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he must waste his best time and strength in occupations not required here.

The vegetable products of Illinois are especially — Indian corn, which is the staple commodity; wheat, which thrives well in all parts of the State; and also oats, barley, rye, buckwheat, potatoes, sweet potatoes, flax, hemp, peas, clover, cabbage, rapes, and the ordinary pot-herbs, tobacco, and the bean from which the castor oil (ol. ricini) is obtained, are cultivated here; of the latter enough is raised for home use.

The culture of fruit-trees, though securing a handsome profit to the farmer, is chiefly confined to that of apples and peaches, most excellent varieties of which are grown here; besides these there are already several vineyards yielding a very good wine. The culture of fruittrees and of the vine will be treated of in a special chapter, whilst in this present chapter we shall speak of agriculture particularly.

The amount of bushels raised per acre, first claims our attention, for the comparatively smaller or greater amount reaped by the farmer, in connection with the market prices of the produce, will naturally exercise a great influence in diminishing or increasing his revenue, and thus impair or enhance his prosperity.

As already mentioned in the preface of this book, we have received from a number of gentlemen, for many years resident in Illinois, among whom are also many practical farmers, information concerning all matters, so that the statements subjoined here may be relied upon as the results of a practical experience for many years. We quote here the testimony of several in regard to the amount of the various products per acre.

F. A. Arenz, Esq., of Beardstown, Cass Co., states the amount of produce, as follows: Indian corn, 50–70 bushels per acre; wheat, 18– 25; rye, 35-40; oats, 40–45; potatoes, 150–200.

James G. Loulard, Esq., of Maple Lawn, Jo Daviess Co. ; Indian corn, 30-100 bushels, per average 60; wheat, 15-40, per average, 22; oats, per average, 45; barley, 25–60, per average, 35; rye, 2050, per average, 30; potatoes, 100–300, per average, 150.

Heinr. Funk, Esq., of Stout's Grove, McLean Co.; winter wheat, 20–30; spring wheat, 20-28; oats, 40-50; Indian corn, 45-70.

Stephen Feussner, Esq., of Marissa, St. Clair Co.; Indian corn, 30 –50; wheat, 18–30; oats, 30; potatoes, 100-200.

Rev. F. Will. Holls, of Centreville, St. Clair Co.; barley, 40–45; wheat, 15-20; Indian corn, 50–55.

Michael Kleinbenz, Esq., of Henry, Marshall Co.; Indian corn, 50–70.

Wm. Ross, Esq., of Pittsfield, Pike Co.; Indian corn, 50–70; wheat, 20-40; oats, 40–50.

Dr. Danl. Stahl, of Quincy, Adams Co.; Indian corn, 60–70; wheat, 20–40.

Dr. Welsch, of Mascoutah, St. Clair Co.; Indian corn, 70-75; winter wheat, 22–25; barley, 40–45; castor beans, 30; oats, 40; potatoes, 50–80.

Geo. Bunsen, Esq., of Belleville, St. Clair Co.; Indian corn, 40– 100; wheat, 16–25; barley, 40; rye, 16; oats, 40–60; potatoes, 100.

Isaac Underhill, Esq., of Peoria; Indian corn, 30-60; wheat, 15 -25.

A. Collins, Esq., of Hadley, Will Co.; Indian corn, 50; oats, 40 -60.

Thus, according to these observations, which were made in nine different counties of the State, throughout her longitudinal extension, from her northern boundary to St. Clair County, in her southern portion, we receive the following average numbers, per acre :

:-Indian corn, 56 bushels; wheat, 24; oats, 44; barley, 41; rye, 29; potatoes, 143.

Let us now listen to a well known authority, with respect to agriculture in Illinois. Mr. J. Ambrose Wight, of Chicago, who was for many years the accomplished editor of the “Prairie Farmer," an excellent journal, largely diffused, which, however, should not be wanting in the house of any Illinoisian farmer, and which should be studiously perused by every new settler,-in a letter dated Jan. 9, 1855, and addressed to John Wilson, makes the following statements :

“At your request, I would state, that, from an acquaintance with Illinois lands, and Illinois farmers, of eighteen years, during thirteen of which I have been engaged as editor of the · Prairie Farmer,' I am prepared to give the following as the rates of produce which may be had per acre, with ordinary culture:

66

Winter wheat

15 to 25 bushels. Spring wheat. ...........................................

10 to 20 Indian corn...... .........................

40 to 70 Oats .......

40 to 80 Potatoes. .............

100 to 200 Grass, (timothy and clover)........

11 to 3 tons. Ordinary culture,' on prairie lands, is not what is meant by the term in the Eastern or Middle States. It means here, no manure; and commonly but once, or, at most, twice ploughing, on perfectly smooth land, with long furrows, and no stones or obstructions; when two acres per day is no hard job for one team. It is often but very poor culture, with shallow ploughing, and without attention to weeds.

I have known crops, not unfrequently, far greater than these, with but little variation in their treatment; say forty to fifty bushels of winter wheat; sixty to eighty of oats; three hundred of potatoes, and one hundred of Indian corn. *Good culture,' which means rotation, deep ploughing, farms well stocked, and some manure applied, at intervals of from three to five years, would, in good seasons, very often approach these latter figures.”

It will be seen that Mr. Wight's statements are in perfect harmony with the above observations, made for several years by practical Illinoisian farmers; hence these numbers may be considered the exact rates of average produce.

In another chapter we have noted the market-prices of corn, and other farm produce, as the newspapers stated them to rule during the first half of January, 1856, in 51 different places, scattered all over Illinois. According to this account the highest prices in the places mentioned before (with the sole exception of Chicago, which cannot be considered as a place of production), have been the following:

For Indian corn, in Joliet.........

$ 54 cents. " Wheat, in Aurora and Batavia ..

1 60 66 Rye, in Freeport......

1 00 “ Potatoes, in Springfield....

1 00 " Oats, in Cairo, Moline, and Ottawa......... 35 " Barley, in Quincy........

1 50 While the average price

Of Indian corn, was.........
66 Wheat.

1 27
• Rye .....

70 66 Potatoes..

42 « Oats......

25 “ Barley ....

1 03

331 "

Let us now calculate in money, the probable produce of an acre.

Basing our calculation upon the average ruling prices of the various products, during the first half of January, 1856, and upon the above given average rates of bushels per acre, we should estimate every acre to be worth, if planted with

Indian corn...
Wheat
Rye ....
Potatoes.....
Oats.....
Barley

$18 67
30 48
20 30
60 06
11 00
42 23

Basing our calculation, however, upon the above mentioned highest prices, we find every acre to be worth, if planted with

Indian corn
Wheat
Rye
Potatoes..
Oats...
Barley........

$30 24
38 40
29 00
143 00
15 40
61 50

Having shown by the preceding, how much an acre of land at an average rate of produce, and at average prices, must yield, and how much at those highest prices, paid in the first half of January, 1856, (which latter calculation is also based on the average rate of produce), we now turn to the profitableness of farming itself.

Profits of farming.--Here, also, we cannot do better than to refer to the observations and statements made by practical men.

Edward Bebb, Esq., of Fountaindale, Winnebago Co., in a letter addressed to us, gives the following account of his first crop, on newlybroken land:

“In the summer of 1851, we had sixty-five acres of an eighty acre lot broken. In the spring of 1852, we fenced the whole eighty and sowed it with oats. The following is a statement of the crop:

$100 00

......................

320 00 130 00

.....................

80 acres of land, entered at $1 25 per acre...
Fencing 80 acres with post and board, (two boards only being

put on).
Breaking 65 acres, at $2 00 per acre.........
Seed, 130 bushels, at 12 cents per bus., (oats being very cheap

that spring).... Sowing and harrowing, at 377 cents per acre............ 5 acres mown and fed before harvest, no account kept. Reaping 60 acres, at 50 cents per acre......... Binding 60 acres, at 75 cents per acre ........ Threshing...

.....................

15 65 24 37

30 00 45 00 120 00

...............

Total cost.......
3000 bushels of oats, sold in January, at 30 cents per bushel...

$785 02 900 00

Balance in favor of crop...

114 98

.............................................

In the foregoing statement I made no mention of the straw, which being cut before it was dead ripe, and gotten up without any rain, wintered, with scarcely any other feed, 25 head of cattle.”

Wm. Waite, Esq., Rock Island Co., in the spring of 1853, purchased 80 acres of prairie land, at $4 50; his account of the first year is as follows:

$360 00 150 00 400 00

80 acres of prairie, at $4 50 per acre ..................................
Breaking 60 acres, at $2 50 per acre.......
Fencing 60 acres, at $1 00 per rod, 400 rods of board fence
Seed for 40 acres with winter wheat, 11 bushels to the acre, at

$1 00 per bushel..........
Sowing and harrowing, 75 cents per acre............................
Harvesting and marketing, $1 50 per acre.......................
Threshing and cleaning, 1,100 bushels, at 10 cents per bush...
Hauling 15 miles to rail-road, 6 cents per bushel.........
Ploughing 20 acres for corn in the spring, at 75 cents.......
Marking off and planting......
Cultivating, at $1 25

per acre
Harvesting, at $1 per acre...
Threshing, and hauling 15 miles to rail-road, 1000 bushels, at

10 cents per bushel..

60 00 30 00 60 00 110 00

66 00 $15 00 15 00 25 00 20 00

100 00

........................

$1411 00

Total cost of farm and crops.........
1100 bushels of wheat, at $1 15 per bushel, ...... $1,265 00
1000 bushels of corn, at 28 cents per bushel...... 280 00
Total amount of crops.

1545 00

Profits of 60 acres, after paying all expenses ........................

$134 00 and 20 acres of land unbroken.—This farm is now worth $25 per acre.

Jos. Reinhardt, Esq., of Granville, Putnam Co., gives the following

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