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demand of the governor or executive power of the state from which he fled, be delivered up, and removed to the state having jurisdiction of his offence. Full faith and credit shall be given in each of these states Faith to be
given to to the records, acts, and judicial proceedings of the courts acts of each and magistrates of every other state.
ART. 5. For the more convenient management of the Delegates general interests of the United States, delegates shall be ally ap. ;
pointed, annually appointed in such manner as the legislature of each &c. state shall direct, to meet in congress on the first Monday in November, in every year, with a power reserved to each state Each state to recall its delegates or any of them, at any time within the its dele. year, and to send others in their stead for the remainder of gates, &c.
to have one vote.
No state shall be represented in congress by less than two Number
and qualifinor by more than seven members; and no person shall be cations of
delegates. capable of being a delegate for more than three years in any term of six years; nor shall any person, being a delegate, be capable of holding any office under the United States, for which he, or another for his benefit, receives any salary, fees, or emolument of any kind.
Each state shall maintain its own delegates in a meeting Delegates, of the states, and while they act as members of the com- tained. mittee of the states.
In determining questions in the United States in congress Each state assembled, each state shall have one vote.
Freedom of speech and debate in congress shall not be Privileges impeached or questioned in any court or place out of con- of congress. gress; and the members of congress shall be protected in their persons from arrests and imprisonments, during the time of their going to and from and attendance on congress, except for treason, felony, or breach of the peace.
ART. 6. No state, without the consent of the United States No state to in congress assembled, shall send any embassy to, or receive with forany embassy from, or enter into any conference, agreement,
powers. alliance, or treaty, with any king, prince, or state; nor shall Persons any persom holding any office of profit or trust under the bricen mot United States, or any of them, accept of any present, emolu- pracerent
. ment, office, or title of any kind whatever, from any king, prince, or foreign state; nor shall the United States in congress Congress assembled, or any of them, grant any title of nobility.
nobility. No two or more states shall enter into any treaty, confederation, or alliance whatever between them, without the consent between of the United States in congress assembled, specifying accu- states prorately the purposes for which the same is to be entered into, and how long it shall continue.
No state shall lay any imposts or duties, which may inter- No state to fere with any stipulations in treaties entered into by the lang interreUnited States in congress assembled, with any king, prince, duties. or state, in pursuance of any treaties already proposed by congress to the courts of France and Spain.
not to grant titles of
two or more naval and
certain cases, to engage in war; nor grant com
No vessels of war shall be kept up in time of peace by any Regulations respecting state, except such number only as shall be deemed necessary military by the United States in congress assembled for the defence establishments, the of such state or its trade ; nor shall any body of forces be kept militia, &c.
up by any state in time of peace, except such number only as, in the judgment of the United States in congress assembled, shall be deemed requisite to garrison the forts necessary for the defence of such state ; but every state shall always keep up a well regulated and disciplined militia, sufficiently armed and accoutred, and shall provide and have constantly ready for use, in public stores, a due number of field pieces and tents, and a proper quantity of arms, ammunition and camp
equipage. No state, No state shall engage in any war without the consent of the except in
United States in congress assembled, unless such state be actually invaded by enemies, or shall have received certain
advice of a resolution being formed by some nation of Indians missions to to invade such state, and the danger is so imminent as not to armed . semne de ces admit of a delay till the United States in congress assembled
can be consulted; nor shall any state grant commissions to any ships or vessels of war, nor letters of marque or reprisal, except it be after a declaration of war by the United States in congress assembled, and then only against the kingdom or state, and the subjects thereof, against which war has been so declared, and under such regulations as shall be established by the United States in congress assembled, unless such state be infested by pirates, in which case vessels of war may be fitted out for that occasion, and kept so long as the danger shall continue, or until the United States in congress assem
bled shall determine otherwise. Certain ART. 7. When land forces are raised by any state for the officere of
common defence, all officers of or under the rank of colonel, forces, to be shall be appointed by the legislature of each state respecappointed by each tively, by whom such forces shall be raised, or in such manner
as such state shall direct; and all vacancies shall be filled up
by the state which first made the appointment. All charges ART. 8. All charges of war, and all other expenses that of war, &c.
shall be incurred for the common defence or general welfare, frayed out and allowed by the United States in congress assembled, shall
be defrayed out of a common treasury, which shall be supplied Treasury
, by the several states in proportion to the value of all land plied.
within each state granted to or surveyed for any person, as such land and the buildings and improvements thereon shall be estimated, according to such mode as the United States in
congress assembled shall from time to time direct and appoint. Taxes to be The taxes for laying that proportion shall be laid and levied levied by the states. by the authority and direction of the legislatures of the seve
ral states, within the time agreed upon by the United States
in congress assembled. Powers of ART. 9. The United States in congress assembled shall have
the sole and exclusive right and power of determining on
to be de
the congr 288.
peace and war, except in the cases mentioned in the sixth article: of sending and receiving ambassadors : entering into treaties and alliances ; provided, that no treaty of commerce shall be made whereby the legislative power of the respective states shall be restrained from imposing such imposts and duties on foreigners as their own people are subjected to, or from prohibiting the exportation or importation of any species of goods or commodities whatsoever: of establishing rules for deciding in all cases, what captures on land or water shall be legal, and in what manner prizes taken by land or naval forces in the service of the United States shall be divided or appropriated : of granting letters of marque and reprisal, in times of peace : appointing courts for the trial of piracies and felonies committed on the high seas, and establishing courts Members of for receiving and determining finally appeals in all cases of congress captures ; provided, that no member of congress shall be judges of appointed a judge of any of the said courts.
The United States in congress assembled shall also be the Congress to last resort on appeal in all disputes and differences now sub- putes sisting or that hereafter may arise between two or more states states. concerning boundary, jurisdiction, or any other cause whatever; which authority shall always be exercised in the man- Mode of
proceeding ner following: whenever the legislative or executive authority therein. or lawful agent of any state in controversy with another shall present a petition to congress, stating the matter in question, and praying for a hearing, notice thereof shall be given by order of congress to the legislative or executive authority of the other state in controversy, and a day assigned for the appearance of the parties, by their lawful agents, who shall then be directed to appoint, by joint consent, commissioners or judges to constitute a court for hearing and determining the matter in question ; but if they cannot agree, congress shall name three persons out of each of the United States, and from the list of such persons each party shall alternately strike out one, the petitioners beginning, until the number shall be reduced to thirteen; and from that number not less Judges to than seven nor more than nine names, as congress shall direct, ed by lot. shall, in the presence of congress, be drawn out by lot; and the persons whose names shall be so drawn, or any five of them, shall be commissioners or judges, to hear and finally determine the controversy, so always as a major part of the opinions of judges, who shall hear the cause, shall agree in the determi- of judges to
, &. nation : and if either party shall neglect to attend at the day prevail, &c. appointed, without showing reasons which congress shall judge sufficient, or being present shall refuse to strike, the congress shall proceed to nominate three persons out of each state, and the secretary of congress shall strike in behalf of such party absent or refusing ; and the judgment and sentence Judgment of the court to be appointed in the manner before prescribed, and conshall be final and conclusive ; and if any of the parties shall refuse to submit to the authority of such court, or to appear,
Sentence and proceedings, where deposited.
or defend their claim or cause, the court shall nevertheless proceed to pronounce sentence or judgment, which shall in like manner be final and decisive, the judgment or sentence, and other proceedings, being in either case transmitted to congress, and lodged among the acts of congress for the security of the parties concerned : provided, that every commissioner, before he sits in judgment, shall take an oath, to be
administered by one of the judges of the supreme or superior Oath to be court of the state, where the cause shall be tried, “ well and taken by the judges. truly to hear and determine the matter in question, according
to the best of his judgment, without favor, affection, or hope Proviso. of reward :” provided, also, that no state shall be deprived of
territory for the benefit of the United States. Congress All controversies concerning the private right of soil, determine claimed under different grants of two or more states, whose
jurisdiction as they may respect such lands and the states
which passed such grants are adjusted, the said grants or private rights of either of them being at the same time claimed to have ori
ginated antecedent to such settlement of jurisdiction, shall, on the petition of either party to the congress of the United States, be finally determined, as near as may be, in the same manner as is before prescribed for deciding disputes respecting territorial jurisdiction between different states.
The United States in congress assembled shall also have powers of
the sole and exclusive right and power of regulating the alloy and value of coin struck by their own authority, or by that of the respective states: fixing the standard of weights and measures throughout the United States: regulating the trade and managing all affairs with the Indians not members of any of the states; provided that the legislative right of any state within its own limits be not infringed or violated: establishing and regulating post-offices from one state to another throughout all the United States, and exacting such postage on the papers passing through the same as may be requisite to defray the expenses of the said office: appointing all officers of the land forces in the service of the United States, excepting regimental officers: appointing all the officers of the naval forces, and commissioning all officers, whatever in the service of the United States: making rules for the government and regulation of the said land and naval
forces, and directing their operations. Congress to The United States in congress assembled shall have authoappoint a committee rity to appoint a committee to sit in the recess of congress, to
be denominated "a committee of the states;" and to consist Additional of one delegate from each state, and to appoint such other
committees and civil officers as may be necessary for managing the general affairs of the United States, under their direction: to appoint one of their number to preside, provided that no person be allowed to serve in the office of president more than one year in any term of three years: to ascertain the necessary sums of money to be raised for the service of
of the states.
powers of congress enumerated.
the United States, and to appropriate and apply the same for defraying the public expenses: to borrow money or emit bills on the credit of the United States, transmitting every half year to the respective states an account of the sums of money so borrowed or emitted: to build and equip a navy: to agree upon the number of land forces, and to make requisitions from each state for its quota, in proportion to the number of white inhabitants in such state; which requisition shall be binding, and thereupon the legislature of each state shall appoint the regimental officers, raise the men, and clothe, arm, and equip them in a soldier-like manner, at the expense of the United States; and the officers and men so clothed, armed, and equipped, shall march to the place appointed, and within the time agreed on by the United States in congress assembled: but if the United States in congress assembled, shall, on consideration of circumstances, judge proper that any state should not raise men or should raise a smaller number than its quota, and that any other state should raise a greater number of men than the quota thereof, such extra number shall be raised, officered, clothed, armed, and equipped, in the same manner as the quota of such state, unless the legislature of such state shall judge that such extra number can not be safely spared out of the same; in which case they shall raise, officer, clothe, arm, and equip, as many of such extra number as they judge can be safely spared. And the officers and men so clothed, armed, and equipped, shall march to the place appointed, and within the time agreed on by the United States in congress assembled.
The United States in congress assembled shall never engage Congress in a war, nor grant letters of marque and reprisal in time of cise certain peace, nor enter into any treaties or alliances, nor coin ünless by money, nor regulate the value thereof, nor ascertain the sums bine stated. and expenses necessary for the defence and welfare of the United States or any of them, nor emit bills, nor borrow money on the credit of the United States, nor appropriate money, nor agree upon the number of vessels of war to be built or purchased, or the number of land or sea forces to be raised, nor appoint a commander-in-chief of the army or navy, unless nine states assent to the same; nor shall a ques- Questions, tion on any other point, except for adjourning from day to cided. day, be determined, unless by the votes of a majority of the United States in congress assembled.
The congress of the United States shall have power to Adjournadjourn to any time within the year, and to any place within other pro
ceedings of the United States, so that no period of adjournment be for a
congress. longer duration than the space of six months; and shall publish the journal of their proceedings monthly, except such parts thereof relating to treaties, alliances, or military operations, as in their judgment require secrecy; and the yeas and nays of the delegates of each state on any question shall be entered on the journal, when it is desired by any delegate;