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the population, was in one commonwealth $496 to every inhabitant, in the other $965 to every inhabitant.

. 4. The value of all property, real and personal, averaged by the acre, was in one commonwealth less than $26'to the acre, in the other more than $177 to the acre.

To which facts we may add, what is true, though not in the Census, it was the invention of Eli Whitney, a travelling schoolmaster from Connecticut, that has trebled the value of land in nearly every Southern State.

We have been endeavouring to show that popular education, though it is expensive, tends to national wealth. Our argument is that an educated population is capable of producing greater material results than a population uneducated can produce. The example of Eli Whitney, just referred to, suggests the other line of argument, which we will now notice briefly in conclusion. This second argument is, that the general diffusion of intelligence in a community tends to quicken invention, and leads to the discovery of those scientific principles and of those ingenious labour-saving machines, by which the productive power of the community is so greatly multiplied. The cottongin, the steam-engine, the sewing-machine, and the reapingmachine would never have been invented in a nation of boors. It is not asserted that every boy who goes to school will become an inventor. But it is as certain as the laws of mind and matter can make it, that inventions abound in a nation in proportion to its progress in science and the general spread of intelligence among the masses. Multiply common schools and you multiply inventions. How much these latter increase man's producing power, and so add to the aggregate of human wealth, it is needless to say. The invention of Watt alone has quadrupled the productive power of the whole human race. The aggregate steam power of one single country, Great Britain, equals the muscular capacity for labour of four hundred millions of men-more than twice the number of adult males capable of labour on our planet. Its aggregate power throughout the earth is equal to the male capacity for manual work of four or five worlds like ours. The commerce, the navigation, the maritime warfare, the agriculture, the mechanic

arts of the human race, have been revolutionized by this single invention not yet a century old.

The application of scientific truths to the common industries of life is becoming every day more and more a necessity. The village carpenter, no less than the builder of the Niagara Suspension Bridge, makes hourly reference to scientific laws. The carpenter who misapplies his formulæ for the strength of materials, builds a house which falls down. The properties of the various mechanical powers are involved in every machine. Every machine, indeed, it has been well said, is a solidified mechanical theorem. The surveyor in determining the limits of one's farm, the architect in planning a house, the builder in planning his estimates, and the several master workmen wbo do the carpentry, masonry, and finishing, are all dependent upon geometric truths. Bleaching, dyeing, calico-printing, gasmaking, soap-making, sugar-refining, the reduction of metals from their ores, with innumerable other productive industries, are dependent upon chemistry. Agriculture, the basis of all the other arts, is in the same condition. Chemical knowledge, indeed, is doing for the productive powers of the soil what the application of steam has done for the increase of mechanical power. The farmer who wishes to double his crops, finds the means of doing so, not in multiplying his acres, but in applying a knowledge of the laws of chemistry to the cultivation of the soil already possessed. Even physiology is adding to the wealth of the farming interest. The truth that the production of animal heat implies waste of substance, and that therefore preventing the loss of heat prevents the need for extra foodwhich is a purely theoretical conclusion—now guides the fattening of cattle. By keeping cattle warm, fodder is saved. Experiments of physiologists have proved, not only that change of diet is beneficial, but that digestion is facilitated by a mixture of ingredients in each meal. Both these truths are now influ. encing cattle feeding. In the keen race of competition, the farmer who has a competent knowledge of the laws of animal and vegetable physiology and of agricultural chemistry, will surely distance the one who gropes along by guess and by tradition. A general diffusion of scientific knowledge saves the community from innumerable wasteful and foolish mistakes.

In England, not many years ago, the partners in a large mining company were ruined from not knowing that a certain fossil belonged to the old red sandstone, below which coal is never found. In another enterprise, £20,000 was lost in the prosecution of a scheme for collecting the alcohol that distils from bread in baking, all of which might have been saved, had the parties known that less than one hundredth part by weight of the flour is changed in fermentation.

But it is not necessary to multiply illustrations. Suffice it to say, in conclusion, we hold it to be a most manifest truth, that the general education of a community increases largely its material wealth, both by the direct effect which knowledge has upon individuals in making them individually more productive, and by the increased control which the diffusion of knowledge gives to mankind over the powers of nature. A nation or a state is wisely economical which spends largely and even lavishly upon popular education.

ART. III.-The Patristic Doctrine on the Eucharist.

The theology and piety of the early fathers are the common inheritance of all Christian churches. They laboured before the separation of the East from the West, and before the rise of the Papacy proper. What they taught and believed is of equal interest, although not of equal authority, for Protestants and Greek and Roman Catholics. With the Protestant, indeed, the first and last question in all matters of Christian faith and practice is : What says the word of God ? In the Greek and Roman Church, this question is coördinate in principle, and subordinate in fact to the question, What says the church, which is the only safe and legitimate interpreter of the Bible? But no sound Protestant is on that account indifferent to the testimony of the church and the teaching of the fathers, provided only it be duly subordinated to that of the Scriptures. We cannot forget that the Bible itself has come down to us

through the channel of the Catholic Church; and that the fathers shaped many of the principal institutions of Christendom, and wrought out from the Bible those fundamental articles of faith in the Holy Trinity, and the Person of Christ, which are common to the Evangelical and Catholic confessions of faith.

As regards the doctrine of the Lord's Supper, the fathers have been often used and abused by different controversial writers in the interest of Roman Catholic, the Lutheran, the Calvinistic, and the Zwinglian views on the subject. We shall endeavour to divest ourselves from all denominational and sectarian bias, and to give an objective historical statement of the views of the early church on this important subject.

The Eucharist is both a sacrament, wherein God conveys to us a certain blessing, and a commemorative sacrifice which man offers to God. As a sacrament, or the communion, it stands at the head of all sacred rites; as a commemorative sacrifice, it stands alone. The celebration of it under this twofold character forms the holy of holies of the Christian cultus in the ancient church, and to this day in the greater part of Christendom.

We consider first the doctrine of the Eucharist as a sacrament, then the doctrine of the Eucharist as a sacrifice, and finally the celebration of the eucharistic communion and eucharistic sacrifice.

1. The Eucharist as a Sacrament.

The doctrine of the sacrament of the Eucharist was not a subject of theological controversy and ecclesiastical action, till the time of Paschasius Radbert in the ninth century; whereas since then this feast of the Saviour's dying love has been the innocent cause of the most bitter disputes, especially in the age of the Reformation, between Papists and Protestants, and among Lutherans, Zwinglians, and Calvinists. Hence the doctrine of the ancient church on this point lacks the clearness and definiteness which the Nicene dogma of the Trinity, the Chalcedonian Christology, and the Augustinian anthropology and soteriology acquired from the controversies preceding them. In the doctrine of baptism also we have a much better

right to speak of a consensus patrum, than in the doctrine of the Holy Supper.

In general the fathers may be said to agree in the belief of the presence

of Christ in the sacrament of the Eucharist. But the kind and mode of this presence are not yet particularly defined, and admit very different views: Christ may be conceived as really present either in and with the elements (consubstantiation, impanation), or under the illusive appearance of the changed elements (transubstantiation), or only dynamically and spiritually (the Calvinistic view).

In the ante-Nicene period we distinguish three views: the mystic view of Ignatius, Justin Martyr, and Irenæus; the symbolical view of Tertullian and Cyprian; and the allegorical or spiritualistic view of Clement of Alexandria and Origen. In the Nicene and post-Nicene age, the first view, which best answered the mystic and superstitious tendency of the time, preponderated, but the second also was represented by considerable authorities. *

I. The realistic and mystic view is represented by several fathers, and the early liturgies whose testimony we shall further cite below. They speak in enthusiastic and extravagant terms of the sacrament and sacrifice of the altar. They teach a real presence of the body and blood of Christ, which is included in the very idea of a real sacrifice, and they see in the mystical union of it with the sensible elements, a sort of repetition of the incarnation of the Logos. With the act of consecration a change accordingly takes place in the elements, whereby they become vehicles and organs of the life of Christ, although by no means necessarily changed into another substance. To denote this change they use very strong expressions, like μεταβολή, μεταβάλλειν, μεταβάλλεσθαι, μεταστοιχειούσθαι, μεταT.05.out, mutatio, translatio, transfiguratio, transformatio,t

* Rückert, in his Geschichte der Lehre vom Abendmahl, therefore divides the church-fathers on this point into two classes: the Metabolical, and the Symbolical. To this designation there are many objections. “Of the Synecdochian (Lutheran) interpretation of the words of institution the ancient church knew nothing.” So says Kahnis, Luth. Dogmatik, ii. p. 221.

† But not yet the technical term transsubstantiatio, which was introduced by Paschasius Radbertus toward the middle of the ninth century, and the corresponding Greek term uercusiwris, which is still later.

VOL. XXXVIII.-20. I. 7

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