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Little horses, nervy and debonair, clipping the turf with pointed hoofs, mallets whacking, riders shouldering, wheeling, while young Royalty looks on. At Meadow Brook, the background is grass; at the Wanamaker Art Gallery, Manhattan, it is canvas. An exhibit of Poloiana has opened there. A wooden pony, smartly blanketed, stands at the end of the gallery-a silent symbol of the stable. The room is rigged with saddles, flags, balls, mallets; scenes of the game and portraits of dead and living players cover the walls. A painted Prince, losing in the work of St. Helier Lander something of the incipient puffiness that sits upon the living one, gazes mildly down.
Sporting scenes, because they contain balanced movement, a living impulse of clean speed, have always attracted artists. Degas, for instance, cultivated the paddock almost as assiduously as he did the salle de ballet. He is represented in this exhibit by a pencil study of a horse. There is Middleton Manigault's modernistic painting of an International match; a series of Robert W. Chanler's decorations on Polo Through the Ages; George Wright's Grooming Polo Ponies; two water colors by Ivester Lloyd of a game in full tilt; spirited etchings by Morshead and George Soper.
Last year, lurid flames lit Rock Ridge, back of Greenwich, Conn.; 175 scant-clad girls responded perfectly to their fire drill, as the dormitories of Rosemary Hall, famed boarding school for young ladies, burned to the ground. Last week, it was announced that students of Rosemary Hall (i.e., their parents, old Rosemarians, friends and philanthropists) had bought nearly all of a $300,000 bond issue to enable Rosemary to rise phoenixlike from its ashes, more attractive, modern and efficient than ever, and this time fireproof.
Rosemary Hall was founded in 1890 by its present headmistress, Dr. Caroline Ruutz-Rees, at Wallingford, Conn., moving to Greenwich in 1900. Miss Ruutz-Rees (Democratic National Committeewoman for Connecticut) is English by birth and education, and her school has something of the English temper. Its physical and intellectual life is robust, "not for weaklings."* The diploma requirement
*This and following quotations are excerpts from Sargent's handbook, American Private Schools.
is admission by examination to Bryn Mawr, Vassar or Smith College. Field hockey, basketball, self-government and brains are the things for which Rosemary has become noted. Associated with Miss Ruutz-Rees are
CAROLINE RUUTZ-REES "Not for weaklings"
Miss Mary E. Lowndes, who rides horseback and thinks vigorously at 70; and Miss Margaret Augur, a Barnard graduate and old Rosemarian.
Other young ladies' schools in the U. S. that have achieved some promi
Bradford Academy, Bradford, Mass. "Oldest institution in New England for the higher education of women," founded 1803. Long an active interest for Alice Freeman Palmer, famed poet-president of Wellesley College. Principal: Marion Coats, Vassar graduate. Specialties: Music, Fine
Dana Hall, Wellesley, Mass. Founded 1881 as an incubator for Wellesley College matriculants. Headmistress: Helen Temple Cooke. Specialties: "The highest ideals of womanhood, Thorough Scholarship, General Culture." In the college town of Wellesley, Dana Hall girls can be distinguished from the Welleslilassies by the hats they are obliged to wear when walking out.
Miss Porter's School, Farmington, Conn. (commonly called "Farmington"). Founded 1843 "in a small way" by Sarah Porter, sister of President Noah Porter of Yale University (1871-1886). "She gave to hundreds of the best-born women of the land that poise and stability of character, that combination of learning and
good manners, which is a mark of the noblest American womanhood." Farmington, whose course is indefinite in length and character, has a reputation for distinction of dress and deportment. It caters to "the finer families." Its product is rather the perfect lady than the trained mind. Mr. and Mrs. Robert Porter Keep are in charge.
Westover, at Middlebury, Conn., is active, modern, out-of-doors and "horsy." The girls wear uniform costume, are more "school girls" than "young ladies." Mary Robbins Hillard, headmistress, who founded Westover in 1909 with the aid of wealthy friends, "has a passion for imparting spiritual truths individually to her girls in private and has almost uncanny genius in understanding what girls are thinking about and gaining their confidence." The school offers "a well-rounded training for social requirements"; but relatively few prepare for college. Uconsciously on Miss Hillard's part, the school has gained a reputation for exclusiveness and most of the girls naturally come from families of wealth.
The Masters School, commonly called "Dobbs Ferry" from its location on the Hudson River, was founded in 1877 by the late Sarah Masters (who is said "never to have attended the theatre"), is now maintained by Mary C. Strong. It has "high social prestige" and an "exclusive atmosphere." The character of its training is somewhere between that of a school and a finishing academy, much like Westover. Neither scholarship nor athletics take precedence. Discipline is strict. Dobbs girls wear uniforms, observe an honor system, may prepare for college.
The Spence School, just off Fifth Avenue, Manhattan, and The Finch School, farther uptown, lead the U. S. city finishing schools. A year or two at either is thought good for Western girls, but Spence has also a large Manhattan clientele. Both offer preparation for college, but are attended rather for their adjacence to the theatre, the opera, the Metropolitan Museum. Both are considered "ultra." "'* The headmistress of Finch is Mrs. John O'Hara Cosgrave. Clara B. Spence, strong and gracious of personality, died last spring.
The Baldwin School, at Bryn
*Finch was once selected as an exalted antithesis. Said the Yale Record, in verses illustrative of womankind's universal sorority: "The girl from Finch and the Chapel Street ginch
Are sisters under the skin."
Mawr, Pa., is the oldest and most widely known of the many girls' schools in and about Philadelphia. Elizabeth Forrest Johnson, Vassar graduate, "maintains the wholesome and sensible ideals of the founder," Florence Baldwin. Her girls take their studies seriously, are taught well paratory, smaller and more fastidious than Baldwin.
Foxcroft, in the Piedmont Valley near Middleburg, Va., keeps its pupils much in the saddle, gives them hearty, simple country life, teaches soundly if not extensively.
Last week was janitors' week in U. S. colleges and universities. Thousands of patient men in blue denim swept lecture rooms, fitted new light bulbs in corridors and stairways, received letters about students' furniture. It was also football coaches' week. They looked over their "material," started U. S. education on its first important step of the new year by giving setting-up exercises, passing and kicking practice. It was also professors' week. They returned from their vacations, tidied their desks and notes, made up class rolls, speculated upon the youths soon to be submitted them for intellectual advancement.
Some professors, some parents thus speculating read "Ferguson-Rex" by an anonymous contributor in the Atlantic Monthly for September. Ferguson is an undergraduate "leader," the college "man of the hour." The portrait is not without truth but is perhaps too surely executed. The contributor called himself "90" and erred, admittedly, on the side of optimism and generosity where others of his age had erred in pessimism and bitterness. Still, Ferguson was a fair inkling. Said "90":
"His [Ferguson's] attitude toward his teachers and studies baffles a dull observer, but in the main it is governed by his predominating intellectual trait. He admires manhood vastly more than scholarship. He has yet to learn the important place pure scholarship holds in the general plan of things. He is sure to learn this in time. If he finds in the scholar the man he is looking for, the scholar can lead him anywhere. But the tremendous forces that have made Ferguson what he is have left him where he refuses to see the scholar if the man is not there. It is said that he will learn nothing. No candid observer could claim that the outward signs of mental accretion are whelming, but in private conversation Ferguson displays at times a disconcerting clearness of vision, and a wealth of real understanding about a lot of things that he regards as important. . . "One great need is a good 'contact man'-someone who can interpret the college to Ferguson and Ferguson
Other parents, other professors read How About the College? by Edward W. Bok (self-educated) in the SaturSaid day Evening Post for Sept. 13. Mr. Bok: "Is a college education preferable?' Of course the simplest answer here is that anything calculated for our good is more desirable in its presence than in its absence. Unfortunately, however, this does not answer the question. . . . I like the story told of the young Polish girl in a New York school who was asked to write the difference between an educated man and an intelligent man, and who summed it up thus: 'An educated man gets his thinks from someone else; an intelligent man works his own thinks.""
Schools for the Idle
Said The New Republic, with some point:
"The conduct of schools among workmen who are on strike is a rather interesting idea for adult education. The experiment . . . is actually being tried in District No. 2 of the United Mine Workers, where 35,000 workers are on strike. Seven classes have been formed and the attendance is growing rapidly. Obviously this is not an experiment in which any public agency can very well participate. . . . But the establishment of a tradition requiring unions to provide schools and workers to attend them systematically during a layoff could be only beneficial to the men and to the public. . . ."
The New Psychology
The sentencing by Judge John Richard Caverly of Leopold and Loeb to the penitentiary for life is the end, so far as court records are concerned, of what has been called "the greatest murder trial of all times." It has resulted, however, in giving a preferred position before the bar of public opinion of the case against capital punishment.
In the past, the subject of capital punishment has been approached, mainly, from what may be called the "sentimental viewpoint." Its opponents have stressed, "long lists of mistaken verdicts." Its advocates have sometimes been dangerously close to the theory of personal vengeance in their reliance upon the doctrine of "a life for a life." Henceforth, however, the part which the death penalty should take in an enlightened system of law will be discussed in the light of "new psychology."
Said Dr. George W. Kirchway, formerly Dean of the Columbia Law School
(1901-1910), and Warden of Sing Sing Prison (1915-16): "Judge Caverly met the issue presented to him like a man of the modern world. He may not have known much about the new phychology -few of us do-but he was not, like the States Attorney, content to repose in the wisdom of the 19th Century. He at least was willing to learn, so he admitted the evidence. He was unconscious of the fact of which he cannot have been wholly unconscious, that in so doing he was opening the steelbarred doors of the criminal courts of this country, and the world, to a concept of responsibility for crime."
Said Judge Caverly (in his opinion): "It is beyond the province of this court as it is beyond the capacity of human science in its present state of development, to predicate ultimate responsibility for human acts." This, however, is exactly what the modern psychiatrist does attempt to do. One Leonard Blumgart, in an article in last week's Nation, stated that Leopold is the victim of a neurosis and Loeb of a psychosis. In speaking of Leopold, he said: "Yet very few persons understand why he developed this intellectual power to suppress and repress his own Were the public perverse processes. ready, it could hear of as tragic a perversion of normal instincts, as hopeless and tremendous a struggle against them as was ever made. But no, the psychiatrists had to lower their voices, and even then they were prevented from telling all they knew. . . . The mental and emotional processes by which we first come to recognize the difference between our current standards of right and wrong, and then cut upon that knowledge, are shrouded in complete darkness."
Lawyers as a body are not, at any rate as yet, very sympathetic to this explanation of human conduct as determining human responsibilities. Cooperation, they argue, is a condition of life in civilized communities. When a person fails to conform to the standards of society and gives the minimum amount of coöperation, as required by the criminal law, the community for its own protection, must impose the prescribed penalties, if such a non-conformist has the mentality to understand what Society expects of him. Definitions of legal insanity are designed to state the lack of mental capacity which one must display before not being held fully responsible for criminal behavior.
What is the social value of mental tests, applied after the commission of a crime, which show a person to be irresponsible so far as criminal acts are concerned, though otherwise responsible and even brilliant in understanding his environment and making the best of it? If this knowledge is to be of much service to Society, will it not be neces sary for these tests to be applied be
rise, and must not those in whom danerous psychopathic traits are discovred, be, as it were, "sentenced in adance"? And, even if the discovery f these psychopathic traits be scientifially possible, is such a procedure administratively practical, and, if adninistratively practical, can it be caried out with regard to the constitutional guarantees of life and liberty
hich, in Anglo-Saxon countries, have been relied upon so long and, on the whole, with such good results?
"The rule of the road," says Bernard Shaw, "is simply a device to let you now what the other fellow is going to lo. The purpose in part of all law is, for that matter, to let one person know what another is going to do, to permit the realization of reasonable expectations."
Madison Avenue at 47th Street
Luncheon, Afternoon Tea
MEN'S LUNCHEON SERVICE 47th Street Entrance
His Grace Michael J. Curley, Archbishop of Baltimore, welcomed to Washington 100,000 or more delegates to the 650th anniversary celebration of the Holy Name Society.
Four days of demonstration were to conclude with a monster parade to the Washington Monument before which, at a specially erected altar, the vigorous young Archbishop was to celebrate a pontifical mass.
History. Pope Gregory X and the second Council of Lyons, in 1274, enjoined that the "faithful" should "demonstrate more reverence for the Name above all names, the only Name in which we can claim salvation-the name of Jesus Christ." This special mission was entrusted to the Dominicans (newly founded at that time) by an apostolic letter to Blessed John Vercelli. Organized in Portugal, the Holy Name Society spread through Europe and eventually came to its fullest fruition in the U. S. Originally, it was, in part, regarded as reparation for the "blasphemous Albigensian heresies."
Purpose. The Society lays peculiar emphasis on purity of speech. But this ideal is extended to include purity of thought and life. "It gives its members," said a Bishop, "just that amount of moral suasion to keep them loyal to the regular reception of the sacraments."
Function. It serves to organize
laymen for the general welfare of the Church.
Even since shipwrecked sailors built her a shrine, Ste. Anne of Beaupré has been visited and invoked by thousands yearly. The pilgrims have gone sick and returned well.
Her church, which lay in the province of Quebec, was destroyed in 1922 by fire ascribed to an incendiary. Money for its reconstruction was speedily obtained. Last Sunday, Louis Nazaire Cardinal Begin, Catholic Primate of Canada, laid the new basilica's cornerstone.
Out of the fire was saved the golden statue of Ste. Anne which contains bones of the Saint.
Archbishop Begin, a venerable figure of 74, is one of the senior members of the College of Cardinals. He recently made a grave pronouncement against the frivolous fashions of women.
Pope and Politics
The futility of drawing sharp distinctions between worldly and religious affairs would seem to be too apparent to need exposition. And yet the cry for such distinction is continually heard.
Came last week to the Pope a party
of Italian undergraduates, youthfully maintaining that the Pope should become that most mythological of all creatures a perfect neutral.
Replied the Pope (Pius VI, master of pointed phrase): "When Politics come near the Altar, then Religion, the Church, the Pontiff have not only the right but the duty to give directions and indications to be followed by Catholics."
The same reply was made by Moses. The same was made by Luther, Calvin, Knox. The same was made in unmistakable language by Pius IX in the last Century: "It is an error to assert that the Church ought to be separated from the State and the State from the Church."*
The same reply is made by Protestants today. Protestant Churches established Prohibition. Protestant ministers preach war or peace, condemn or condone divorce, denounce corruption. Hitherto they have sidestepped the problems of industry, but now they are beginning to have something to say about it.
Pius XI's reply to the undergraduates was not only weighted with the authority of tradition; it was the only logical reply. For if Religion is irrelevant to the affairs of this world, it would be completely and quickly banished to the
*Indeed, this Pontiff went further and declared: "It is an error to assert that every man is free to embrace the Religion he shall believe true, guided by the light of reason."
Importance makes faces grave; work makes them lean; gazing at mysteries gives them a sober cast. At Cornell University, Ithaca, a group of men gathered. Their faces were grave, lean, sober; they were the members of the American Chemical Society, assembled for their 68th Annual Convention. Two qualities they all had in common. One was a profound concern with the wonders that beset men's comings and goings, traffics and discoveries, on the earth. The other was renown. They deliberated, debated, uttered paragraphs of chemical formulae that were, when understood, criticism, gasconade and prophecy.
Sometimes the summer lightning of plain speech lit the cloudy thunders of their discourse.. "$62,000,000,000." . . "The most amazing development in History." . . "How to cure rickets." . . Among the renowned were: Robert Robertson, chief Government chemist of Great Britain; Livingston Farrand, President of Cornell; Sir Max Muspratt, onetime Lord Mayor of Liverpool, foremost British industrial engineer; Dr. J. S. McHargue, head of the Kentucky Agricultural Station; T. A. Boyd of the General Motors Corporation; Professor H. Steenbock, chemical research head of the University of Wisconsin; Professor E. C. C. Baly, famed savant of the University of Liverpool. In the chair was Dr. Leo Hendrik Baekeland, President of the Society, a man who invents. He has discovered processes for the separation of copper and cadmium, for the impregnation of wood, for the making of Velox paper, thus winning heavy honors, including several pounds of medals. But first among his achievements is the invention of a certain substance.
"Bakelite." Superficially, it is a composition, born of fire and mystery, having the rigor and brilliance of glass, the lustre of amber from the Isles. Poetically, it is a resin formed from equal parts of phenol and formaldehyde, in the presence of a base, by the application of heat. It will not burn. It will not melt. It is used in pipe stems, fountain pens, billiard balls, telephone fixtures, castanets, radiator caps, etc. In liquid form, it is a varnish. Jellied, it is a glue. Those familiar with its possibilities claim that in a few years it will be embodied in every mechanical facility of modern civilization. From the time that a man brushes his teeth in the morning with a Bakelite-handled brush, until the moment when he removes his last cigarette from a Bakelite holder, extinguishes it in a Bakelite ashtray, and falls back upon
a Bakelite bed, all that he touches, sees, uses, will be made of this material of a thousand purposes. Books and papers will be set up in Bakelite type.
People will read Bakeliterature, Bakelitigate their cases, offer Bakeliturgies for their dead, bring young into the world in Bakelitters.
Dr. Baekeland is a man in middle years, erect, rugged, taciturn, with the sensitive mouth of a field marshal and the cold eyes of a philanthropist. Of medium height, courtly, dignified, he adopts the old-world manner, shuns personal publicity, wants to be known only in connection with his scientific work, makes many addresses before scientific societies.
In addressing the Society last week, he spoke of Science as an enemy of War, making the point that as modern discoveries made War fearful, further inventions have made it
Larson: "Oil waste must stop. Motorists who now drain good oil out of their crank cases will be provided with simple devices by which the oil will be tested, its viscosity ascertained, waste eliminated."
Prof. H. Steenbock gave the details of his cure for rickets. He has succeeded in effecting this cure in rats by exposing the animals to violet rays from a quartz mercury lamp. He has, it is also believed, discovered a new vitamin in olive oil, helpful to those who have diabetes.
The Society pledged its aid to the Chemical Warfare Service; made plans for an endowment to finance scientific publications in the U. S. It passed in review the progress of chemical industries, stating that their activity, which involves over $62,000,000,000, is firmer than it has been since the War.
feared. When fighting means certain, AERONAUTICS
agonizing death, no man will fight; and since Science has become, like Death, all-efficient, it is, like Fear, a deterrant to destruction.
Sir Max Muspratt spoke. His was a gasconade: "Through Chemistry, man is now on the eve of the most amazing civilizing development in History. Witness phosphates. In
days of ignorance, every dead cat was an engine of nitrogen production, every field had its own fertilizer hanging over it, and men of science knew it, but could not use their knowledge.
Now we get nitrogen
out of the air. This method, evolved in the War, may solve the problem of feeding the world."
The report of Dr. E. C. C. Baly contained a criticism. The butt was Nature-she takes too long to make sugar. He, the discoverer of synthetic sugar, has a receipt: Make a little formaldehyde out of carbon dioxide and water, expose it to intensely active ultra-violet light, and you have sugar. Genuine glucose has been made by this process, but before such can become a breakfasttable commodity the proper wavelength of the violet ray must be ascertained. It is roughly gauged at from 200 to 220 millimicrons.*
If all the land were bread and cheese, and all the sea were ink, what would we do for gasoline? This was the general proposition discussed by T. A. Boyd and C. M. Larson, Manhattan scientist. "Petroleum," prophesied the former, "will be obtained in the future by cracking cruder grades of oil. The continuance of automobile transportation depends upon the perfection of cheap and efficient methods for doing this." Said Mr.
*A millimicron is one millionth of a millimetre (.03937 of an inch).
Rain and storm fought the U. S. fliers, journeying from Manhattan to Washington in their attempt to keep an appointment with their Commanderin-Chief, the President of the U. S. A worn-out gear brought Lient. Nelson down near Baltimore, and he was obliged to continue in an escorting plane. A dense fog at Aberdeen, Md., brought down the whole exhibition for lunch and rest till the weather cleared. For four hours the presidential party waited in drizzling rain at Bolling Field. But Mr. Coolidge took the matter goodnaturedly, welcomed the national heroes with unabated enthusiasm, examined every part of the planes. "Who would have thought the President would meet us?" cried Lieut. Smith.
From Washington they flew to Dayton, where mechanics worked all night in relays to overhaul the planes. A new engine was installed in Wade's plane, the Boston II. Repaired, they' flew on to Chicago, where once more they rested.
Torn by the wind, worn, burnt out and battered, these were crippled birds. Over the tilting continent they limped on raveled wings. Their lifting power was now so impaired, due to the yield of fabrics and skeleton, that they could not attain an elevation of more than 6,500 ft. The bastions of the Rockies, therefore, were impassable; they felt obliged to skirt them. The route was changed. Leaving Chicago, they were scheduled to fly, not by way of Cheyenne and Salt Lake City, but to veer south, with Omaha, Dallas and Tucson as their main stopping places on the sky trail to California.
cursory view of TIME'S of events, the Generous
Citizen points with pride to:
apostolic letter to Blessed John
Vercelli. (P. 19.)
A silver tankard. (P. 28.)
A beautiful home-with flowers and birds. (P. 22.)
Faces grave, lean, sober. (P. 20.)
A glutton's feast for the body, mind and soul. (P. 15.)
Persons who are never ill, never hurt, never depressed. (P. 22.)
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