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National Affairs—[Continued]

cerned, he is entitled to a clean bill of health at the hands of the American labor movement, but, as you point out in your own Istatement, that does not apply to his attitude on foreign relations.

The record maintained by the American Federation of Labor shows that during Mr. Davis's Congressional career he never voted in a single instance unfavorably to Labor. Consequently, I have felt that he also was entitled to a clean bill of health in the matter of domestic policies; and, as his attitude concerning foreign relations is in accord with that of the American Federation of Labor, Mr. Davis is entitled to the endorsement of Labor on that question also.

Doubtless the clear partisanship of the Federation for LaFollette and Wheeler came as rather an unpleasant surprise to Mr. Davis. The Federation had labelled Davis as "unacceptable" and had let it go at that. The Federation, to make it clear that it was not playing favorites between Republicans and Democrats, had attacked General Dawes for his "consistent anti-union activity." Said the organization, through its spokesman (not Mr. Gompers but its Vice President, Matthew Woll*): "General Dawes has said that Samuel Gompers and other Trade Union officials are more concerned about the right of Union men to assault and murder peaceful citizens than about upholding the law of the land. No one has made a more vicious and unwarranted declaration than that."

The Federal Council of Churches intimated that the A. F. of L. by aligning itself with LaFollette had 'definitely set out to form a Labor party. This the Federation indignantly denied.

Nevertheless, by its firm endorsement of LaFollette, by its equally firm repudiation of Davis and Bryan as well as of Coolidge and Dawes, it has joined one political party more forcefully and more fully than it has ever done in the past. This stand presages the retirement from the foreground of Samuel Gompers, who for years has fought to keep the Federation out of politics. Formally, the Federation maintains its usual stand. Formally, Samuel Gompers retains his leadership. Actually?

To this Mr. Gompers again replied, elaborating on his 'denial that Mr. Davis should receive credit for points 2) and 3). He closed by giving Mr. LaFollette another boost:

"As for international policies, should such good fortune come to the American people as the election of Robert M. LaFollette to the Presidency, I

*Matthew Woll, President of the International Photo-Engravers' Union, is an intimate of Mr. Gompers. As a lawyer, he has been closely associated with every major litigation of the A. F. of L. in recent years. Smooth shaven, thick-haired, round-faced, Woll is a fluent talker.

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ernment is speedily finding out the same thing. Last week it was admitted in Washington that the $100,000 which Congress appropriated for the special criminal and civil prosecutions in connection with the Sinclair and Doheny oil leases at Teapot Dome and Elk Hills, respectively, was practically exhausted.

The major expenditures, so far, have been for bringing witnesses overland to the Capital from the Far West. Moreover, the special prosecutors, Owen G. Roberts and exSenator Atlee Pomerene, have as yet not received a cent. A bill will have to be introduced at the next session of Congress carrying the funds for paying them and completing the prosecutions. Before the matter is settled it will have cost the country a pretty penny to recover Teapot Dome and Elk Hills from the lessees -if they are recovered. Since every

body became excited about the alleged debauchery of the Navy's oil reserves, it is probably true that the prosecution has been carried on with more thoroughness than foresight as to whether the accomplishments will balance the cost of the prosecution. So far the $100,000 expenditure is equivalent to buying every family in the country almost a gill of gasoline at retail prices. If the entire affair does not cost Uncle Sam's children more than a pint per family, they will be reasonably lucky.



Black Representatives

It was announced last week that the Republican organization in the 21st Congressional District of New York had selected Dr. Charles H. Roberts, a Negro dentist, as a candidate for Congress. A few weeks ago George E. Brennan, Democratic boss of Chicago, chose another Negro, Earl B. Dickerson, as candidate for Congress in the First District of Illinois.

These two nominations are not insignificant. Coming from opposite parties. they show a tendency in Northern political machines to nominate Negroes to take advantage of the increasing Negro vote in the North. It happens that the 21st District of New York is in a section of Manhattan, Harlem, which has a large Negro population. The same is true of the First District of Illinois.

If this policy on the part of political bosses proves fruitful, there may soon be a number of Negroes in Congress from Northern municipalities. The last Negro Congressman was George H. White, of North Carolina, whose term expired in 1901. It is noteworthy that of the 21 colored Representatives and two Senators who have served in Congress every one, without exception, came from the South. To be sure, most of them served during the Reconstruction days of the 1870's. Both the colored Senators were from Mississippi. Eight colored Representatives were from South Carolina, four from North Carolina, three from Alabama, two from Louisiana, one each from Virginia, Georgia, Mississippi, Florida.

The conditions which brought these men to Congress have passed. Another set of conditions is coming about in which we may again expect to see a few Negroes in Congress,

ugust 18, 1924





German Invasion

For the first time since the conclusion of the War, the Germans made an invasion of England. Instead of being shelled by anti-aircraft guns and fired at by irate pilots in airplanes, they were housed at the British Government's expense in that Piccadilly house of King Alfonso of Spain, the Ritz Hotel. Chancellor Wilhelm Marx, Foreign Minister Gustav Stresemann and 40 trusty officials formed the 1924 Germany army.

Welcome. At midday on a sunny Tuesday, the Allied and German representatives to the International (Premiers') Conference (TIME, June 30, et seq.) met in a spacious room of the British Foreign Office. Premier Ramsay MacDonald made a speech of welcome: "The Allied Governments have been meeting and have come to certain understandings which they wish to communicate to the German Government and, in so far as they require to have the assent of the German Government, they wish to discuss them with it. The sole business of the Conference is to deal with matters arising out of the application of the Experts' Report; and to that I must, as Chairman of the Conference, confine its attention. I hope that by the exercise of the desire and spirit of coöperation we may arrive speedily at agreement upon our business and so enable the London Conference of 1924 to mark a successful attempt to make possible friendly relations between the Governments of Europe."

Reply. Chancellor Marx replied: "The task which confronts us is of decisive and historical importance. We are convinced that upon the solution of this task the fate of Germany, the fate of Europe depends. We are equally convinced that this task can be achieved only if the spirit of peaceful agreement and strict fairness prevails. German delegation will negotiate in that spirit."


Acceptance. The following day, the Germans, having studied the reports and resolutions passed by the Allies during the Conference, formally accepted the Experts' Plan. Two main reservations were, however, made in connection with the operation of the Plan:

1) That a definite date be fixed for the military evacuation of the Ruhr by France and Belgium;

2) That French and Belgian rail

waymen be withdrawn from Germany. Plan. It was stated that the Experts' Plan will be put into effect on Oct. 5, the date being advanced by ten days at the request of the Ger


France. Premier Herriot found it necessary to rush to Paris in order to get his Cabinet's endorsement of his policies. While in the Capital he created much gossip by consulting with Marshal Foch, but, as the Premier said, he did not care to take final action without consulting the highest military authority in France.

The result of the Premier's hurried visit was reported as:

1) The Ruhr to be evacuated within twelve months of the Experts' Plan going into operation, provided that Germany loyally executes the terms of the plan;

2) Security to be discussed at the League and no longer to be connected with France's occupation of the Ruhr. It was understood that Marshal Foch had said that retention of the Ruhr by France was useless from a security viewpoint;

3) A conference to be called in the Fall to discuss interallied debts.

British Pledge. Premier Mac Donald informed Premier Herriot that Britain would not evacuate the Cologne area, held since 1919, unless and until Germany had shown her good faith in discharging her obligations under the Experts' Plan.


(British Commonwealth of Nations)

A Plateful

When the Scotch say that a man has his plate full, they mean that his capacity is taxed to the limit. James Ramsay MacDonald, Prime Minister and His Majesty's Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, had his plate full last week.

It was common knowledge that the sluggish Anglo-Russian Conference (TIME, Apr. 28 et seq.) would one day be quickened into action and stir the world with "well, well's," or "I told you so's." First, news came that the negotiations had failed. The world said: "I told you so." Then Ramsay said: "This will never do." An understanding was patched up. The world said: "Well, well."

The reason for the collapse of egotiations was that the Russians were reported hostile to the surrendering of confiscated British property, while the British were just hostile to the Russians' keeping it. At no time was it admitted, however, by the British Foreign Office that all hope was lost, a fact which suggested a little Scotch stratagem on the part of Premier Mac

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The agreement was contained in two treaties, a commercial treaty and a general treaty. The commercial treaty granted reciprocal most-favored-nation treatment; that is, that each country agreed to grant to the nationals of the other the same commercial privileges Diplogranted to any other nation. matic immunity was extended to cover consulates and trade commissions. One curious, self-contradictory clause was that the Soviet Government is to assume responsibility for the transactions of Soviet trade delegations which are to be subjected to British Law, but, "in view of the responsibility of these transactions, which is assumed by the Government of the union, neither it nor its representatives will be called upon to give security for complying with orders of courts."

The general treaty either annulled or confirmed all previous Anglo-Russian treaties; recognized the three-milelimit of territorial waters; specified a fishing agreement; relegated to the stronghold of time all claims, counterclaims and debts relating to the period August, 1914, to February, 1924, when Soviet Russia was recognized by the British Government.

Two important articles in the general treaty need elucidation. The Soviet Government declined to withdraw its decree by which were re pudiated the debts of Imperial Russia's Government, but it agreed to satisfy British bondholders in all cases where the Imperial Russian Government's guarantee had been given. The second question dealt with compensation to be awarded to British nationals. The Soviet Government promised to negotiate with British owners and incorporate the agreements reached into a treaty. The British Government then agreed to "recommend to Parliament to enable it to guarantee interest and sinking fund of a loan" to Soviet Russia.

Now, although Premier Ramsay is a political polyglot-that is, he can speak three political languages: Conservatism, Liberalism and Socialism-and is forced frequently to speak in a politically foreign tongue to quiet the socalled Tories or Liberals, he can at

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times speak with a decidedly Socialist accent. So, when ex-Premier George slashed the treaty as a thoroughly unbusinesslike agreement that left unsettled every single point in disputé between the two countries, the Prime Minister had to answer with a Socialist paraphrase of the Asquithian, "Wait and see."

But another storm arose-in fact, two storms. Some prying person discovered that the King's name was not mentioned in the treaties. Their legality was immediately questioned. Apparently, however, the legal advisers of the Foreign Office decided that this departure from precedent was justified by the fact that there is no head of Soviet Russia, and, therefore, to preserve balance in the treaties, King George was omitted. However, it seemed certain that the King must sign the treaties before they could become law. A writer in The Times, of London, said: "In any case, if even, by a further misfortune, these strange treaties should be ratified by Parliament, they would require ratification by the King before becoming law."

The other storm was when the House of Commons objected to allowing the Premier and his Under Secretary to sign a treaty without its sanction. To such presumptuousness Mr. MacDonald replied with spirit: "If one is engaged in very intricate negotiations, and then when they were finished it had to be 'Very well, good-day; nothing has been approved, nothing really has been settled,' nothing would be settled at all." He reminded the House that the treaties would be laid upon the table for 21 parliamentary days, and that the House would have an opportunity of amending them, passing them or rejecting them. "Is this not enough?" he inquired. The House thought so, and sustained the Premier against a motion for adjournment by 157 to 57 votes.

Ramsay MacDonald, now 58 years of age, is a curious man. His supporters say he has never changed, but he has. Once he used to wear a red necktie; he is not so fond of that color now.

He was a pacifist à tout outrance, as the French say. During the early days of the War he was the prime "conchie" (conscientious objector) of all Britain. His record during those days was anything but creditable, and he incurred the hatred of an enormous majority of his own class. But every man makes mistakes; no doubt Ramsay acknowledges his.

On the question of the Sudan, how

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thing else. But now the staunchest Conservatives have words of praise for him.

Premier MacDonald is a great reader and a good writer. He has, by the way, the greatest private Socialist library in existence. He is also a not mediocre Art critic, into the bargain (TIME, July 21, ART). Iconoclast,* who is now known to be Agnes Mary Hamilton, has written a good biography of the Premier. Perhaps it is a little flattering, but not much.


The Labor Party's chances of existence seem rosy, thanks to the remarkable Premier. No longer is Gilbert and Sullivan's song true:

Every boy and every girl

That's born into this world alive

Is either a little Liberal

Or else a little Conservative.

The Laborites have won their place in the sun.


David, as the Prince of Wales is known to his family and a few intimates, went to Wales to attend this year's Eisteddfod.t

On his arrival, the Prince was greeted with musical honors, initiated into the bardic circle with customary rites. In a great ring formed by members of the Gorsedd‡, Edward P. was invested by Lady Treowen with a green robe, while the laurel-crowned Archdruid delivered himself of an address of welcome. The Prince was given the same title as that of his illustrious grandfather, Edward VII, when Prince of Wales, namely Ionweth Dywysog.

After the ceremony the Pragger Wagger (Oxford slang for Prince of Wales) was invited to witness the chief event of the Eisteddfod-the crowning


*J. RAMSAY MACDONALD, THE MAN OF ToMORROW-Iconoclast-Thomas Seltzer ($2.50). †The Eisteddfod, which means a sitting, is the National bardic Congress of Wales. objects are to encourage bardism, music and Welsh literature, to preserve the language and customs of Wales and to cultivate Welsh patriotism among the people.

#The Gorsedd (assembly) is an intrinsic part of the Eisteddfod; indeed, the latter grew from it. It is composed of the grad. uated bards, who alone have power of calling an Eisteddfod and conferring bardic degrees. It is Liso very ancient, dating from many centuries before the Christian Era. the time of the Druids, the Gorsedd had considerable political importance, but afterward. when their political power was broken, it be came an institution for preserving the traditions, laws and doctrines of bardism-a function which it still fulfils.


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of the prize ode winner, Prosser Rhys of Aberystwith, editor of The Welsh Banner.


Margot, famed wife of ex-Premier Herbert Asquith, turned her pen to journalism. In the New York American, she explained "Why My Husband Made MacDonald Prime Minister." According to Margot, it was because a Conservative-Liberal fusion was impossible, positively dishonorable, so her husband decided to throw thew eight of the Liberal Party behind the Laborites. Speaking for the Liberals, she concluded: "With courage and patience we hope to avoid what a Centre Party would certainly create the folly and danger of seeing all the rich pitted against the poor."

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In Berlin, one George P. Murdock, young American now circumambulating in Germany, summed up social and economic conditions as follows: "The economic situation is appalling. Prices are much higher than in 1914 and wages much lower. No fine clothes are seen on the streets.

*Waizeru Zauditu is the present Empress of Ethiopia and is a daughter of Menelik II. Ras Taffari, virtually Regent of the land and heir to the throne, is a great-nephew of Menelik and first cousin, twice removed, of Empress Zauditu.

The Crown of Ethiopia was captured in 1868 by Field-Marshal Lord Napier at Magdala in the Abysinnian or Ethiopian Expedition. The following year it was presented to the Victoria and Albert Museum by the 8th Duke of Argyll, Secretary of State for India under Gladstone.

Women are buying only gabardine suits and such things as are calculated to wear forever. The streets are positively crowded with beggars, a new phenomenon for Germany.

"The places of amusement are relatively empty. At the theatre, the one time I went, not more than 10% of the seats were occupied-and it was Sunday, the big night.

"The stores are empty. They are stocked up, but prices are so high people cannot buy. I went into Wertheim's, the big department store, one day during the rush hour. There were about 20 people in the store, and most of them looking around!

"The rate of business failures is naturally enormous. Here in Berlin there has been an average for several weeks of over 40 firms going into bankruptcy every day. One day last week, there were more than 70 fail


110 "A Berlin policeman gets marks a month-about $25. He pays from 16 to 24 marks ($3.50 to $4.50) for the cheapest cotton shirt98 cents in any American department store, and other things in proportion. You can imagine how they live! And they are typical.

"Poverty, abject, miserable povAnd much erty-there you have it. unemployment, to make things worse. In addition to the flocks of beggars, there are many able-bodied men who are out of jobs, selling matches or newspapers on the streets for a few pfennigs.

"Only the Jews have money, and only a few of them. Anti-Semitism runs high. The old wealthy and middle-class people are practically wiped out. A few low-grade nouveaux riches take their place."

Einstein Out?

In Germany, there were repeated reports that Professor Albert Einstein was about to leave the Patherland, go to Switzerland, become a Swiss citizen. The Neue Berliner Zeitung commented on the reports in an editorial headed: A DISGRACE:

"The ground for his resolve is the persecution which has been directed against one of the greatest Germans, and in which he was not only reviled but even threatened with death simply because his personality aroused antipathy among persons lacking the least conception of the value of his work-because he is a Jew.

"It is no wonder that under such circumstances one whom the whole world has honored turns his back in 'disgust upon his native heath, repelled

by machinations which do not reach above the soles of his shoes. But what a disgrace for Germany, where such things can happen!"


Benito Speaks Again

If the number of times he is quoted by the press has any significance, Benito is the greatest orator in Europe.

Last week, Benito gave the Romans a treat. He spoke to 50,000 of them from the balcony of the Palazzo Chigi, Italian Foreign Office in Rome. The speech was of special importance, intrinsically, because it was the first Benito had pronounced since the cloud of the Matteotti murder tarnished his shining armor (TIME, June 23); extrinsically, because it was to sound the tone of the vox populi.

The speech was forced upon the Italian Dictator by an impromptu parade of War veterans who, followed by a dense crowd of swarthy Italians, had come to swear undying fealty to Benito. With strong, rasping voices, the people called for him to appear. Tardy in obeying the wishes of the plebs, "caro Benit" drove the assembled populace into a frenzy. Drawing themselves up to their full height, the units of the crowds made a noise that would have shamed the efforts of a herd of wounded bulls. Benito, unable to resist, dashed onto the balcony. Hats were thrown into the air, 50,000 gullets vibrated with applauding shouts, 100,000 hands gesticulated rapturous admiration, enthusiasm and loyalty. Said Benito:

"Thank you for your demonstration of sympathy, which I value the more for its being entirely unsolicited. Only two months ago, in this very place, I said: 'Let all parties, including ours, perish, provided Italy becomes strong and great.' We can say with clear consciences that we have sincerely striven with all our strength to live up to this ideal. But can the Opposition say the same?"

"No-0-0-0-0-0-0!" boomed the crowd "The Opposition is daily guilty of moral violence against Fascism by painting it as something which it absolutely is not. Fascism has given wonderful proofs of discipline in the face of overt provocations and will continue to remain disciplined. But I ask you, who were my companions in the War, in the trenches, on the Carso, where we suffered and bled and fought and won together: 'Can we turn back'?" "No, no, no, no, no, no!" quick-fired the plebs.

"I will remain at my post, to which

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I am bound not by caprice or by desire for power, but by a religious sense of duty. I will continue to do my duty, and I am certain that I can count on you to answer my call if at any time I shall need the people who are ready to sacrifice their lives for their country."

Benito then quickly withdrew. The crowd remained for half an hour to give renewed vent to their vociferous appreciation of Benito and all that appertains to him.


That U. S. Secretary of State Charles E. Hughes, traveling incognito in Europe as President of the American Bar Association, should have failed to pay tribute to Rome, home of Law, by paying it a visit mortified Italians and caused Il Mondo, Rome journal, to write an angry editorial.



A fortnight ago, when the leaders of the old and new Europe were commemorating the tenth anniversary of the outbreak of the War, one voice that was not heard was that of War Lord Léon Trotzky, Commander-in-Chief of the All-Russian Bolshevik Army.

The Russian press recently divulged the fact that the War Lord had addressed Bolshevik students on Aug. 1, the anniversay of the date Germany declared war on Russia, in a noteworthy anti-American speech. The War Lord found it something of a paradox that "America, which is supported by its industries and which helped to crush Germany in order to keep out a solid competitor, emerged from it (the War) with a pacifist reputation."

He pointed a horny finger of scorn at the U. S. actively entering the seething cauldron of imperialist politics, and said: "While it has not yet learned to realize its own great power, it studies on Europe's flesh and bones how to use it;" adding: "The American capitalists cannot allow England, France and Germany to regain their markets, as they themselves need them."

Then, referring to a recent London speech of Secretary of State Charles E. Hughes to the Pilgrims, Mr. Trotzky continued his tirade:

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'pacifist' program is full of grave consequences, as it prepares the ground for new wars of stupendous character."

He concluded his speech by calling upon the European proletariat to unite in combating "imperialistic Americanism," explaining that "America's attempt to put Europe on rations" could not pass without national and class resistance.


Still Shah

For debauching along the Riviera (TIME, Mar. 10), His Majesty, Sultan


He is still Shah

Ahmad Shah, seventh sovereign of the Kajar dynasty, lost his job. No longer did Persians refer to him as Shâhinshah (King of Kings).

Then there came in an account of his baby son, undebauched, being made a Shâhlet (TIME, Mar. 31).

Then came a story that Valiahd (Crown Prince), His Royal Highness Muhammad Hasan Mirza was made Shahinshah. To him were given the Imperial honors that once belonged to his elder brother, while that brother "walked around in circles, lamenting his fate in Oriental fashion" (TIME, Apr. 7).

All this the daily press printed with a fine disregard of fact. All this, TIME, having no staff correspondent in the land of Iran, ignorantly mistook for sound statements of fact. Not so.

From a high source, whose authority is unimpeachable, TIME last week 'discovered the facts: His Majesty Sultan

Ahmad Shah is still Shah; His Royal Highness Valiahd Muhammad Hasan Mirza is still Valiahd. There has been no change of ruler in Persia. Veritas praevalebit!



Except in "unusual cases," Turks are henceforth to be monogamous. That is the substance of a law recently passed by Parliament at Angora.

Most of the city Turks have for some years been monogamous, partly because of economic reasons. Even the last Calif had but one, wife, who bore him two babes. In the country, however, where a wife might be bought for payment in farmyard livestock, polygamy has been more generally in force.

The Koran permits a man four wives, but many a Turk has been guilty of concubinal cupidity and has excessively multiplied that number. Nevertheless, Turks have for long taken pride in pointing fingers of scorn at the prostitution of women in the Occident, which was a thing unknown to polygamous, Turkish Turkey.

The new law is the index finger of a new age in Turkey.

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