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From Another's Pen
HE hand that paints many a successful picture develops
So I give over this page to James L. Woolson, the emi-
"JAMES WALLEN, ESQ.,
EAST AURORA NY
"PICTURES THAT SWAY'
"Just a word, Mr. Wallen, to tell you how inspiriting I found
"To me you have set new standards, new ideals in the field of
"No matter what the line, no matter if the subject is dry-as-dust
"Your work is both convincing and persuasive, and in that com-
Vol. IV. No. 8
The Weekly News-Magazine
THE PRESIDENCY Mr. Coolidge's Week
An airplane soaring overhead writ silently in the sky over the Capital, "Keep Coolidge," and then, as if to make the point doubly strong, writ again "Keep Coolidge."
The President wrote to Mr. and Mrs. James N. Cooke of Morrisville, N. Y.:
"My good friend, John A. Stewart, has written to me of your long life together, telling me that you have within a few days celebrated the sixty-fifth anniversary of your marriage. This is a most interesting and impressive record, and I cannot refrain from writing to congratulate both of you, and to extend my earnest hope that you may be preserved to celebrate many more anniversaries.
"Most sincerely yours,
The day after he had made his
August 25, 1924
contains four desks, two telephones, four kerosene lamps and one piano. The room directly adjoining it is the room where the President was born, at a time when his father kept the store. C. Bascom Slemp hurried around gathering human interest material. One of his finds was a picture taken of a Sunday school picnic which includes Calvin Coolidge at the age of ten, his sister, now dead, his father, several elders, other children and an organ.
Coolidge weather kept the visitor near the "chunk stove." When he did go out it was to help drive posts for a tent the Secret Service men erected near the house, to stroll up the road with Mrs. Coolidge to watch son John pitch horseshoes with the neighbors.
To the reporters who lolled about, the visitor said nothing.
National Affairs Foreign News
1-6 7-12 12-13
13 14-15 .15-16
18 18-19 19
Business & Finance...
THE CAMPAIGN Cheers
The arrangements for the formal notification of President Coolidge of his nomination required that the actual address of acceptance be made within Memorial Continental Hall, the building of the Daughters of the American Revolution, which stands only a couple of blocks southwest of the White House.
At six in the evening, crowds began to assemble. About 2,000 admission tickets had been issued. Some 10,000 people gathered in the park opposite the hall and listened "by amplifier."
The audience within watched eagerly for celebrities. Secretary Hughes was spied. He had landed in Manhattan that morning, on his return from Europe; had hastened to Washington for the ceremony. He and the other members of the Cabinet were accommodated with seats on the platform; all wore white trousers and blue coats with the exception of the two new membersAttorney General Stone and Secretary of the Navy Wilbur-who were in formal dress.
Shortly after eight, Mrs. Coolidge, hatless and in white, accompanied by her son, John, and by Mr. and Mrs. Frank W. Stearns, entered a box, and was received with applause. A moment later, Calvin Coolidge appeared on the platform. The audience, standing, applauded again.
A moment later, Chairman Butler of the Republican National Committee opened the proceedings; the band played The Star Spangled Banner. A prayer was offered; and then Mr. Butler introduced Frank W. Mondell, Chairman of the Notification Committee, onetime Representative from Wyoming and Chairman of the National Convention. He spoke briefly, making the formal notification. Then Mr. Coolidge came forward to make his speech. A fat little man in the front row (name unknown) appointed himself cheer-leader and led the applause at appropriate in
tervals, waving handkerchiefs in both hands. At the close, Secretary Hughes, inspired by the moment to abandon his reserve, came forward, waved his hands and called on the audience for three cheers.
Although the meeting was held in the Hall where President Harding had opened the Limitation of Armaments Conference in 1922, no mention was made of his name in either of the speeches.
Mr. Coolidge in his speech accepting the Republican nomination, gave first a condensed review of conditions as they existed in 1921. This he followed with a rehearsal of the same matters as they appear in 1924, then he turned to a more detailed discussion of specific issues.
Notification. "Deeply conscious of the high honor it [the Party] confers and the responsibility it imposes, I accept its nomination for President of the United States. . . ."
Conditions in 1921. "It is easy to forget, but the impression which the condition of our country in March, 1921, made upon the people was so vivid, so alarming, that it will not soon pass away. . . . We were still technically in a state of war. We had no diplomatic relations with Turkey, Greece, Russia, Colombia or Mexico; and the Far East was causing grave apprehensions.
"An enormous debt had been contracted, then standing at about $24,000,000,000, of which more than $7,000,000,000 was in short-time obligations without any provision for payment. Government bonds were far below par. The high Wartime taxes still burdened the people.
"Demobilization and liquidation remained to be completed. Huge accounts with the railroads were still unsettled. Transportation was crippled. Over $11,000,000,000 of unliquidated debts were due to us from foreign countries. The whole people were suffering from a tremendous deflation. Our banks were filled with frozen assets, and everywhere acute financial distress existed. Interest was high. Capital was scarce. "Approximately 5,000,000 people were without employment. No adequate provision had been made for the relief of disabled veterans and their dependents. There was an avalanche of War-worn peoples and
Republican Record in 1924. "We have ratified separate treaties of world-wide importance with Germany, Austria, Hungary, Colombia and Mexico. Forty-two other treaties have been approved by the Senate and six treaties are now awaiting its action. Friendly intercourse has been resumed with Turkey and Greece. . . Our foreign relations have been handled with a technical skill and a broad statesmanship which has seldom, if ever, been surpassed.
"In the domain of finances, a budget system was promptly enacted and put into operation, resulting in tremendous savings.
"The public debt now stands at about $21,250,000,000, which is a reduction in three years of about $2,750,000,000 and means an annual saving in interest of more than $120,000,000.
"More than 40% of the amount of debts due us from foreign countries has been liquidated and will provide funds for the retirement of about $13,000,000,000 of the principal of our National debt in the course of 62
"The Army and Navy have been reduced to a low, peace-time basis. . . . Hundreds of millions of accounts have been settled with the railroads. . . . A great revival of industry took place, which is now spreading to agriculture. Complaint of unemployment has ceased, wages have increased. . .
Most generous laws for the relief of disabled veterans have been enacted and the Veterans' Bureau established. More than 71,000 men and women have been rehabilitated, of whom over 38,000 are earning more than they earned before the War. Forty million dollars has been provided for hospital facilities. . .
"To preserve American standards for all our inhabitants, whether they were the descendants of former generations residing here or the most recent arrivals, restricted emigration laws were passed. I should have preferred to continue the policy of Japanese exclusion by some method less likely to offend the sensibilities of the Japanese people. I did what I could do to minimize any harm that might arise. . . .
"By means of a protective tariff
we have saved American agriculture, labor and industry from the menace of having their great home market destroyed through the dumping upon it of a flood of foreign products. . . As a source of revenue the tariff surpassed all expectations in producing an annual return of the unprecedented sum of about $500,000,000. . .
"The people have never come to a full realization of the importance of the Washington Conference. It produced the one effective agreement among the great Powers in all the history of civilization for relieving the people of the earth from the enormous burden of maintaining competitive naval armaments. . . . A policy was adopted which was more than revolutionary. It was sublime. . . .”
Honesty in Government. "There are those who would disregard all this for an undertaking to convince themselves and others that the chief issue of this campaign is honest government. In all my studies of political history, .I cannot recall an Administration which was desirous of a dishonest and corrupt Government that, for the purpose of checking extravagance, ever undertook to introduce a budget system, to cut down taxes, to purge the payrolls, to make enormous reductions in the public debt and to lay firmer foundations for the peace of the world. . . .
"Individuals charged with wrongdoing are being prosecuted.... If the evidence warranted, those suspected of crime have been indicted; and without favor, but without malice, they will be tried on the charges returned against them."
Mr. Coolidge's Principles. "I believe in the American Constitution. I favor the American system of individual enterprise and I am opposed to any general extension of Government ownership and control. . . . I believe in a reduction and reform of taxation. ... I am in favor of protection.
"I favor the Permanent Court and further limitation of armaments. I am opposed to aggressive war. I shall avoid involving ourselves in the political controversies of Europe, but I shall do what I can to encourage American citizens and resources to assist in restoring Europe, with the sympathetic support of our Govern ment.
"I want agriculture and industry on a sound basis of prosperity and equality. . . . The domestic affairs of our country appear to me to be
by far the chief concern. From that -source comes our strength."
Foreign Policy. "The foreign policy of America can best be described by one word-peace. . . . We have :sought to promote peace not only by word but by appropriate action. We have been unwilling to surrender our independence. We have refused to ratify the Covenant of the League of Nations. But we have coöperated with it to suppress the narcotic trade and promote public health. . . .
"We have observed with sympathy the continuing difficulties of Europe. . . . The Reparation Commission appointed a committee of experts of which three were Americans, one of whom, Charles G. Dawes, was chosen Chairman. A report has been made which received world-wide approbation and has been accepted in principle by the Governments interested. . . . I believe the substance of the plan ought to be adopted. . If Europe should agree to this proposal, then a private loan should be made by our citizens to Germany for the financial support of this undertaking. . . . In my opinion such action, by stabilizing Europe, would result in improving our Own economic condition. . . .
has always been against aggressive war and for permanent peace. Those who are working out detailed plans to present such a policy for consideration have my entire sympathy..
"We helped the Government of Mexico protect itself against domestic violence. . . . We also indicated the adoption of a policy of making it worth while for a Government so to conduct itself as to merit our recCognition."
Protective Tariff. "America opposes special privilege for anybody and favors equal opportunity for everybody. . . . The Republican Party supports the policy of protection as a broad principle, good alike for producer and consumer."
Agriculture. "I confess that my inheritance and personal experience have bred in me a keen interest in the welfare of agriculture. . . . As many as 15 laws have been passed to assist and support this fundamental industry. Through the War Finance Corporation it has been extended credits of between $300,000,000 and $400,000,000.
"In addition to this, Government activity provided about $50,000,000 from private sources for the relief of the cattle industry; and, in the carly Spring of this year, a $10,000,000 corporation was formed, which, it was estimated, could furnish $100,
000,000 for diversification and financial relief in the Northwest. The Intermediate Credit Banks have loaned over $86,000,000 to individuals and cooperative marketing associations, which assisted directly and indirectly over 500,000 farmers.
Labor. "Under the policy of protection and restrictive immigration no deflation of wages has occurred. While the cost of living has gone down, wages have advanced. The twelve-hou- day and the seven-day week have practically been abolished."
Tax Reduction. "The bill which I signed will save the people about $1,000,000 each day. I want further tax reduction and more tax reform.
. Our first thought should be to maintain unimpaired the activity of agriculture and industry. That tax is theoretically best which interferes least with business. Every student knows that excessively high rates defeat their own purpose. They dry up that source of revenue and leave those paying lower rates to furnish all the taxes. . . . Good business is worth more to the smallincome taxpayer than a considerable percentage of tax reduction. Only about 3,500,000 people pay direct income taxes. The remainder pay, but pay indirectly, in the cost of all purchases-from a pair of shoes to a railroad ticket. This country has at least 107,000,000 of these indirect taxpayers. I am not disturbed about the effect on a few thousand people with large incomes because they have to pay high surtaxes. They can take care of themselves, whatever happens, as the rich always can. What concerns me is the indirect effect of high surtaxes on all the rest of the people. . . ."
The Political Compaign. "Economy should be practiced scrupulously in the conduct of a National campaign.
I can perceive no reason why the budget system should not be beneficial in a campaign, as it has proved to be in government. It is to be tested by our Committee. . . There should be no relaxing of resolute endeavors to keep our elections clean, honest and free from taint of any kind. Only the closest scrutiny, both of the sources of contributions and the character of expenditures, can accomplish this laudable purpose. For the first time, this has been provided for the coming campaign through the appointment of a petent Senate Committee vested with ample authority. . . . The statutes provide for publication of the names of contributors and of amounts contributed. But a deficit at the end of the campaign in part defeats this. The budget will cure that defect. So far as
Our Institutions. "The Constitution is the sole source and guarantee of National freedom. We believe that the safest place to declare and interpret the Constitution which the people have made is the Supreme Court of the United States.
"We believe the people of the Nation should continue to own the property and transact the business of the Nation. We harbor no delusions about securing perfection. . . . That system is best which gives the individual the largest freedom of action and the largest opportunity for honorable accomplishment. Such a system does not tend to the concentration of wealth but to the diffusion of wealth. Under our institutions, there is no limitation on the aspirations a mother may have for her children. This country would not be a land of opportunity... if the people were shackled with Government monoplies.
"Under our institutions, success is the rule and failure is the exception. We have no better example of this than the enormous progress which is being made by the Negro race. . . . They are doing a great work in the land and are entitled to the protection of the Constitution and the Law. It is a satisfaction to observe that the crime of lynching, of which they have been so often the victims, has been greatly diminished; and I trust that any further continuation of this National shame may be prevented by law. . . ."
Prohibition. "Our country has adopted prohibition and has provided by legislation for its enforcement. It is the duty of the citizen to observe the law; and the duty of the Executive to enforce. I propose to do my duty as best I can."
Child Labor. "Our different States have had different standards, or no standards at all, for child labor. The Congress should have authority to provide a uniform law applicable to the whole Nation which will protect childhood. . ."
National Defense. "I am in favor of National defense, not merely as an abstract state of mind, but as a concrete mode of action. I favor not merely talking about it but doing something about it.
"These, Mr. Chairman, are some of the beliefs which I hold, some of the principles which I propose to support."
In Washington, with small pomp, a delegation from the American Federation of Labor approached Senator LaFollette and notified him, not of his nomination, but of his endorsement by the Federation. The chief part of the unceremonial ceremony was a speech by Frank Morrison, Secretary of the A. F. of L. Said he:
"We are instructed by the Executive Committee of the Non-Partisan Political Campaign Committee of the American Federation of Labor to bring to you this personal and official notification of our action as detailed in the report adopted by the A. F. of L. Executive Council in Atlantic City.
"We present to you for yourself and for Senator Wheeler that document.
"We are instructed, also, to say to you for President Gompers that we are for you and for Senator Wheeler, that we are for you without restriction, and that so far as the 1924 Presidential tickets and platforms of the two old parties are concerned, we have burned our bridges. The fight is on."
John W. Davis spent the week following his notification struggling with party organization in Manhattan and preparing his later speeches and his itinerary. At best, a national political campaign in America is but a temporary alliance of local units. The only permanent political organizations are the local ones. National party organizations give an appearance of permanence, but in reality partake rather of the nature of a loose federation which, to a certain degree, is brought into a closer union at election time.
It is an open secret at present that the Democratic National organization is weak, uncoördinated. Mr. Davis' selection of Clem Shaver of West Virginia as Chairman of the National Committee did nothing to improve this condition. Mr. Shaver is not only shy and inexperienced, but as yet he has failed to exhibit traces of the dynamic, directing energy which is necessary to knit the local organizations into a great unit for the purposes of a national campaign. Many of the local units are strong, but they remain largely uncoördinated. The difficult task of altering this condition, therefore, rests largely on the candidate himself. He has been overtaken by a host of necessary conferences, of campaign appointments, of arrangements for raising adequate campaign funds. His duties are doubled. He has Herculean labor ahead.
There is one respect in which his trouble is diminished. The Democrats
are usually faced with more difficulties in raising campaign funds than are the Republicans. This is evidently going to be the case this year. In spite of the misfortune for Mr. Davis which has risen from the fact that he has been labeled "a lawyer of the big business interests," the fact remains that these
"Shy and inexperienced"
same interests seem more inclined to contribute to the Coolidge than the Davis campaign chest. But a report came out of Washington that, at President Coolidge's orders, the Republicans are going to limit their campaign expense to 22 or 3 million dollars. This is less than half the amount which the Republicans spent in 1920, and offers the Democrats an opportunity of coming nearer parity with their opponents in the matter of campaign funds than they have been in many years.
THE CABINET "Wild Bill"
Attorney General Stone selected a new assistant. He wanted a man to succeed Earl J. Davis, of Michigan, who resigned as Assistant Attorney General in charge of the Criminal Division.
As a successor to Mr. Davis, Attorney General Stone chose "Wild Bill" Donovan, a man who was a pupil of his 20 years ago, when the Attorney General was a professor in the Columbia Law School. Colonel William J. Donovan, a Buffalo man, was U. S. Attorney in the Western District of New York until his ap
pointment. He is now only 41. During the War he served overseas, was thrice wounded. He is one of two men who received the Congressional Medal of Honor, the Distinguished Service Cross and the Distinguished Service Medal. Recently he has been known to the public as a prosecutor of boot-leggers and dope vendors.
The Panama Canal celebrated its tenth birthday. On behalf of the War Department, Colonel Meriwether Walker, Acting Governor of the Canal Zone, observed the day by issuing a statement summarizing the Canal's work.
During the ten years, 28,100 vessels traversed the Canal, 25,600 of them commercial vessels. The cost to each vessel averaged about $4,000, or the cost of operating six days at sea in preference to the several weeks which it takes to go around the Horn. They carried an aggregate of 110 million tons of cargo at a cost of about 90 cents a ton in tolls. Aggregate tolls have been $100,000,000. During the last year, tolls have been $2,000,000 a month, and the net operating profit about $17,000,000 or an equivalent of 42% on the $400,000,000 cost of the Canal.
Lebaron Bradford Colt, 78, U. S. Senator (Republican) from Rhode Island since 1913, Chairman of the Senate Immigration Committee, died at Bristol, R. I., of heart trouble and nephritis. A Yale graduate, class of 1868, he was appointed U. S. District Judge for Bristol by President Garfield in 1881. In 1884 he became a U. S. Circuit Court judge, in 1891 (the year of its founding) a judge of the U. S. Circuit Court of Appeals.
Samuel Colt, an uncle, was the inventor of the revolving bullet chamber. Ethel Barrymore, actress, married and divorced Russell Griswold Colt, a nephew.
A Primary Difficulty
"The right of the citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color or previous condition of servitude"-thus reads the 15th Amendment to the Con
In the July 28 issue of TIME, it was er roneously reported that the Panama Canal cost four billion dollars.