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that it is to be placed, at some time, in the Giggleswick Museum. I enclose with it what I suppose is a stone wedge, found some fifteen or twenty years ago at Hellifield. The latter I send for comparison of stone. They are both apparently of a kind of slate known in the neighbourhood as Calliard'. I should like to know if this material is often used."

Rev. Carus V. Collier, Hon. Correspondent, sent the following communication :

NOTES ON A BARROW AT BRADWELL.

“I heard a little while ago that there had been an interesting discovery made at Bradwell, Derbyshire. As soon as possible I went over to the place and, for want of better conveyance, walked a matter of about fifteen miles through the deep snow. On my arrival there I saw that a barrow had been partly dug away.

The mound was situated on the border of the property of two landlords, one of them very anxious to have the whole affair unravelled, but the other would not have his part touched. I examined the composition of the barrow, and found it formed of small pieces of limestone and soil (known there as yellow earth), with a large number of old land snails' shells in it. During the removal of the materials of the barrow, which took place before I could arrive on the spot, three skeletons were discovered. From the particulars I obtained, two of the skeletons were on their sides, having the knees tucked under the chin, and placed within a low wall of flattish stones fixed on their edges, and forming three sides of a square. Unfortunately, the man who had made the discovery did not remember how many stones there were, and the show was too thick for me to get at and examine them. The third skeleton was found lying at full length on its back, with a stone standing at the head and another at the feet. Only one very rough flint flake was found, and from what I could gather it was near the two skeletons within the small cist. Owing to the ignorance and superstition of the people, the skeletons were terribly broken. As many of the bones as I could get, and the flint, I have now in my possession. A friend and I have been trying to put the fragments of two of the skulls together, but have not been very successful. The remaining part of the barrow bas quantities of human bones mixed up in it, which, I imagine, are early burials, disturbed for the later interments. As soon as the deep snow has thawed and the weather becomes more favourable I intend paying the site another visit, and shall examine carefully the earth and stones which have been removed from the barrow.”

The following paper was then read :

1 This word appears to be connected with caillou, Fr., a flint.

St. Piran's CHURCH, CORNWALL.

BY DR. ALFRED C. FRYER.

I send for exhibition two photographs which were taken last summer, in order to show the present condition of the famous Church of Perranzabuloe. This rude stone oratory (25 by 12) ft.), situated in the heart of sandy dunes, may possibly have been built by St. Piran himself, or perhaps, according to the custom of Celtic Christians, a church was built over his remains. For some three centuries it was used for the rites of religion until it was submerged by sand in the eighth or ninth century, not to be seen again until 1835, when the shifting sand disclosed the long-lost relic.

Cornwall was first Christianised by Irish and Welsh missionaries, during the fifth, sixth, and seventh centuries. These missionaries usually lived in a small cell, with an oratory attached, and it has been pointed out that these oratories correspond exactly with the “Dham. liags" still found in Ireland, and doubtless erected between the fifth to the seventh century.

The legendary history states that at the end of the fourth century St. Patrick visited Cornwall on a crusade against Druidism, and finding his efforts successful, returned to Ireland, where, consecrating twelve bishops, he sent them over to complete the good work. St. Piran was one of these. He is said to have crossed the sea on a mill-stone, and landing at St. Ives, proceeded east for eighteen miles, where he settled, built his cell, and began his ministry. St. Piran is now considered the especial guardian of tinners. Professor Müller has suggested that the name may be derived from a Cymric root, par, “to raise" or "dig”, and it may be a personification or “apotheosis” of the miner.

This little ruin is not only interesting as a monument of British Christianity, which dates from a very early period, but is an instance of a rural church which is over 1,000 years old. These ancient country churches of Western Europe are exceedingly rare, and the Rev. W. S. Lach-Szyrma, M.A., says, “They were, in most parts of Europe, built of perishable materials at that time, or have been nearly all destroyed (accidentally or intentionally) in the lapse of ages”;' and he adds, “It is to be hoped that every care will be taken to preserve these ancient Christian remains existing in England.”

The church lies nearly east and west, and the entrance was on the south side. The heads which once ornamented this doorway of primitive construction

may

be in the museum at Truro, together with some of the stones of the moulding. On this same side of the church there was once a rude window, and the east was pierced with an altar window and priest's door. The masonry is rude; no lime was used by the builder ; china clay and sand are employed in its stead. The stones used in its construction are blocks of granite, slate and elvan, and many present a rounded appearance, as if they had been taken from the bed of a stream. In 1835 the altar was removed and three skeletons were found under it. It was rebuilt and capped by a block of granite upon which the name of St. Piran has been cut.

seen

* Journal of Royal Institution of Cornwall, vol. ix, p. 55.

Mr. J. Park Harrison, M.A., Christ Church, Oxford, exhibited and explained a series of drawings and plan of the triforium arches of the transept of Christ Church Cathedral, having grooves for glass in the shafts of the windows in the south transept, which show that they were formerly portions of windows of some older building ; doubtless of the Saxon church which preceded the present Norman fabric. His notes will take the form of a paper, it is hoped, in a future Part of the Journal.

In the discussion which ensued, the Chairman, Mr. E. P. L. Brock, F.S.A., Hon. Sec., Mr. G. Patrick, Mr. A. G. Langdon, and Mr. O. Marriage took part.

The Chairman gave an account of his recent visit to America, and discussed some of the well-known theories respecting the lost Atlantis, by the light of recent investigations into the depth of the soundings in the North Atlantic Ocean.

WEDNESDAY, 2nd March 1892.
J. W. GROVER, Esq., F.S.A., V.P., IN THE CHAIR.

Thanks were ordered to be returned to The Society, for “ Archæologia Cambrensis", 5th Series, No. 33, Jan.

1892.

Mr. Macmichael exhibited a fermail from Long Lane, Smithfield, and read notes on the use and material of fermacula, or buckles, in the medieval ages.

Mr. T. Blasbill exhibited a cast of a mould, in soft stone, found in excavating at Trinity House Lane, Hull, by Mr. John Symons. It is figured, full size, on p. 83. The original is now in the British Museum. The design, which was, no doubt, intended for a pilgrim's sign, or signaculum, consists of a figure of St. Thomas of Canterbury, with mitre, and duplex cross and crozier on one staff, holding up the right hand in the act of pronouncing a blessing. He is riding on a horse led by a servant holding a staff. Beneath the horse are a dog and trees. The details of the technique, which is of the fifteenth century, are very interesting. In some respects, chiefly in the stud-like ornaments, this appears to be the forerunner of the toy-pictures of theatrical characters which children used to embellish with gilt paper-spangles not long ago.

Mr. R. Earle Way exhibited two French copper coins found on the site of the Duke of Suffolk's Palace, Southwark, A.D. 1512-15,Henry of Navarre, 1593; Louis XIV, 1643-1715. Also a drawing of a terra-cotta slab from the same spot, elegantly carved in arabesque patterns of conventional foliage and flowers; and a piece of the original, soft white stone stringcourse carved in the same manner; a

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string of blue Roman beads picked out of deep ground, a few at a time, in Three Cranes' Court, Southwark.

Mr. Oliver exhibited a crucifix of cast iron, perhaps from the top of a coffin; but perhaps from a wall in a street, as in Canary, where crosses are found everywhere on the walls.

Mr. Brock exhibited a book printed at Basle in 1551, interesting for its silver clasp, hinges, and stamped leather binding.

Mr. Birch read Dr. Fairbank's“ Paper on Roman Remains found in Doncaster", which will, it is hoped, find a future place in the Journal. Mr. Brock read a paper on "Waddington Church, Lincolnshire.”

WEDNESDAY, 16TH MARCH 1892.

for "

C. H. COMPTON, Esq., F.S.A., IN THE CHAIR. Thanks were ordered to be returned to the respective donors of the following presents to the Library:To the Society, for "Archæological Journal," No. 192. 1891.

Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries, '* vol. xiii, No. IV. To the Society, forProceedings of the Royal Society of Antiquaries

of Ireland," No. 8, vol. i, Fifth Series. 1891. To the Author, for “Estudio Sobre et Sistema Evolucionistu.” Por

Emilio Cuervo, M. It was announced that, by invitation of the Mayor and Corporation of Cardiff, the Annual Congress will be held in that city in the autumn. For further particulars see p. 4 of the coloured wrapper of this Journal.

Mr. R. E. Way exhibited a collection of fictilia exhumed at Southwark, from the collectiou of Mr. Gwilt and others, A.D. 1818; a Samian patera from Gracechurch Street; a Samian patera, AISI.M. ; and various London articles.

Mr. W. de Gray Birch, F.S.A., Hon. Sec., exhibited some cuts of seals of Rievaulx and Hyde Abbeys, and read the following notes :

SEALS OF RIEVAULX ABBEY, YORKSHIRE, AND HYDE A BBEY,

WINCHESTER.

I have the pleasure of exhibiting casts of the following seals relating to Rievaulx Abbey, Yorksbire, in illustration of Mr. Compton's paper read at the York Congress, 1891:

1. An early counterseal attributed to, but very doubtful if of, Rievaulx, of twelfth century workmanship. It is pointed oval, measuring 2) by 15 in. The design shows an abbot, with long-sleeved dress, seated on a chair to the right. Before him is a monk bending down, as if about to kneel in confession. The legend appears to be

I[MP]ERTI[T]A : TEGO : (QUAE : SONT : MICHI:] CLAUSA : REVELO: 2. First seal of the Abbot, 1! by 1 in., from a charter dating between 1191-1222, pointed oval; the Abbot seated, reading at a lectern, turned to the right, holding a pastoral staff. The seal reads,

+ SIGNUM : ABBATIS : RIEVALLIS.

3. Second seal of the Abbot, about 15 by 1} in., from a charter dating

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