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and Pope Alexander IV, by his Bull some time before 1261, confirmed their exemption from tithes, explaining that this exemption extended also to the tithes of any lands which they either manured and ploughed themselves, or held in their hands.

To such an extent were these Bulls granted to the Cistercian monks in England, that in the second year of the reign of Henry IV a statute was passed especially directed against "the religious men of the Order of Cisteaux", imposing the penalties of pramunire on them" and all other religious and seculars" who should put such Bulls in execution to be quit of the payment of tithes of lands let to farm, or manured, or occupied by other persons than by themselves."

William, the first Abbot, remained in office till his death, according to Dugdale, in 1146; but Mr. Atkinson gives the date of his death 1145. Dugdale places Maurice as his successor, but without any dates. dates. He was succeeded by Elred in 1147, who occurs until 1160-64. He died in 1167. The following is the entry of his death in the Melrose Chronicle, "A'o мclxvii obiit piæ memoriæ Aldredus iii Abbas Rievallis cui successit Silvanus Abbas de Dundraynan." He is described as one, if not the only, eminent person for piety, learning, and all other virtues of a monastic life; for which accomplishments he became so singularly famous, that David, King of Scotland, admitted him to an intimate conversation with him; but he refused to improve it to get worldly honours, and refused to be made a bishop that he might have a full leisure for contemplation and preaching the Word of God. He diligently imitated St. Bernard in all his actions, being mild, modest, humble, pious, chaste, and temperate, and wonderfully for peace. He wrote many books of history, piety, and divinity, viz., the lives of King Edward the Confessor in verse and prose, and of some other kings of England; David, King, and St. Margaret, Queen of Scots; and St. Ninian, Bishop; of miracles in general, and particularly of the miracles of the Church of Hagulstadt and the state of the same; chronicles from Adam, and of the Wars of the Standard; of the foundations of St. Mary of York and of Fountains; several homilies and sermons. There is a manuscript copy of his Life of St.

Margaret at Stonyhurst College,' and a manuscript copy of his Life of Edward the Confessor in the Earl of Ashburton's collection, in a quarto, on vellum, of 296 pages, in writing of the end of the twelfth or beginning of the thirteenth century.

Walter Daniel is mentioned as a disciple of Eldred, and a monk of this house. He was the author of several theological works, all of which are said to have been kept very carefully in the library of Rievaulx, but at the dissolution were dispersed, if not lost. He died and was buried in this Monastery in 1170.

Mr. Atkinson goes very fully into the early relations of Rievaulx with Kirkham, the negotiations which went on between the two houses (originating, it may be, though he hardly thought so, in the practically inconvenient propinquity of the several establishments and their possessions), and the conditional agreement to remove from the original site entered into by the elder of the sister foundations. It would far exceed our limits if we endeavoured to follow the learned controversy which he has opened; but we may state the conclusion at which he arrived, that the contemplated arrangement between the Abbey of Rievaulx and the Priory of Kirkham, contained in the cyrograph or agreement between the Abbey. and the Priory, which is without date (but, says Mr. Atkinson, some internal evidence appears to refer it to an early period in the thirteenth century), owed its origin to no question of peace between Rievaulx and Kirkham, but in a question of peace within the Priory itself, the Prior and some of the canons on one side, and the rest of the canons and brethren on the other. These latter were willing to conform to the Cistercian Order, and to become incorporated in its members (the canons among them) as monks. The other party, and, as it would seem, with the Prior at its head,' were not so willing. The result, however, was that the Priory of Kirkham remained in its old place, and continued to be an Augustinian Priory as well. It is quite possible that some among the body might join the Cistercian Order; but the inference, from all we know

1 Hist. MS. Commission, 2 Rep., App., 146.
2 Id., Rep. 8, App. 17.

and can legitimately infer, is that peace was restored to the Convent, and it was enabled to persevere in the old tracks.

King Edward II, on his return from one of his expeditions into Scotland, and his nobility refreshed themselves at this Abbey, and while there news was brought that the Scots came after in great power and no less haste. "The King and his nobles, minding more their meat than the safety of their subjects or their own honour, neglected the message; but the Scots, pursuing eagerly their attempt, came suddenly within sight, and compelled to shameful flight the King and his men, which never ceased till they had recovered Yorke for their succour."

In Pope Nicholas' Taxation the value of the temporalities of the Abbey amounted, in 1291, to £241 per ann. The valuation of the Monastery in 26 Henry VIII amounted to the gross income of £351:14:6. The clear revenue was £278: 10:2 per ann.

At the dissolution the site was granted, in exchange for other lands, in 30 Henry VIII (1538), to Thomas Earl of Rutland, a descendant (says Collins in his Peerage) of Walter Espec, the founder of the Abbey; and by Catherine, a daughter and heiress of Roger Earl of Rutland, became the property of her husband, George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham, whose son (the second Duke of Buckingham) sold it to Sir Charles Duncombe, Knt. Thomas Duncombe, Esq., the grandson of Sir Charles, was the owner of the site in 1758. It now belongs to the Earl of Feversham, the head of the Duncombe family.

The pension-list shows that Rowlande Blyton, the last Abbot, received a pension of 100 marks, and the rest of the monks various sums amounting in the whole to £86:11:6.

There is an imperfect impression, on red wax, of the common seal of the Abbey, attached to a conventual lease temp. Henry VIII in the Augmentation Office.' It represents an abbot, with his crozier, standing between two figures, of whom little more remains than their feet. Scarcely any part of the legend remains. There is a

1 See Plate, fig. No. 4. The figs. 1, 2, 3, are described in Mr. W. de Gray Birch's Catalogue of Seals in the British Museum, vol. i, Nos. 3905-9.

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SEALS OF RIEVAULX ABBEY.

1. A Counterseal, 12th century. "Impertita tego quæ sunt michi clausa revelo (?)" (Very doubtful if Rievaulx.)

2. Signum Abbatis Rievallis", A. D. 1191 x 1222.

"

3. "Sigillum Abbatis de Rievalle", A.D. 1220.

4. "S'. Abbatis et Conventus Sancte Marie Rievallis", A.D. 1315.

3

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