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on the third day, his ascension to heaven, and his sitting at the right-hand of Thee his God and Father, and his glorious and terrible second appearing, when he shall come in glory to judge the quick and the dead, and to render to every man according to his works,-offer to Thee, O Lord, this awful and unbloody sacrifice;* beseeching Thee that Thou wouldst deal with us not after our sins nor reward us according to our iniquities, but according to Thy goodness and unspeakable love to men wouldst blot out the handwriting which is against us Thy suppliants, and wouldst vouchsafe to us Thy heavenly and eternal gifts, which eye hath not seen, nor ear heard, neither hath it entered into the heart of man what Thou, O God, hast prepared for them that love Thee. And reject not Thy people, O loving Lord, for my sake and on account of my sins.
He repeats thrice : For Thy people and Thy church prayeth to Thee.
People: Have mercy upon us, O Lord God, Almighty Father! Priest: Have mercy upon us, Almighty God!
Have mercy upon us, O God, our Redeemer!
Ilave mercy upon us, O God, according to Thy great mercy, and send upon us, and upon these gifts here present, Thy most holy Spirit, Lord, Giver of life, who with Thee the God and Father, and with Thine only begotten Son, sitteth and reigneth upon one throne, and is of the same essence and co-eternal, † who spoke in the law and in the prophets, and in Thy new covenant, who descended in the form of a dove upon our Lord Jesus Christ in the river Jordan, and rested upon him, who came down upon Thy holy apostles in the form of tongues of fire in the upper room of Thy holy and glorious Zion on the day of Pentecost: Send down, O Lord, the same Holy Ghost upon us and upon these holy gifts here present, that with his holy and good and glorious
* Προσφέρομέν σοι, Δέσποτα, την φοβεραν ταύτην και αναίμακτον θυσίαν. The term pobegá denotes holy awe, and is previously applied also to the second coming of Christ!: Της δευτέρας ένδοξου και φοβεράς αυτού παρουσίας, κ. τ. λ, μεμνημένοι. The Liturgy of St. Chrysostom has instead: Προσφέρουμέν σοι την λογικήν ταύτην και αναίμακτον λατρείαν (doubtless with reference to the λογική λατρεία in Ron. xii. 1).
+ Εξαπέστειλον εφ' ημάς και επί τα προκείμενα δώρα ταύτα το Πνεύμα σου το πανάγιον, [είτα κλίνας τον αυχένα λέγει·] το κύριον και ζωοποιον, το σύνθρονον σοι το Θεό και Πατρί, και το μονογενεϊ σου Yίρ, το συμβασιλευον, το ομοουσιόν τε και συναίδιον. The ομοουσιον as well as the Nicene Creed in the preceding part of the Liturgy of St. James, indicates a post-Nicene origin.
presence He may sanctify this bread and make it the holy body of Thy Christ.*
People : Amen.
Priest: (In a low voice): That they may avail to those who receive them, for the forgiveness of sins and for eternal life, for the sanctification of soul and body, for the bringing forth of good works, for the strengthening of Thy holy Catholic Church which Thou hast built upon the rock of faith, that the gates of hell may not prevail against her; delivering her from all error, and all scandal, and from the ungodly, and preserving her unto the consummation of all things.
After the act of consecration come the intercessions, sometimes very long, for the church, for all classes, for the living, and for the dead from righteous Abel to Mary, the apostles, the martyrs, and the saints in Paradise; and finally the Lord's Prayer. To the several intercesssions, and the Lord's Prayer, the people or the choir responds, Amen. With this closes the act of eucharistic sacrifice.
Now follows the communion, or the participation of the consecrated elements. It is introduced with the words : “Holy things for holy persons,”ť and the Kyrie eleison, or (as in the Clementine liturgy) the Gloria in Excelsis : “Glory be to God on high, peace on earth, and good will to men. Hosanna to the Son of David! Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord: God is the Lord, and he hath appeared among us.” The bishop and the clergy communicate first, and then the people. The formula of distribution in the Clementine liturgy is simply: “ The body of Christ;" “ The blood of Christ, the cup of life,” s to which the receiver answers " Amen." In other liturgies it is longer. ||
* “Ινα .... αγιάση και ποιήση τον μεν άρτον τούτον σώμα άγιον του Χριστού σου.
† Tà ázsa toīs ágios, Sancta Sanctis. It is a warning to the unworthy not to approach the table of the Lord.
According to the usual reading # ay gumos sidoxia. But the older and better attested reading is doxias, which alters the sense and makes the angelic hymn bimembris : “Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace among men of his good pleasure” (i. e., the chosen people of God).
και Σώμα Χριστού-Αίμα Χριστου, ποτήριον ζωής. Η In the Liturgy of St. Mark: Σώμα αγιου-Αίμα τίμιον του Κυρίου και Θεού και
The holy act closes with prayers of thanksgiving, psalms, and the benediction.
The Eucharist was celebrated daily, or at least every Sunday. The people were exhorted to frequent communion, especially on the high festivals. In North Africa some communed every day, others every Sunday, others still less frequently.* Augustine leaves this to the needs of every believer, but says in one place: “The Eucharist is our daily bread.” The daily communion was connected with the current mystical interpretation of the fourth petition in the Lord's Prayer. Basil communed four times in the week. Gennadius of Massilia commands at least weekly communion. In the East it seems to have been the custom, after the fourth century, to commune only once a year, or on great occasions. Chrysostom often complains of the indifference of those who come to church only to hear the sermon, or who attend the eucharistic sacrifice, but do not commune. One of his allusions to this neglect we have already quoted. Some later councils threatened all laymen with excommunication, who did not commune at least on Christmas, Easter, and Pentecost.
In the Oriental and North African churches prevailed the incongruous custom of infant communion, which seemed to follow from infant baptism, and was advocated by Augustine and Innocent I., on the authority of John vi. 53. In the Greek church this custom continues to this day, but in the Latin, after the ninth century, it was disputed or forbidden, because the apostle (1 Cor. xi. 28, 29) requires self-examination as the condition of worthy participation.†
With this custom appear the first instances, and they ex
Σωτήρος ημών. . In the Mozarabic Liturgy the communicating priest prays: “Corpus et sanguis Domini noster Jesu Christi custodiat corpus et animam meam in vitam æternam." Resp. “ Amen.” So in the Roman Liturgy, from which it passed into the Anglican.
* Augustine, Epist. 118 ad Januar. c. 2: “ Alii quotidie communicant corpori et sanguini Dominico; alii certis diebus accipiunt; alibi nullus dies intermittitur quo non offeratur ; alii sabbato tantum et Dominico; alibi tantum Dominico."
† Comp. P. Zorn : Historia eucharistiæ infantium. Berol. 1736; and the article by Kling in Herzog's Encykl. vii. 549 sqq.
ceptional, of a communio sub una specie; after a little girl in Carthage in the time of Cyprian had been made drunk by receiving the wine. But the withholding of the cup from the laity, which transgresses the express command of the Lord, 6. Drink
ye all of it,” and is associated with a superstitious horror of profaning the blood of the Lord by spilling, and with the development of the power of the priesthood, dates only from the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, and was then justified by the scholastic doctrine of concomitance.
In the Greek church it was customary to dip the bread in the wine, and deliver both elements in a spoon.
The customs of house-communion and after-communion for the sick and for prisoners, of distributing the unconsecrated remainder of the bread among the non-communicants, and of sending the consecrated elements, or their substitutes,* to distant bishops or churches at Easter as a token of fellowship, are very old.
The Greek church used leuven bread, the Latin, unleavened. This difference ultimately led to intricate controversies.
The mixing of the wine with water was considered essential, and was explained in various mystical ways; chiefly by reference to the blood and water which flowed from the side of Jesus on the cross.
* These substitutes for the consecrated elements were called artiduweze (i. e., Arti Tūro dugay sexagiotixo), and eulogiæ (from the benediction at the close of. the service).
ART. IV.- The Life of Horace Mann. By his Wife. Boston:
Walker, Fuller & Co. 1865.
The opinions of a public functionary are a legitimate subject of review, so far as they affect the interests of the community. The late HORACE MANN was, for about twelve years, actively engaged in behalf of the public schools of Massachusetts, and afterwards, for several years, he was President of Antioch College, at Yellow Springs, Ohio, and his fame and influence have extended to the borders of our land. The volume before us was written by his widow, and is a faithful and loving tribute of a warm-hearted woman, to the personal worth and life-long labours of her husband.
Our purpose is to delineate the form and pressure of his peculiar views and measures as an educator of the young.
Mr. Mann was born in Franklin, Massachusetts, May 4, 1796, He was thirteen when he lost his father, and he lived with his mother till he was twenty. “All the family laboured together for the common support, and toil was considered honourable, although it was sometimes, of necessity, excessive.” It shows the narrowness of their means, that the boy earned the money to buy his school books by braiding straw. By diligent application he was prepared to enter the Sophomore class of Brown University in 1816-graduated with honourable distinction-served his alma mater for a time, successfully, as tutor of Latin and Greek, was admitted to the bar at the close of 1823-elected to the State Legislature in 1827, and Secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education in 1837-became a member of Congress in 1847, and President of Antioch College in 1853, which office he held at his death in 1859. This is the briefest outline of an uncommonly active, earnest, and, in many respects, useful life. Our filling up must necessarily be very scant.
Mr. Mann's childhood is represented as having been unhappy. “He retained only painful recollections" of it. “The poverty of my parents," he says, “subjected me to continued privations." "My teachers were very good people, but they