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National Affairs-[Continued]

you think of Rumania you will think of me.'

"Frankly, I want, so far as I can with the two months at my disposal, to give my face to the Democrats of the United States."

"All Great Men"

Many years ago, two little boys played together in Georgia. One of them was destined to get close to the White House. He was the elder. The younger looked up to him with great admiration. One was William G. McAdoo, onetime Secretary of the Treasury, son-in-law of a late President, and recent candidate for the Democratic nomination; the other was Malcolm R., his blood brother. Last week Malcolm changed his party affiliations. He announced that he stood for LaFollette. At once he was made State Treasurer of the LaFollette Progressives in New York. He explained his change.

"There is no difference between Coolidge and Davis. Senator Wheeler properly and correctly terms them the 'gold dust twins.' A moment's thought will convince every man and woman that they can get no relief from their present oppressive burdens from either, and a vote for a change a new broom, so to speak -is a necessity.

"The press advocating the election of either Coolidge or Davis terms Senators La Follette and Wheeler radicals, meaning Anarchists or Reds, as General Hell-and-Maria Dawes, Mr. Coolidge's running mate, terms them. These papers even go so far as to convey the impression that Mr. Dawes was a real General in the World War. He, as a matter of fact, fought the World War in Evanston, Ill., his home town.

"All of the great men in the history of this country were the same type of constructive radicals in the interest of all of the people as are Senators La Follette and Wheeler.

"The signers of the Declaration of Independence were constructive radicals of the same type. Most of these men were noted in the history of the Republic. Benjamin Franklin was a signer. Thomas Jefferson and Benjamin Harrison, two other signers, subsequently became Presidents. "George Washington and his army were of the same type.

"General Andrew Jackson, the hero

General Dawes served overseas from July, 1917, until August, 1919. He was first a Lieutenant Colonel of the Railway Engineers and later promoted to Brigadier General; served on the staff of General Pershing as General Purchasing Agent of the A. E. F.

Paul Thompson

THE MCADOO BROTHERS "Many years ago, two little boys played together in Georgia"

of the battle of New Orleans and afterward President, was of the same type.

"Abraham Lincoln and his followers were of the same type.

"The downfall of Rome was caused by the same prostitution of government now seen at Washington.

"I have been featured in the Republican and pseudo-Democratic press, in declaring my advocacy of the candidacy of Senators La Follette and Wheeler, as being a bolter from the Democratic Party on account of the treatment accorded my brother at the recent convention in Madison Square Garden.

"Since attaining my majority, I have voted for nine Presidential nominees. Six of my votes were cast for the Republican nominees and three for the Democratic. If I am a bolter, I am a bolter of both parties, and twice as much a bolter of the Republican Party as of the Democratic."

Connubial Relations

Clem L. Shaver, Democratic National Campaign Manager, and his wife are presumably on connubial good terms; but that does not require that he be interested in her political opinions. Mrs. Shaver wrote a letter to the West Virginia press in which she spoke of Gov. Charles W. Bryan, Democratic nominee for the Vice Presidency, as a "pacifist" and remarked that "he does the ticket

no good" (TIME, Sept. 8). The Republican New York Herald-Tribune hounded Mr. Shaver for his opinion of his wife's opinions. He responded curtly: "I haven't seen the statement yet. . . I never intend to read it."

Candidate Davis, asked if he had any comment to make on Mrs. Shaver's remarks, smiled broadly: "None whatever."


Disordered Barometer

The polls opened. Maine walked in and cast its ballots. The polls closed and the count began. A few hours afterwards the Democrats shook their heads and admitted defeat. For Governor, William R. Pattangall, Democrat, went down by what the final count will probably show to be 40,000 or 50,000 votes before Ralph O. Brewster, Republican. Senator Bert M. Fernald, Republican, was reelected. The four Republican Congressmen were also reëlected.

Maine, although normally Republican, is usually considered a barometer of the This national election in November.

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year, however, there was friction in the Republican ranks over the Governorship nomination. Mr. Brewster, supported by the Ku Klux Klan, won the primary after a recount. The Democrats thereupon made the Klan the issue. They called in Senator Underwood as a speaker. The Republicans called in General Dawes, Senators Watson and Willis, Speaker Gillette. They were scared. The Republican press went so far as to say in advance that Maine was no barometer this year because of the Klan issue.

Then Maine went Republican as usual.


Deaf and Dumb Clubs of real deaf and dumb people for the purpose of getting deaf and dumb people* to vote for Calvin Coolidge on Nov. 4 was an idea brought forth last week by Republican campaign managers. The genesis of the idea was the fact that, before her marriage, Grace Goodhue was a teacher of deaf and dumb pupils in a deaf and dumb school.

*There are 44,885 of them in the U. S.



National Affairs-[Continued]

Secretary of Commerce Hoover attended the sixth annual Convention of the U. S. Fisheries Association. He had some statistics to give:

In 30 years, the shad fisheries have decreased their yield 70%.

Salmon have disappeared from the Atlantic Coast and have decreased by 50% along the Pacific Coast.

In 25 years, the lobster yield has fallen off 6623%.

In 25 years, the oyster fisheries of Chesapeake Bay have fallen off 50%.

In 10 years, the crab fisheries of Chesapeake Bay and the Delaware River have fallen off 50%.

In 40 years, the sturgeon fisheries of the Great Lakes have fallen off 98%.

Halibut, river herring, sea trout, striped bass, clams are all decreasing in numbers.

As remedies, he proposed artificial restocking, restriction of fishing and prevention of the pollution of waters by dumping of chemicals, factory wastes, etc. Some measures have already been taken by Congress. There is a new law against dumping of oil by oil-burning vessels; drastic restrictions have been placed on the Alaskan salmon fisheries; the upper Mississippi River has been set aside as a breeding ground; a halibut treaty has been signed with Canada.


The Department of Labor issued its first report on one of its latest Labors or relatively one of its latest Labors. In November, 1921, Congress passed a Maternity and Infancy Act. On March 20, 1922, the first funds became available. The report covers the following 15 months of work.

The Act is administered by six people who comprise the Division of Maternity and Infant Hygiene of the Children's Bureau of the Department of Labor. The Bureau disseminates authoritative information on maternity and infant hygiene, and it furnishes funds with which States carry on the active work within their borders. There are various conditions on which this financial aid is given. Some is given outright; some must be matched by an equal appropriation from the State.

During the 15 months' period under report, $1,046,523 was dispersed by the Federal Government and $641,523 by States in coöperation with the Federal agency.

In 1922, payments were made to 43

States, 28 of which matched the Federal appropriation in whole or in part.

In 1923, grants were made to 41 States, 35 of which matched the Federal appropriation in whole or in part.

At the present time, Acts of State Legislatures enable all the States except Kansas, Illinois, Louisiana, Vermont, Maine, Massachusetts, Connecticut to coöperate.

The Bureau sums up the effects of its work as follows:

1) Stimulation of state activities; 2) Maintenance of local responsibility and initiative;

3) Improvement of the quality of the work done because of the central clearing house of information;

4) Increase of state appropriations for the work in 33 States.

The actual activities undertaken by States include: “employment of physicians, public health nurses, dentists, dietitians, health teachers and social workers on staffs of health departments; education of the public through lectures, demonstrations, exhibits, films, etc.; maternity consultations or centres; mothers' classes, correspondence courses and other forms of educational work for mothers; training and supervision of midwives; health conferences; dental clinics; nutrition classes; inspection of maternity and children's homes. Much of the work has been directed toward taking to the rural mother and baby the health facilities which the city mother has had for some time."

No Red Ink

On Sept. 2, 1914, a month after the outbreak of a recent war, Congress, by statute, authorized the Treasury Department to insure U. S. merchant vessels and their cargoes against the hazards of war. Thus came into being the Bureau of War Risk Insurance. Last week, this insurance business was "wound up"; it has ceased to exist.

Apparently, this was one of the few departments of the Government which made a financial profit out of the War. Although $29,497,331.23 was paid out on claims for losses, there remained over $17 million in profit; and the appropriation of $50 million made by Congress to cover losses was entirely untouched.

The largest single loss was $4,467,336 on the steamer Argonaut and the largest single payment was $2,200,000 for

the loss of the Standard Oil tanker John D. Archbold.

Thus has the account been closed out with no red ink on the ledger.

ARMY & NAVY "Third Rate"

The Director of the Budget (Herbert M. Lord) is worried because expenditures are heavy on the National purse. The Navy Department is worried because the U. S. is falling behind in naval strength. Each is worried because of the other. The Navy Department estimated that it could not provide a good naval defense without $346 million next year. Director of the Budget Lord promptly sliced off $56 million of this amount.

"Impossible!" the Navy ejaculated. "One of our first-line ships, the Florida, is out of commission because there are no funds to repair her boilers. We have no funds to convert our old coal-burners to modern oil-burners. For economy's sake we have been obliged to concentrate all our fast oil-burners in the Pacific, leaving only our slow coal-burners in the Atlantic where oil is more expensive. The Naval Air Service is inadequate; yet the Director of the Budget has amputated 60% of our requests for next year. We were refused $30

million to modernize our obsolete vessels; but the upstart Coast Guard service was granted $20 million for Prohibition enforcement by the last Congress. We pare our requests to the bone and you cut 16% more. And the President also forbids the elevation of guns. We will sink to a thirdrate power instead of standing with a first-rate navy as the naval treaties entitle us."

The Director of the Budget only sighs and shrugs. Meanwhile, the Navy plans to carry its request to the President and, if necessary, to Congress.

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National Affairs—[Continued]

a Captain in the Fourth Pennsylvania Cavalry. During the war, he rose step by step to a colonelcy. Peace came. He slipped back to be a Second Lieutenant and once again began his steady rise. The Spanish War gave him a sudden boost; and he rose to be a Brigadier General; then a Major General of Volunteers.

Peace again. He slipped back to be a Brigadier General in the Regular Army and was sent to the Philippines, where he campaigned against the natives. On his return from the Islands, he was made a Major General and selected by Secretary of War Elihu Root to be President of the War College. In 1904, aged 64, then a Lieutenant General, he was automatically retired.

Twenty years later he died. Nothing spectacular marked his coming or his going. He had simply served 40 years with merit.


Anticipating General Pershing's retirement from the Army on Defense Day, Sept. 12, and appreciating the General's abilities, a number of organizations have bid for his services. He admitted having had one offer from a Wild West show, and declared he was good at shooting glass balls from horseback after the manner of the late "Buffalo Bill" Cody.

OIL Something New

The Government's special counsel for investigating and prosecuting the oil scandals has apparently hit upon an entirely new tack. Behind closed portals in Washington, a Special Grand Jury was called to hear 16 witnesses, subpoenaed duces tecum (bring your books and papers). All that transpired was that the proceedings had nothing to do with the Sinclair and Doheny oil leases. The witnesses were an entirely different group from that which was examined by the Senatorial Committees (TIME, May 12 et seq.). The new investigation is supposed to have something to do with the Mexia oil field in Texas.


Union Suits

An eye for union suits, while not exactly a drawing-room asset, may, nevertheless, be useful to a servant of the U. S. In Paris, a doctor examined a group of Poles who had asked for visas

to come to the U. S. as immigrants. The physical examination showed them to be O. K.; but the doctor extended his examination to their undergarments and observed that they were all new and of the same make.

He spoke to other officials of the matter. The passports of the 50 Poles were reëxamined and found to be clever forgeries. It was discovered that the Poles had all bought their fake passports from a combine which gave away, as a premium with each purchase, a new union suit. Thus did an eye for union suits uncover a dastardly conspiracy.

consideration would a British Governor General receive were his domain to show a deficit for 25 years?

"Yet the economic resources of the Islands are inexpressibly and inexhaustibly rich. Indeed, they have what not only the United States, but every country needs for the cultivation of industry; valuable woods of various kinds, including, of course, the rubber tree; sugar plantations, coconut groves, orange, banana and pineapple farms. The waters teem with fish. Cattle are successfully raised. The land is fertile. The climate benign.

"Cecil Rhodes in South Africa and Hughes in Australia, pioneers, worked like Trojans for their government, but what American pioneer in the past

POLITICAL NOTES 25 years has received the backing of

"But Vote!"

The campaign to get out the vote for the November election is becoming picturesque. The National Association of Manufacturers is planning to have some 15 million pieces of literature sent out. One of them is a circular entitled: "Stockholders' Meeting of the U. S. A., Nov. 4. Attend and vote! Vote as you please, but vote!"

"By the Sword"

In Boston, Mayor James M. Curley vetoed the request of the Socialist Party for permission to hold a peace demonstration on Boston Common on Defense Day, Sept 12.

"As an American Mayor of an American city, interested in America, I am opposed to anything that savors of pacifist propaganda which, in my opinion, unless checked, may serve to deprive Americans of their present splendid heritage which was secured through use of the sword; and, so long as the governments of the world continue constituted as at present, they can only be preserved and perpetuated by the sword."

True Democracy

Congress received a neat roasting last week:

"The British Colonies are a source of revenue to the Crown. The Philippines have been in our possession for over 25 years; we have spent over $750,000,000 in developing them, but they have returned no revenue. How much

our government in the development of the Philippine Islands? In these days of over-burdening taxation is it not worth while to stop and consider how this enormous area could be made a source of revenue?

"It has been said that Congress is a national inquisitorial body for the purpose of acquiring valuable information, and then doing nothing about it. So it seems!"

Was it some bitter editorial writer or acrid political economist who penned these words? So it would seem. Not so. This was a paid advertisement, published by one of the large banks of Manhattan- the Harriman National Bank.

It is extraordinary that such a traditionally conservative institution as a bank should choose such a mode of expression; and extraordinary that it should denounce such an established institution as the Congress of the U. S. Already one can hear radicals ejaculating: "We are accused of attacking our institutions but here is Wall Street,* the conservative banking interests, doing the same thing with impunity!" As a matter of fact, the radicals can have less honest objection to such a mode of procedure than if the Harriman National Bank spent its money in devious ways to buy influence at Washington or to subsidize the press to print its views vicariously. It is logical that, with the progress of Democracy, the "moneyed interests," like all other interests, should appeal to the voters for support. It is noteworthy, a true sign of Democracy, that even a beginning of such a thing should have taken place. When we have complete Democracy in the U. S., all business interests will directly advise and urge the people on political questions.

The Harriman National Bank is situate on Fifth Avenue at 44th Street, about three miles from Wall Street.

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The contents of the speeches may be summed up philosophically in the words of Blaise Pascal, famed 17th Century mathematician and Cartesian philosopher par excellence: "Justice without Power is futility. Power without Justice is tyranny."

Premier MacDonald took the contra stand on the first part of Pascal's aphorism. The gist of his speech went to support the thesis that Justice without Power is security. He pleaded for arbitration among nations based upon Right and Justice and not upon Might. He agreed that "Power without Justice is tyranny," but, losing himself in abstruse idealism, he wanted the annihilation of power by disarmament and the extirpation of tyranny by arbitration. Said he "Our position in this: We don't believe a military alliance is going to bring security. We believe a military alliance in an agreement for security, like the mustard seed, is small to begin with; and that this seed with the years will grow and grow, until at last the tree produced from it will overshadow the whole heavens; and we shall be back exactly at the military position at which we found ourselves in 1914.

This did not suit Premier Herriot. In theory he agreed with his British colleague, but in practice he accepted Pascal's famous pensée with a single addition: "Justice with power is security" meaning that arbitration backed by force was the only guarantee of security that would be accepted by France. Said he: "Arbitration is necessary, but arbitration is not sufficient. Arbitration, security, disarmamentthose are three things inseparable. We must create something more than an abstract form of words. Arbitration shows good faith, but we must protect good faith. We must protect those states which show their good faith by accepting arbitration. When a nation has given an example by accepting freely and voluntarily the principle that all its disputes shall be dealt with by arbitration, then, whatever the size of that state, large or small, it has the right to security and the right to justice.

"Mr. MacDonald says arbitration is justice without passion, I agree. But

you cannot have justice without some force behind it. We must combine right and might. We must make what is mighty, just; and what is just, mighty. If we are to give to people what they desire, if we are to save them a repetition of their sufferings, we have got to provide for their security."

Premier Herriot was backed by all the small states of Europe. All thought that Premier MacDonald had put the cart before the horse-that is, that he had laid the emphasis upon arbitration and disarmament when it ought to have been on security.

The day following Premier Herriot's speech the Assembly passed unanimously, amid tremendous enthusiasm, a resolution which said, in effect:

"The Assembly, noting the declarations of the Governments represented, remarks with satisfaction that they contain a basis of understanding tending to establish and secure peace; and it decides as follows:

"1) To call an international conference on armaments at the earliest possible moment.

"2) To consider the material dealing with security and reduction of armaments.


"3) To examine, in view of possi

amendments, articles in the League's Covenant and statutes establishing the Permanent Court of International Justice, in order to facilitate the work of the proposed conference."

In support of the resolution, Premier MacDonald was quoted: "If this Assembly could only be recorded in the pages of history as an Assembly which, for the time, did not give merely lip service to peace, but brain service, it would be distinguished above all gatherings of mankind that have met hitherto."

Premier Herriot hopefully declared: "Now begins the detailed study of the difficult questions which Premier MacDonald has already outlined-problems of mutual assistance and, above all, the great problem of international solidarity through the state which must yet be crossed. The road is long, but we must traverse it arm in arm, associating our efforts and our endeavors."

League officials declared that the Disarmament Commission would frame a treaty of security and mutual assistance to replace the old one (see below). The Commission is also to concern itself with questions relating to the convocation of a land disarmament conference which European Powers decided should

be held in Europe. It was hoped to call the new conference within a year.

Security was and is the paramount issue in international European politics. With the horrors of war no distant dream, the Continental states have demanded security against future aggressive warfare, but, lacking tangible guarantees, they have declined to reduce their armies to a strength below what they considered was indispensable to their national safety.

The establishment of the League of Nations provided no security for peace. The Washington Conference was not even a half-way measure, for it only restricted the number of capital ships in the Navies of the U. S., Britain, France, Italy and Japan; it was totally unconnected with land armaments and barely touched the problem of security. The Treaty of Mutual Assistance (TIME, Aug. 20, 1923) provided for reduction of land armaments and gave security to an attacked nation by stipulation for armed attack by all states in the region of the war on the aggressor nation. This treaty was, however, unacceptable to the U. S. and Britain, virtually because it smacked of armed alliance.


A new plan, called "the American Plan," was put forward recently by Prof. James T. Shotwell of Columbia University and General Tasker Howard Bliss, backed by a number of eminent U. S. experts (TIME, June 30). plan, which is a modification of the League's Treaty of Mutual Guarantees, prescribes regular tri-annual meetings of a commission to "consider progressively the question of disarmament." Under this plan, aggressive warfare is to be outlawed as an international crime with specific sanctions to be taken against attacking nations. The plan engaged the attention of the League members at present in Geneva and was expected to form a basis in future discussions of disarmament and security problems.


New President

Max Huber, legal advisor to the Swiss Political Department, was elected President of the Permanent Court of International Justice.

Dr. André Weiss of France was elected Vice President. Both terms of office will run until 1927.


Genius Rewarded

Foreign News-[Continued]

News was flashed from Paris: "Seymour Parker Gilbert Jr. is appointed permanent Agent General of Reparations under the Experts' Plan in succession to the temporary Agent General, Owen D. Young." This was the gist of an announcement made by the Reparations Commission, which had for many days been awaiting Mr. Gilbert's acceptance of the appointment before making it public.

Not long after receipt of the news in the U. S., reporters crossed the threshold of Mr. Gilbert's office in lower Manhattan, but he was "too busy to comment." Later, however, he unbent, issued a statement:

"I am deeply sensible of the honor conferred and of the responsibilities which the post involves. I expect to sail for Europe within a month or so.

"I am not, of course, in a position to say anything about the plan or the arrangements for carrying it out. Any inquiries of this kind should be sent to Mr. Owen D. Young, who has generously consented to accept a temporary appointment in order to organize the work of the plan."

Colonel James A. Logan, U. S. observer with the Reparations Commission, commented upon the appointment:

"I cannot refrain from expressing gratification that the circumstances are such as to enable Mr. Gilbert to accept the appointment. His services to public finance with the U. S. Treasury Department are known quantities and his reputation as a jurist is excellent.

"Leaving aside the question of technical equipment which peculiarly fits Mr. Gilbert for the important and responsible work which lies ahead of him, I feel that the Reparations Commission and the Governments are to be congratulated upon having secured for the post a man whose known breadth of vision, ability and wide experience will prove an invaluable boon to the great work which means so much to the world."

But what manner of man is Seymour Parker Gilbert? What are his qualifications? What is the nature of his job?

Scarcely 31 years have rolled by since Baby Gilbert saw the light of day, and in that period he has earned recognition as a financial genius that is seldom accorded to men twice his age.

As a boy he was studious, used to roam the streets of his native Bloomfield, N. J., reading a book. At an early age he attended grade school, migrating later to high school, thence to Rut

gers College, where he is yet known as the most brilliant scholar who was ever graduated there. The legal profession then claimed him and Mr. Gilbert went to Harvard Law School, was awarded the degree of LL.B. cum laude.

At the tender age of 23, or thereabout, Mr. Gilbert became a law clerk in a firm of Manhattan lawyers. Here he remained for nearly three years, lost in the midst of Manhattan's hordes. In 1918, he became a member of the War Loan Staff, did valuable work, received due recognition. In June of 1920, when not yet 28 years of age, he was nominated by President Wilson as Assistant Secretary of the Treasury. When the Harding Administration succeeded that of Mr. Wilson, he was reappointed to the assistant secretaryship and in June of the same year, his importance to the U. S. Treasury was such that a special post was made for him, namely that of Under Secretary of the Treasury, a post second in importance only to that of Andrew W. Mellon.

Few, if any, men can point to such a distinguished and honorable career in the realm of finance. Many have through accident become financial tsars, but few have reached so high a goal by their own efforts in such a short space of time.

And now this tall, slender man with brown hair and blue-gray eyes is to go to Europe, is to become Agent General of Reparations. His new job will be bigger than any he has yet had. Through his hands will go all the reparations that Germany is to pay. He will be virtually in command of Germany's finances and at the same time the principal link, so far as reparations are concerned, between the Allies and Germany. Upon his shoulders will rest a fair share of the responsibility of operating successfully the Experts' Plan, and, let it be not forgotten, upon the Plan's success reposes the economic equilibrium of a continent. Clearly Mr. Gilbert will be one of the biggest men in Europe and will exercise such power as would make many a Mussolini or a Primo Rivera turn green with envy. Alone from thousands of financial wizards, Mr. Gilbert has been selected as the wizard of them all and his selection is unquestionably the result of sane reasoning.

First steps toward operating the Experts' Plan were made when Temporary Agent General of Reparations Owen D. Young burst into Berlin, hung up his coat and rolled up his sleeves. Said he:

"Whether the plan is as good as its most enthusiastic supporters believe or as bad as its worst enemy says is not

nearly so important as whether all the interested countries are in a spirit to make it work. If they are, the plan will succeed; if they are not, the best plan would fail."

He commended Germany for paying promptly an instalment of 20 million gold marks and said that he was sure that the 83 million gold marks due this month would be paid. "I find a greatly improved spirit in Germany since I was here in February," said Mr. Young. He also stated that Germany was practically upon a gold basis. "The moment she gets a new currency, she will be," added Mr. Young.

At another time, Mr. Young defined his position as follows:

"I am loyal. If Germany's financial burden is crushing, that of the other powers is no less so. I have not hid from the Germans my firm intention to make them pay up to the breaking point; on the other hand, I have assured them that I oppose that point being exceeded.

"As far as I am concerned, Germany shall pay all she reasonably can, and the Powers interested in reparations shall get all they can reasonably expect-nothing more nor less."

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