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DENOMINATE NUMBERS.

Capacity.

347. The standard unit of capacity used in measuring liquids is a gallon. A gallon equals 23r cubic inches.

Liquid Measure.
4 gills (gi.) = 1 pint (pt.).
2 pints

1 quart (qt.).
4 quarts

1 gallon (gal.). 311 gallons

1 barrel (bbl.).

Observe that 1 cubic foot nearly 75 gallons.
Observe that 4.2 cubic feet nearly 1 barrel.

A kerosene barrel contains about 52 gallons. It equals nearly 7 cubic feet.

PROBLEMS.

1. Find the capacity (approximate or exact), in galions, of a rectangular tank 3 ft. by 4 ft. by 8 ft.

2. Find the approximate capacity, in gallons, of a cylindrical tank 4 feet in diameter and 4 feet deep.

3. Find the approximate capacity, in barrels (314 gal.), of a rectangular tank 2 ft. by 4 ft. by 12 ft.

4. Find the approximate capacity, in barrels (314 gal.), of a cylindrical cistern 6 ft. in diameter and 6 ft. deep.

5. Find the approximate capacity, in barrels (314 gal.), of a cylindrical cistern 12 ft. in diameter and 6 ft. deep.

6. Find the approximate capacity, in barrels (314 gal.), of a cylindrical cistern 12 ft. in diameter and 12 ft. deep.

Denominate Numbers-Capacity.

348. The standard unit of capacity used in measuring grain, fruits, vegetables, lime, coal, etc., is a bushel. bushel equals 2150.4 cubic inches.

A

Note.-In measuring large fruits, vegetables, lime, and coal, the unit is the “ heaped bushel." A heaped bushel equals about 14 "stricken bushels."

DRY MEASURE.

2 pints (pt.) 1 quart (qt.).
8 quarts = 1 peck (pk.).
4 pecks = 1 bushel (bu.).
A bushel is nearly 14 cubic feet.

A "heaped bushel”' is about 14 cubic feet.
A "dry gallon” (4 quarts dry measure) equals 268.8 cubic inches.

Enough “ear corn” to make, when shelled, one bushel, occupies about 24 cubic feet. If the corn is inferior in quality it will occupy more space than this—sometimes 2, cubic feet.

PROBLEMS.

1. Find the capacity in bushels of a wheat bin 8 ft. by 8 ft. by 10 ft. *

2. Give the dimensions of the smallest bin in which 1000 bushels of oats may be stored.

3. In a bin 12 feet square, there is rye to the depth of 7+ feet.' How many bushels ?

4. How many bushels of potatoes (without heaping the bin) may be stored in a bin that is 8 ft. by 4 ft. by 6 ft.?

5. If the corn is of excellent quality, how many bushels of “shelled corn may be expected from a crib of ear corn, 8 ft. by 10 ft. by 80 ft. ?

* For many practical purposes the approximate ratio (14) of the bushel to the cubic foot will give in such problems as these, results sufficiently accurate,

Denominate Numbers –Weight.

349. The standard unit of weight in common use is a pound Avoirdupois.

AVOIRDUPOIS WEIGHT. 16 ounces (oz.) == 1 pound (lb.).

2000 pounds 1 ton (T.). The abbreviation for 1 hundredweight (100 lb ) is cwt.

MISCELLANEOUS WEIGHTS. 1 gallon of water

about 8j 1b. 1 gallon of milk

= about 8 6 lb. 1 gallon of kerosene

about 61 lb. 1 cubic foot of water

624 lb. 1 bushel of wheat

= 60 lb. 1 bushel of beans

60 lb. 1 bushel of clover seed

60 lb. 1 bushel of potatoes

= 60 lb. 1 bushel of shelled corn

56 lb. 1 bushel of ear corn

70 lb.* 1 bushel of rye

56 lb. 1 bushel of barley

: 48 lb. 1 bushel of oats

- 32 lb. 1 barrel of flour

= 196 lb. 1 barrel of beef or pork

200 lb.

PROBLEMS.

Find the cost-
1. Of 2650 lb. coal at $5.50

per

ton. 2. Of 2650 lb. oats at 24¢ a bushel. 3. Of 3330 lb. wheat at 80¢ a bushel. 4. Of 4650 lb. potatoes at 42¢ a bushel.

(a) Find the sum of the four results.

*This means the amount of ear corn required to make i bushel of shelled

corn.

Denominate Numbers –Weight.

PROBLEMS.
Find the cost-

1. Of 2560 lb. hay at $7.50 per ton.
2. Of 1430 lb. straw at 30° per cwt.
3. Of 24 tons meal at of a cent a pound.
4. Of 14 tons corn husks at 14 cents a pound.
5. Of 3420 lb. hay at $8.00 per ton.

(a) Find the sum of the five results.

Find the cost

6. Of 2140 lb. oats at 24¢ a bushel.
7. Of 2140 lb. corn at 28¢ a bushel.
8. Of 2140 lb. wheat at 90¢ a bushel.
9. Of 2140 lb. barley at 36¢ a bushel.
10. Of 2140 lb. rye at 42¢ a bushel.

(b) Find the sum of the five results.

Find the cost

11. Of 520 lb. clover seed at $6.30 a bushel.
12. Of 520 lb. potatoes at 75¢ a bushel.
13. Of 520 lb. beans at $2.15 a bushel.
14. Of 520 lb. corn at 20¢ a bushel.
15. Of 520 lb. ear corn at 35¢ a bushel.

(c) Find the sum of the five results.

Find the approximate weight

16. Of a barrel of kerosene.

17. Of 1 quart of milk. 18. Of the oats that will fill a bin that is 4 ft. by 4 ft. by 9 ft.

19. Of the water that will fill a tank that is 2 ft. by 2 ft. by 12 ft.

20. Of a five-gallon can of kerosene.

Denominate Numbers-Weight.

350. Troy weight is used in weighing gold, silver, and jewels.

[blocks in formation]

351. Apothecaries' weight is used in mixing medicines and in selling them at retail.

APOTHECARIES' WEIGHT.

20 grains (gr.)= 1 scruple (D).
3 scruples

1 dram (3).
8 drams

1 ounce (3). 12 ounces = 1 pound (th).

Note 1.—The pound Troy and the pound Apothecary are equal, each weighing 5760 grains. The pound Avoirdupois weighs 7000 Troy or Apothecary grains.

NOTE 2.—The ounce Troy and the ounce Apothecary are each 480 grains; the ounce Avoirdupois is 437į grains.

QUERY.—Which is heavier, a pound of feathers or a pound of gold? An ounce of feathers or an ounce of gold ?

PROBLEMS.

1. Change 5 lb. Avoirdupois weight to pounds, ounces, etc., Apothecaries' weight.

2. How many 5 gr. powders can be made from one Avoirdupois ounce of quinine?

3. One Avoirdupois ton of gold is how many Troy pounds?

4. Twenty-four Troy pounds equal how many Avoird 1pois pounds ?

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