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church, sold most of the materials of this Lady Chapel to repair the Cathedral with the funds so raised. The last tile is curious from the heraldic bearings it preserves,—1st and 4th, a large, beavy bird, a duck or goose ; 2nd and 3rd, a double-headed eagle. Some of our members may throw light on it, and say if it can have anything to do with a marriage of Richard, King of the Romans.

'A full-size sketch is also sent of the ornamental binding of one of the volumes in the library of the Dean and Chapter. It appears to be English work, and a remarkably fine specimen, worthy of the three truly most excellent works it holds. From the I. P. on both sides conjecture has suggested Dean John Palmer (1597-1608) as the possible owner for whom it was bound; but the present Chapter library had no existence until many years after his time.

“ The whole of the ornamental spaces at the angles and in the centre panel are on a gold ground softened by brown lining, as seen in parts of sketch so treated. That part between is left in the rich, reddishi brown leather powdered with small, cruciform flowers in gold. The dark green band is balanced with one coloured white, as is similarly the case in the floriated ornaments. It is a most admirable work."

Mr. J. M. Wood exhibited a selection of sections from the old leaden pipes at Sadler's Wells, to which attention has been drawn at p. 76, and explained the method of their construction. Mr. Wood also exhibited a photograph of oak-carving in a room belonging to the New River Company's Office at Clerkenwell.

Mr. Thos. Blashill contributed a paper on Meaux Abbey, Yorkshire, which was read, in the unavoidable absence of the author, by Mr. W. E. Hughes.

Mr. A. E. Cockayne, F.S.A., communicated the following note :

“When the books and papers of an old firm of solicitors in Bakewell were lately being removed to new offices adjoining the Town Hall, a quantity of old documents were found which are of considerable interest. There is one, of which I send a transcript, along with a facsimile of the signature thereto. The style of writing is certainly later than the time of the celebrated Dorothy Vernon of romantic fame, and yet the subscription, your trew friend to my power', and the autograph, incline me to believe that we have here a veritable letter written to Mr. Swan, then the agent to the estate.

“ The Duchess of Rutland some time ago informed me, in conversation about the Dorothy Vernon episode-her romantic marriage with John (afterwards Sir John) Manners—that no scrap of her writing, nor any likeness of her, was known to exist. They had never found any at Belvoir.

Transcript of Letter of Dorothy Vernon of Haddon Holl, Co. Derby,

Heiress of Sir George Vernon, and Wife of John Manners.

6. Good Mr. Swaun, “I know not how to make a note as I think fiting to send to you ; therefore, by Jack, write y" such a note as you thinke good, and send it in your let. to me, and I will set my hand to it, and by the first safe band send it you againe ; you may say in the note y* I will pay you the golde agaiue, or so much as you will have for change in silver by our Lady day, for I have them frinds that knows of this, wch I am sure w" pass there words, or give there hands, but at this time, wh y' kindness to me, I will not desier them; but they assure me if I should die to-morrow it should be payd you at the time. You may say in the noate wh shall be our Lady Day, therefore make it so, and send it me, by Jack; and you will still more oblige me to be as trewly I am,

Good Mr. Swan,
“ Your trew friend to my power,

Dorothy Manners.”

WEDNESDAY, 17th Feb. 1892.

J. W. Grover, Esq., V.P., F.S.A., IN THE CHAIR. Thanks were ordered to be returned to the donors of the following presents to the Library :To the Society, for “ Archæologia Æliana," Part 40.

for “ Account Roll of the Priory of the Holy Trinity Dublin, 1337-1346,” by James Mills. Extra volume of the

Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland for 1890-91. Mr. Macniichael exbibited a collection of lamps and other fictilia, from recent London excavations, and read a short note on some wig-curlers found at Walbrook and elsewhere. Mr. Macmichael also exhibited an illustrated poetical work upon publicans' signs in London at the close of the seventeenth century.

Mr. O. Marriage exhibited the bronze head of a cat, evidently of Egyptian origin, thinly cast in crre perdue, and filled up with a kind of cement. It is much oxidised, but has been a fine work of art.

Rev. W. Slater Sykes, of Sheffield, exhibited two celts, and sent the following communication respecting them :

“I am sending a stone celt for inspection and exhibition. It was found about Easter last year on a farm called · Crow Nest', in Lawkland, near Settle. Some men were draining and came upon it about 2} ft. from the surface. Thinking it was a petrified fish, they took it home, and it passed into the hands of Mr. R. Stockdale, science master at Leeds Grammar School. He gave it to me on the understanding that it is to be placed, at some time, in the Giggleswick Museum. I enclose with it what I suppose is a stone wedge, found some fifteen or twenty years ago at Hellifield. The latter I send for comparison of stone. They are both apparently of a kind of slate known in the neighbourhood as 'Calliard'. I should like to know if this material is often used."

Rev. Carus V. Collier, Hon. Correspondent, sent the following communication :

NOTES ON A BARROW AT BRIDWELL.

“I heard a little while ago that there liad been an interesting discovery made at Bradwell, Derbyshire. As soon as possible I went over to the place and, for want of better conveyance, walked a matter of about fifteen miles through the deep snow. On my arrival there I saw that a barrow had been partly dug away.

The mound was situated on the border of the property of two landlords, one of them very anxious to have the whole affair unravelled, but the other would not have his part touched. I examined the composition of the barrow, and found it formed of small pieces of limestone and soil (known there as yellow earth), with a large number of old land snails' shells in it. During the removal of the materials of the barrow, which took place before I could arrive on the spot, three skeletons were discovered. From the particulars I obtained, two of the skeletons were on their sides, having the knees tucked under the chin, and placed within a low wall of fattish stones fixed on their edges, and forming three sides of a square. Unfortunately, the man who had made the discovery did not remember how many stones there were, and the snow was too thick for me to get at and examine them. The third skeleton was found lying at full length on its back, with a stone standing at the head and another at the feet. Only one very rough flint flake was found, and from what I could gather it was near the two skeletons within the small cist. Owing to the ignorance and superstition of the people, the skeletons were terribly broken. As many of the bones as I could get, and the flint, I have now in my possession. A friend and I have been trying to put the fragments of two of the skulls together, but have not been very successful. The remaining part of the barrow has quantities of human bones mixed up in it, which, I imagine, are early burials, disturbed for the later interments. As soon as the deep snow has thawed and the weather becomes more favourable I intend paying the site another visit, and shall examine carefully the earth and stones which have been removed from the barrow.”

The following paper was then read :

1 This word appears to be connected with caillou, Fr., a flint.

St. Piran's CHURCH, CORNWALL.

BY DR. ALFRED C. FRYER,

I send for exhibition two photographs which were taken last summer, in order to show the present condition of the famous Church of Perranzabuloe. This rude stone oratory (25 by 12. ft.), situated in the heart of sandy dunes, may possibly have been built by St. Piran himself, or perhaps, according to the custom of Celtic Christians, a church was built over his remains. For some three centuries it was used for the rites of religion until it was submerged by sand in the eighth or ninth century, not to be seen again until 1835, when the shifting sand disclosed the long-lost relic.

Cornwall was first Christianised by Irish and Welsh missionaries, during the fifth, sixth, and seventh centuries. These missionaries usually lived in a small cell, with an oratory attached, and it has been pointed out that these oratories correspond exactly with the “ Dham. liags" still found in Ireland, and doubtless erected between the fifth to the seventh century.

The legendary history states that at the end of the fourth century St. Patrick visited Cornwall on a crusade against Druidism, and finding his efforts successful, returned to Ireland, where, consecrating twelve bishops, he sent them over to complete the good work. St. Piran was one of these. He is said to have crossed the sea on a mill-stone, and landing at St. Ives, proceeded east for eighteen miles, where he settled, built his cell, and began his ministry. St. Piran is now considered the especial guardian of tinners. Professor Müller has suggested that the name

may be derived from a Cymric root, par, “to raise” or “dig”, and it may be a personification or “apotheosis” of the miner.

This little ruin is not only interesting as a monument of British Christianity, which dates from a very early period, but is an instance of a rural church which is over 1,000 years old.

These ancient coun. try churches of Western Europe are exceedingly rare, and the Rev. W. S. Lach-Szyrma, M.A., says, “They were, in most parts of Europe, built of perishable materials at that time, or bave been nearly all destroyed (accidentally or intentionally) in the lapse of ages”;t and he adds, “It is to be hoped that every care will be taken to preserve these ancient Christian remains existing in England.”

The church lies nearly east and west, and the entrance was on the south side. The heads which once ornamented this doorway of primitive construction may be seen in the museum at Truro, together with some of the stones of the moulding. On this same side of the church there was once a rude window, and the east was pierced with an altar window and

- Journal of Royal Institution of Cornwall, vol. ix, p. 55.

19.vi's, see time, in the Giggleswick Museum. I

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The following paper was then read :

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