they are prepared for it. Their own welfare, and the safety of our own institutions, would, in my judgment, be imperilled by such a policy. I would make them free, but I would treat them as servants, and just as I would treat the white races from abroad, and in our own land, who seek and are fitted for no higher position. Let them go when and where they will, and enjoy all the protection of law; let them serve whom they will, and in the capacity which they themselves may select, and receive recompense for their labours; but let them not aspire to a seat on the bench, nor to the pulpit, until their intellectual culture and moral qualifications shall have fitted them for these responsible positions. Wisdom is justified of her children:' the results will show that this is the true policy towards the coloured race. When Christian men and women are found among them, I would treat them with Christian love, which is without partiality and without hypocrisy.' I would treat them as “Paul the aged' would have Philemon treat Onesimus, not as "a slave, but above a slave, a brother beloved. I would not assign to them the lowest place at the communion table, nor the highest, but a place where they are acknowledged as brethren and sisters in Christ." Vol. ii. pp. 202, 203.

We here take leave of the patriarchal counsels, records, and testimonies which the venerable author has embalmed in these volumes. Our remarks have necessarily been as discursive as the topics brought under review in such an autobiography. We sincerely rejoice that the author has been spared to prepare this memorial of himself, and these contributions to the ecclesiastical history of his times.

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Essays on the Supernatural in Christianity, with Special Reference to the

Theories of Renan, Strauss, and the Tubingen School. By Rev. George P. Fisher, M. A., Professor of Church History in Yale College. Nex York: Charles Scribner & Co. 1866.

The current objections to supernaturalism, i. e., to Christianity itself, as they have been voiced by Strauss, Baur, Renan, and Theodore Parker, are very ably handled in this volumé. The author constantly betrays the scholarship, culture, metaphysical and theological insight, together with the judicial mind, which the proper execution of the task he has undertaken requires. We are glad to observe that he finds the true secret of incorrigible Rationalism and Scepticism in an inadequate sense of sin, and consequent inadequate appreciation of supernatural deliverance from it, of which disease Divine illumination is the only adequate cure. He also has penetrated and grasped the true nature, not only of Pantheism and Positivism in general, but of the collateral and subordinate issues implicated with them and supernaturalism. The book is a decidedly valuable contribution to what is now a most important side of Christian apologetics.

History of Rationalism; embracing a Surrey of the Present State of Pro

testant Theology. By the Rev. John F. Hurst, A. M. With Appen. dix of Literature. New York: Charles Scribner & Co. 1866.

This work deals with Rationalism historically. After quoting various definitions of it from different writers, the author proceeds to test it by its fruits, as shown in its history, in which he comes down to the more prominent rationalistic sects of our own time, not excluding those of our own country. He thus proves that, while Rationalism has indirectly led to a revision of the doctrines and defences of Christianity that has freed them from erroneous and enfeebling modes of presentation, its direct fruits have been anti-religious, corrupting, and demoralizing. This book is likewise a valuable addition to the Chris

tian armory.

History of the Rise and Influence of the Spirit of Rationalism in Europe.

By the Rev. W. E. H. Leckey, M. A. In two volumes. New York: D. Appleton & Co. 1866.

We have here another able and elaborate treatise on Rationalism. But its tone and scope are quite opposite to the two published by the Messrs. Scribner, which we have just noticed. The author is in full sympathy with rationalizing tendencies, and a decided enemy of Christian orthodoxy. His sceptical views have a strong tinge of Positivism, and are utterly onesided and destructive. We are more brief in our notices of these important works, as we hope in our next number to treat at length of the great subject they discuss. History of England from the Fall of Wolsey to the Death of Elizabeth.

By James Anthony Froude, M. A., late Fellow of Exeter Cellege, Oxford. Volumes III. and IV. New York: Charles Sribner & Co. 1865.

The character of the first two volumes of this work, which we noticed when they appeared, is maintained in these. This history is copious and minute, and sheds a light on the interior history of the Reformation and Reformation-period in England, which is not easily accessible elsewhere. The Structure of Animal Life ; Six Lectures delivered at the Brooklyn

Academy of Music in January and February, 1862. By Louis Agassiz, Professor of Zoology and Geology in the Lawrence Scientific School. New York: Charles Scribner & Co. 1866.

Whatever comes from Agassiz, in his own department, will of course command great attention and respect. This work is no exception. Besides the zoölogical and scientific knowledge, which it so vividly and lucidly imparts, the truths of science are presented in their relations to Theism. Professor Agassiz finds in the several animal species evidence of the forth-putting of a distinct Intelligent and Almighty Creative Power. We count the distinguished author a much safer guide here, than in regard to the unity of our race. The volume is a beautiful specimen of typography and pictorial illustration. Elements of Political Economy. By Arthur Latham Perry, Professor of

History and Political Economy in Williams College. New York: Charles Scribner & Co., 1866.

Professor Perry is a vigorous thinker, a clear and forcible writer. Political economy in his hands is freshly, yet thoroughly and judiciously treated, and in a form not ill-suited to the class-room. Many subjects of present interest in the legislation of our country are discussed by him in a manner which leads us to wish that our legislators would master his book. We do not, however, intend by this to endorse all his opinions.

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