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National Affairs-[Continued]

15 and 13 years, and made them fly to the defense of their country, their native land.

"Go my children," she said, "I spare not my youngest even, my fair-haired boy, the comfort of my declining years; I devote you all to my country. Keep back the foot of the invader from the soil of Augusta, or see my face no more.'

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No, let not that hydra-headed monster raise its head among us, red-blooded, fighting Americans, born and bred descendants of Colonial and Revolutionary pioneer ancestors. There is no pacifism in our patriotic hearts.

The objection to Defense Day is known to be propaganda, designed to make a political issue. Why? Does Charles W. Bryan feel that the real issues between the two great parties are so few that he attempts to set up a false one? This pacifist talk is not helping the Democratic party.



Already some of the stalwart members of the Senate are beginning to fall by the wayside. The first to go was Senator McCormick of Illinois, who failed to secure a renomination by the Republicans of his State (TIME, April 28, POLITICAL NOTES). The second was Senator Shields of Tennessee. Last week, two more Senators lost their chances of appearing in the 69th Congress.

In South Carolina, Senator Dial stood for renomination by the Democrats. Four men were in the race: ex-Governor Coleman L. Blease, Representative James F. Byrnes, Senator Dial, State Insurance Commissioner John J. McMahan. No one had a majority; but Blease and Byrnes led Senator Dial and I will decide the contest between themselves in a second primary. Senator Dial and Mr. McMahan, the eliminated ones, have yet to settle with the court of Gaffney, S. C., for a disturbance which began with words* and nearly ended with blows, while they were campaigning there (TIME, Sept. 1, POLITICAL NOTES).

In Delaware, the State Republican Convention, delegates to which were chosen in a recent primary, nominated Gen. T. Coleman Du Pont and denied the desire of Senator L. Heisler Ball for renomination and reëlection.

McCormick, Shields, Dial, Ball-how many more?

THE CABINET Bancroft and Sheffield

Next to cooks, ambassadors come and go oftener than any other kind of help. Last week, Secretary of State Hughes engaged two new ones, and President Coolidge announced their appointments. One of them, Edgar Addision Bancroft, was appointed to succeed Cyrus E. Woods as chef at Tokyo.

*Mr. McMahan called the Senator "dirty liar"; the Senator seized a chair, seemed about to fell Mr. McMahan, was overpowered and disarmed by "friends."

The other, James Rockwell Sheffield, is to be maître d'hôtel succeeding Charles B. Warren at Mexico City. References:

Edgar Addison Bancroft, 66, born at Galesburg, Ill., now living at Chicago, is a descendant of the New England Bancrofts, including Aaron, biog



rapher of George Washington, and George, diplomat and historian. Educated at Knox College and the Columbia University Law School, he has been counsel for the Santa Fe Railway and the International Harvester Co. In the great railway strike of 1894, he obtained the first injunction against the strikers and later helped to send Eugene V. Debs and others to jail for six months. Nevertheless, he is regarded as a liberal in labor matters. He is author of three books: The Chicago Strike of 1894, The Moral Sentiment of the People, Destruction or Regulation of Trusts.

James Rockwell Sheffield, 60, born at Dubuque, now resident of Manhattan, was educated at Yale College and at the Harvard Law School. He became private secretary to the late William B. Allison, Senator from Iowa, but soon took up a law practice in Manhattan. He once served a term in the New York Legislature, but most of his political activities have been out of office. He has known Charles Evans Hughes intimately ever since the latter was Governor of New York.

Either these two new servants expect Mr. Coolidge to renew his lease on the White House, or they are con

tent to take temporary jobs for six months or so. If Mr. Coolidge should not be elected, the new tenant will engage other help.


Eight Treaties

The progress of Prohibition in the field of international agreement has been rapid since the first so-called Twelve-Mile-Limit Treaty with Great Britain (providing for the seizure of rum ships within an hour's sailing distance of the coast, in exchange for allowing foreign ships to come into U. S. ports with liquors under seal). That treaty was several months in negotiation; it was signed late last January.


Last week, signed with Netherlands. "twelve-mile

similar treaties were Sweden and with the There are now eight treaties" in all. But whereas it took more than six months to negotiate the first treaty, it took only seven months for the signing of seven more such conventions.

The eight treaties concern the U. S. and Great Britain, Denmark, Norway, Germany, Italy, Panama, Sweden and the Netherlands.


Herrin last week, six more men were killed there.

Two years ago, in June, 21 nonunion miners were massacred by strikers at a coal mine near the town.

Last January, the Ku Klux Klan, which had obtained a foothold in that region, began a series of prohibition raids that almost brought on more riots. Glenn Young, the Klan leader, walked the strets with two guns openly strapped at his waist. Troops were called in to halt violence. Young was arrested a month later; when the troops had been withdrawn, a brush occurred in which one man was killed and several were wounded. Again troops, again court proceedings; then city elections, charges and counter charges, arrests and trials.

In May, 1924, Young and his wife were fired on while driving in his automobile. Both were wounded. Next day, a man named Skelcher, believed to have taken part in the armed fusilade against Young, was shot to death, riddled with 30 bullets, while riding in an automobile. Continuous trials of Klansmen and antiKlansmen added to the tension.

The wounded Young's case came up last week. He was in Atlanta and pleaded ill-health. The court for

September 8, 1924


National Affairs-[Continued]

feited his bail and Klansmen who signed his bonds for $24,000 had to


One morning during the trial of several men accused of killing Skelcher's father, a Klansman testified that he did not believe the accused were guilty, and the case was dismissed. Later the same day, the Sheriff and two deputies walked into the J. H. Smith Garage, said to be Klan headquarters, to seize a car said to have been used in the attack on Skelcher. Dewey Newbolt, a Klansman, was sitting within, four guns strapped to his waist. Everybody opened fire. Before the firing was over, six were dead and five wounded. More troops.

John Smith, owner of the garage, later swore out warrants and had the sheriff and two of his surviving deputies arrested charged with causing the fight. Thirty-two other warrants for murder were also sworn.

How can such things happen in a civilized state like Illinois? Those who know Illinois by the rolling farm lands and the occasional placid town of its northern part are not equipped to judge the Southern part -"Egypt," as it is known, because of the city of Cairo at the junction of the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers. Egypt is full of little hills and eminences, wooded overhead, peopled with rattlesnakes on the ground, honeycombed with mines beneath. Nearly everyone carries a revolver or automatic; nearly everyone is a deadly shot. It is necessary in order to support life. "Egypt" is like the Wild West, except that it is untamed. Those who judge the life of the early West by fiction had best go to "Egypt" and have a taste of it in fact.


Docket No. 1

The new Federal Board of Tax Appeals (Time, July 28) has begun to function. It decided its first case and gave out its findings. The report, from the early date of its appearance, and from its brevity (only seven typewritten pages) seems to indicate that the Board is functioning in a direct and businesslike way. It begins:

Appeal of John H. Parrott (Docket No. 1). Submitted August 19, 1924, to the Board, all members present.

Decided August 27, 1924.

This appeal was heard on an agreed statement of facts.

The findings of fact were that the taxpayer had been General Superintendent of a coal company and a member of its Board of Directors. He had received $7,000 in salary and

$3,500 as a yearly bonus, as well as directors' fees. The coal company had no regular system of paying pensions. It had a large surplus. The Directors' shares were sold, and the Board of Directors made a "gratuitous appropriation," equal to $3.00 a share, which was divided among various retiring employes. One of these was Mr. Parrott, who received $35,000. Mr. Parrott reported this sum as a gift and therefore not taxable. The

Wide World


He cannot escape a conviction

coal company reported the appropriation as a salary deduction from gross income and therefore not taxable to it. The Commissioner of Internal Revenue contended that the sum conveyed to Mr. Parrott was in the nature of a bonus or adjusted compensation, and therefore taxable to him.

The Board decided in favor of the Commissioner of Internal Revenue and against Mr. Parrott.

The decision said in part:

"We must judge the corporate intent from the corporate acts themselves, not from the interpretation placed upon them by some individual.

. Corporate action is presumed regular. payment of a bonus would be regular, the making of a gift would be irregular."

The entire Board concurred with the exception of Chairman Hamel, who took no part in considering the appeal.

Thus Docket No. 1 passed into historv.

ARMY & NAVY Quelled

The courts-martial of the ringleaders of the recent abortive mutiny in the Philippine Scouts (TIME, July 21) were concluded:

One man was sentenced to 20 years in prison, one to 15 years, two to 10 years, ten to 5 years and one man's case was left undecided.


Starting from Plymouth, Vt., proceeding through Northampton, Mass., and thence to Manhattan and over the Lincoln Highway to Los Angeles and San Francisco, a caravan of automobiles is scheduled to set out proselytizing for the Republican Party. The caravan proper is to be made of a small nucleus of cars that will cover the entire distance, but in each state a special escort, five to ten miles in length, with floats, tractors, automobiles in line, will help along the demonstration. Rallies will be held in the principal towns and the caravan will attempt a general jubilation and Republicanization from coast to coast.


Regardless of Regularity

The victory, in the Texas Democratic primary for Governor, of Mrs. Miriam A. Ferguson, wife of a onetime Governor who was impeached, was hailed as a triumph of the antiKlan movement. Last week it was followed by the of resignation Thomas B. Love, Democratic National Committeeman from Texas for the past four years. Said Mr. Love:

"I cannot escape the conviction that it is the duty of every good citizen, regardless of all consideration of party regularity and all other considerations, to leave nothing undone that legitimately may be done to prevent the restoration of Fergusonism to power in the State Capitol at Austin.

"For Governor I earnestly hope to be able to support some able, honest and incorruptible Texan, running as an independent Democrat, whose character and known capabilities and disposition for public service will attract the support of each citizen of Texas who is opposed to all that Fergusonism stands for, regardless of party or creed, and whose opposition to the Ku Klux Klan is wholly beyond question, so that this issue will no longer enter the situation."

The wits of journalism headlined: "LOVE'S LABOR LOST."

A NEW BOOK Arms and the Nation*

National Affairs-[Continued]


In a

"This the first history of the United States Army ever published," begins the blurb. Let a reader not mistake Major Ganoe's volume for a history of U. S. military feats-a story of battles and trials at arms. way it is that, but only incidentally. In the 600 pages of the volume (200 of which are devoted to appendices and index), the battle of Gettysburg is described in just one sentence: "The three days' fighting so well known in American history resulted, after Pickett's charge, in the defeat of the Southern army."

A portion of the book equal to if not greater than that devoted to battles is devoted to the description of drill regulations and the organization of the body military. These things are not of primary importance except to military men, yet there is plenty of interest in the book for the general reader. In military affairs we have too often been the plaything of chance. Hear a few stories of our past which we too little know:


1776. Every school child knows the prowess of George Washington, but few grown men know what a fortunate accident he was. The Continental Congress chose him to head our Armies only as a matter of politics. His military record was known. John Hancock and Artemus Ward wanted to command but, to appease the South, George Washington, the "quiet husband of the richest woman in America," was chosen, regardless of qualifications, to lead our Armies. Similarly, LaFayette was made a Major General for his zeal, his illustrious family, his connections.

The soldiers before Boston at the beginning of the Revolution were most of them enlisted for only three months, and kept walking out at crucial moments. The officers, most of whom were elected by the men, were not only incompetent, but many of them were cowardly. One of the greatest causes of casualities was that the men used to try to stop rolling British cannon balls with their feet.

Not until Baron von Steuben, a Prussian from the court of Frederick the Great, came to Valley Forge, did the Army have either discipline or self-respect. He was the old type of Prussian, not the new. Democratic and kind-hearted, he had difficulty in

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"Democratic, kind-hearted"

impressing officers, who believed themselves above such duties, that they should both drill and care for their men. He issued regulations in which he said: "His [the officer's] first object should be to gain the love of his men by treating them with every possible kindness and humanity."

1812. By the War of 1812, Baron von Steuben's lessons were forgotten. When war Bungling began at once. was declared, Canada was politely informed of the fact, but our troops in the West attacked unawares. Political Generals bungled horribly and troops walked out or fled before inferior forces of the enemy.

were not - were

1846. Against Mexico the procedure was repeated. General Zachary Taylor, with his eye on the Presidency, although personally brave, was completely incompetent. He did not even reconnoitre to discover the whereabouts of the enemy. As it was, his two sons-in-law, one of them his capable Adjutant, Bliss, the other a Colonel under his command, Jefferson Davis, saved him from complete failure. Fortunately, there was General Winfield Scott who, by his great ability, pulled our country through in spite of short-term enlistments, untrained men, political Generals and interference from Washing


1861. When the Civil War began, although it had been rumbling in the offing for a year, the Army had just 13,000 men, all but 600 of whom were

in the West holding the Indians at bay. At once the Union tried its old farce of three months' enlistments. Lincoln, although earnest in his endeavors, did not understand military exigencies until he had learned by hard experience to place his trust in one capable man, to put through a Draft Law and to go about the War in a businesslike manner.

1898. After the Civil War, the Army was pared to the bone, split up and sent out to hold the frontier again. Consequently when the Spanish War broke out, the entire farce was repeated. The expeditionary force to Cuba contained 14 regiments which had never been under fire. In one regiment, 300 men had never fired a gun. Once in Cuba, after a terribly disorganized passage, the Army was in a precarious state because of inadequate supply facilities. The artillery was almost nil; one regiment could not be used because its guns were no good.

1917. The last war of all, which Major Ganoe treats in a brief epilogue of 30 pages, found the U. S. little better prepared than it had been for its previous struggles; but, having observed the blunders of England and other foreign countries for three years, it had learned some lessons which were immediately put into serThe vice and proved invaluable. Draft Law supplanted the three months' enlistment practice. For once the U. S. meant business. But the infinite complexity of the problem of preparation in the age of machinery, and the mere sprinkling of trained men available to train the undisciplined multitudes were a nightmare to those who knew what was required. Yet, among all our wars, the last stands out as brilliant against the background of exquisite bungling which preceded it.

Nowadays historians are inclined to scoff at military history. "What force have battles," they cry, "when the economic and racial causes which bring about wars are much greater, much more compelling?" The answer is that, in a great measure, military history is the personification of these causes. It is general history intensified and materialized. In a few minutes of battle the economic forces of a century may settle their differences for all time. An error of judgment on the part of one man, a failure of preparation on the part of a nation, the cowardice or momentary vacillation of a General, may put off, or greatly alter the whole course of World History.

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In Effect

The States of Europe descended from the mountains of animosity from which they have long been accustomed to glare at one another, went down the rugged mountain paths of doubt, crossed the bog of misgivings and set foot on the great, wide road that leads to a true economic resettlement of the War-torn Continent.


Germany. The Monarchists in the Reichstag followed a policy of obstruction to the passage of the legislation necessary to the operation of the Experts' Plan and involving its official approval by Germany. Except for the extreme members of the party, it was clear that many Monarchy men only holding out for better terms, such as a definite determination of Germany's capacity to pay the total of reparations, earlier evacuation of the Ruhr, etc. Also, it seemed not unlikely that much of their opposition was due to the promptings of the powerful industrialists.

After several days of tangled and futile discussions, the Reichstag met to take a final vote. The galleries of the chamber were crowded to their maximum capacity with diplomats, distinguished visitors and breathless journalists. On the floor of the chamber, 441 Reichstag members assembled. A twothirds majority, or 294 votes, needed to enact certain parts of the Experts' Plan legislation-the mortgaging of the Reich railways to the Allies, for example. Failure to obtain the required majority would have meant dissolution of the Reichstag and a general election.


As minute after minute joined the legions of the past, excitement grew higher and higher. At last the time came for announcing the result of the ballot. Baron Wallraf, President of the Reichstag, rose from his seat. There was dead silence, presaging a mighty storm. Would it be a storm of applause or a storm of indignation? Said the President:

"The number of members voting was 441. The votes in favor of the Railroad Bill number three hundred . . ." Torrential cheers cut his statement short. It was clear to the heaviest and dullest mind that 300 votes were enough. "Accepted!" roared the supporting members. "Accepted!" roared back the galleries. "Accepted!” cried the Ludendorffists (extreme Monarchists) with dismay. "Accepted!" roared the Communists in anger. The noise of mad cheering grew wilder and wilder.

The Communists fairly danced and shrieked with rage. The Ludendorffists turned about and fixed the Diplomatic Gallery with a cold, calculating glare of insolence, shook their fists at the assembled diplomats. But nothing served to alter the cheerful mien of M. de Margerie, French Ambassador to Germany. Pandemonium fit for a madhouse continued. In vain did the President rap his desk and tinkle his bell. Some minutes later he succeeded in reducing the noise to an excited drone and announced that the final vote on the Railroad Bill was 314 to 127. The Experts' Plan was virtually in effect!

Analysis of the voting showed that the 127 oppositional votes came almost exclusively from the Communists and Ludendorffists. Among the 42 Monarchists who supported the bill were Grand Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz and Prince Bismarck, grandson of the Iron Chancellor.

London. All the diplomatic representatives of the Powers who had affixed their initials to the London Agreement assembled, 20 minutes before the luncheon hour, at the British Foreign Office in Whitehall. Large, curious crowds watched the entrance and the exit of the Ambassadors and Ministers whose Governments had approved the Agreement and, ipso facto, the Experts' Plan.

The ceremony of signing the documents of the Agreement was simple. No speeches were made. Sir Eyre Crowe, Permanent Under Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, presided and affixed his signature for Great Britain. The order of signing was alphabetical: Belgium, France, Germany, Great Britain (here the five British Dominions signed: Australia, Canada, Irish Free State, New Zealand, Union of South Africa; also the Indian Empire), Italy, Japan, Serb-Croat-Slovene State (YugoSlavia). It was announced that the Experts' Plan was in effect as from Sept. 1, 1924.

Several appoint

Appointments. ments of interest were made. Owen D. Young, colleague of Gen. Charles A. Dawes on the First Committee of Experts, was nominated ad interim Agent General of Reparations. Explaining his inability to continue in that office for more than three months, he said: "Only by personal sacrifice can I accept the job, but my interest in the plan is so great and my belief in it so deep that I am willing to do anything I can to get it well started."

S. Gilbert Parker, Jr., ex-Assistant Secretary of the U. S. Treasury, 32year-old genius hailing from Manhat

tan, was considered as a possible successor to Mr. Young.

Léon Frazier, noted French lawyer, for some time legal adviser to the Reparations Commission, was appointed legal adviser to Mr. Young.

Georges Leverve, eminent French engineer, was made Commissioner of Railways. His job will be to lead the board that is to rule the mortgaged German railways.

Ex-Premier Léon Delacroix of Belgium, a member of the Reparations Commission, became trustee of the railway securities furnished by Germany.

Signor Nogara, famed Italian engineer, was given the post of trustee of 5,000,000,000 marks' worth of German industrial securities.

Hope was "entertained" that Sir Robert Kendersley, Director of the Bank of England and member of the First Committee of Experts, would accept the post of Commissioner General of the new German Gold Bank.

Genesis. The growth of the settlement of the vexatious Reparations problems can be traced thus:

In December, 1922, at New Haven, Conn., U. S. Secretary of State Charles E. Hughes declared:

"Why should the nations concerned with reparations not invite men of the highest authority in finance in their respective countries, men of such prestige, experience and honor that their agreement upon the amount to be paid and upon a financial plan for working out the payments would be accepted throughout the world as the most authoritative expression obtainable? Governments need not bind themselves in advance to accept the recommendations. . . . I have no doubt that distinguished Americans would be willing to serve on such a commission."


His words were unheeded. perated France and exasperated Belgium marched into the Ruhr on Jan. 11, 1923, in the hope of forcing reparations out of an evasive Germany. Britain protested, Germany used passive resistance; later, made many offers of settlement that were unacceptable to France.

In November, 1923, Lord Curzon, Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, wrote to Mr. Hughes, asked him if his New Haven speech still held good (TIME, Nov. 5, NATIONAL AFFAIRS and FOREIGN NEWs). Mr. Hughes made an affirmative answer. Lord Curzon then invited the Allied Powers to issue a common invitation to the U. S. to participate in a Reparations Conference. All the Allies agreed, but Premier Poincaré of France limited the scope

Foreign News-[Continued]

of the proposed conference. The plan "fell through," although a door was left open for future discussion (TIME, Nov. 19, 26, REPARATIONS). Premier Poincaré later suggested the formation of two committees of experts to enquire into and make suggestions upon the Reparations mess (TIME, Dec. 10, REPARATIONS). The Reparations Commission sent out invitations which were accepted by all the Powers (TIME, Dec. 24, 31, REPARATIONS). The personnel of the two committees arrived in Paris and started their work (TIME, Jan. 21, 28, REPARATIONS). In April they presented their report (TIME, Apr. 21, REPARATIONS). The reports-the most important was the so-called Experts' Plan-were accepted in principle by the Powers concerned (TIME, Apr. 28, et seq., REPARATIONS). In June, Premiers MacDonald and Herriot called the Premiers' Conference to consider and settle the means of putting the Plan into operation (TIME, June 30, et seq., INTERNATIONAL).

THE LEAGUE Fifth Assembly

At Geneva in Switzerland, home of the League of Nations, the Fifth Assembly of the League met last week to consider matters of mighty moment.

Great throngs rushed to Geneva. The Secretariat of the League under the direction of Sir Eric Drummond, was a hive of industry. Statesmen, politicians, journalists, interested spectators seized every available accommodation that the venerable city could offer. More people were there than have ever been at any time in its whole history. All the great nations of the world (except the U. S., Russia, Germany) sent delegations, and with those delegations, families, secretaries, stenographers, etc. In two days it was estimated that 20,000 people had poured into the city. Among the notables present were: Premier MacDonald, Premier Herriot, Premier Theunis. Among the Americans: Mr. ex-Associate Justice John H. Clarke, George W. Wickersham, Thomas W. Lamont, General Tasker H. Bliss.

Assembly was opened by the temporary President, Mr. Paul Hymans, Foreign Minister of Belgium, who in the course of an eloquent address, was thought to refer to the U. S. when he said:

"That the idea of the League of Nations has met opposition from skeptics is a matter of small importance, since skepticism is nothing but

intellectual sloth or lack of insight. There is a tendency in certain quarters to oppose the idea of patriotism


THE SECRETARY GENERAL He directs, not dominates

to the idea of international solidarity, as if they were conflicting and irreconcilable conceptions. The League of Nations does not supersede individual countries; it extends them, develops them and enlarges them, and countries that are members of the League do not lose an iota of these inalienable sovereign rights which are their protection and their pride."

In the afternoon of the first day Giuseppe Motta, ex-President of Switzerland, was elected President of the Assembly. No other business was disposed of, but tremendous interest was taken in Disarmament and Security which are to be fully discussed questions during the present session of the Assembly.

Among the agenda:

1) Disarmament and Security; 2) Consideration of reports Austria, Hungary, Danzig, etc.;


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brother of and heir presumptive to

He is of Above his

the 15th Earl of Perth. medium height and size. dimpled chin are a pair of sparkling blue eyes and a small mustache. There is nothing about him to make him distinguished and it has been written of him that he would never be noticed in a crowd. A year ago in Geneva, he was often to be seen driving about in a Ford coupé.

He was chosen for the post of Secretary General because he had no pretension to statesmanship. At one time or another he has been in close touch with Premiers Balfour and Asquith and with Sir Edward (now Viscount) Grey. From this experience he has learned how to use men and how to execute orders. He has tremendous sympathy with new ideas and is a sound judge of human character, knows how far and how much a man could be depended upon. He is "the one man that could be relied upon to run the League without dominating it," and that is why he was choesn.

Sir Eric has made fewer public speeches than any other man so much in the public eye. It has been said that his official utterances can be counted on the fingers of one hand. He appears in public on the fewest number of occasions possible, which accounts to some extent for the dearth of personal knowledge about him. He is "the quietest, most self-effacing" of men.



(British Commonwealth of Nations)

Princely Pilgrim

There follows a continued-from-lastweek chronological account of the visit of Edward P. to the U. S.

After declining to dance during the first two days of the voyage, the Prince finally succumbed to the charms of King Jazz. For a time he danced only with the members of his own party, but at length he honored Miss Lenore Cahill, of St. Louis-danced with her eleven times, it was said.

Miss Cahill was prompt to grant an interview to a representative of the Universal (News) Service, which was printed by the U. S. gumchewers' press. In this interview she said:

"I was probably the only human being of my sex aboard the Berengaria without any idea that the Prince of Wales was to be a fellow passenger. As a matter of fact, my aunt, and I, too, did everything possible to avoid taking the ship, because we crossed on her last

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