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Agent General Owen D. Young, executor of the Experts' Plan, was gratified to receive a second payment of 20,000,000 gold marks ($5,000,000) from Germany on account of the 83,000,000 gold marks that has to be paid during September under the provisions of the Plan.
Mr. Young stated that Germany would probably not be required to make any further payment during the present month as the Franco-Belgian Ruhr receipts, which have to be credited to Cermany, would more than cover the total amount due.
THE LEAGUE The Assembly's Week
The following matters of importance came before the Fifth Assembly of the League of Nations at Geneva:
Hungary. A report on Hungarian financial reconstruction was read by Commissioner General Jeremiah Smith Jr., of Boston. It was a long recital of the success of the League's plan to put Hungary on her feet. Points made by Mr. Smith: currency inflation definitely ended; stock of exchange had risen from one million Swiss francs to 90 million in the space of a few months; budget deficit for year ending June 30 had been covered; adverse trade balance reduced by 40%. Hungary should be selfsupporting at the end of two years.
Albania. Premier Fan Noli of Albania, Harvard graduate, caused a stir in the Assembly by delivering himself of a veiled attack on the U. S. He described Boston as an Irish city "full of O'Connors, O'Connells and Fitzgeralds, all of them good talkers, who with other Irishmen do all of the talking in American electoral campaigns."
Continuing, he said: "There is no wonder why the Americans, Germans and Russians are not anxious to join the League of Nations. They do not appreciate our speeches. They know better."
The Assembly, said he, was nothing but "words, words, wordswhich means, in plain English, hot air."
Then shifting to the Experts Plan, he called it "a tortuous, complicated, diabolical, infernal combination of bubbles-the most colossal super
bubble modern history has produced."
British Fleet. In the manner of parlance, Sir Cecil Hurst, legal adviser to the Foreign Office, "dropped a naval bomb" into the Assembly, when he declared that Great Britain would accept the principle of compulsory arbitration provided that she were not brought into Court because of some act of her Navy performed in attempting to maintain or restore peace. His speech mightily pleased the French, who subsequently agreed unconditionally to the principle of arbitration in international disputes.
Security. The draft compact of arbitration, disarmament and security was in process of formation. The above-quoted naval qualification was accepted by the experts who are charged with the task of making a plan that will please everyone.
(British Commonwealth of Nations)
"Appearance of Evil"
British Laborites have been accused of flirting with the capitalists, accepting hospitality from the King and Queen and what not. To all these accusations they have had a ready and satisfactory answer. But last week the diligent Rothermere press discovered proof positive that socialist Ramsay MacDonald was a capitalist.
The Daily Mail noted that Premier MacDonald had been registered in Edinburgh as the owner of 30,000 preferred shares in McVitie and Price, biscuit manufacturers. The value of the shares was at about $150,000.
The Evening Standard, Beaverbrook journal, printed the story of MacDonald's lifelong friendship with Sir Alexander Grant, Chairman of the biscuit company. Grant's father and MacDonald's uncle had been fellow guards on the Highland Railway and the two boys had to a certain extent grown up together. The Standard also pointed out that Grant had only recently received a baronetcy. The implication was that the Premier had sold Grant a baronetcy for $150,000.
The Premier gave the following explanation:
"I am sick at heart to have to talk of this, but I must protect my dear old friend in the enjoyment of the honor which the King so worthily bestowed upon him and with which this act of personal kindness to myself had as much to do as the man in the moon."
He went on to explain that the shares
had been left to him for life in order to endow a Daimler automobile. "I did not fancy myself as the owner of a motor car," continued the Prime Minister. "It was against the simplicity of my habits. It took a long time to be persuaded and letters are in existence which reveal our minds. In the end I agreed with this arrangement. A sum of money was to be invested in my name and the income I am to enjoy during my lifetime so long as I keep the car, and at my death it is to revert to Sir Alexander Grant or his heirs." Sir Alexander had this to say: "Shortly after being appointed Prime Minister, MacDonald stayed with me at Edinburgh and was looking very ill. He had been in bad health because he was working so hard, and all the newspapers were speaking about how ill he was. And when I learned he was traveling about on the underground railway I felt he was taking too much exercise. For instance, on the night he went to the Pilgrims' dinner and delivered a fine speech, after he left the hall he had to take a train to Baker St., then out to near Chequers, where there was an old Ford waiting for him."
Said The Morning Post:
"We certainly would lay no stress on the possibility which lies open to a malicious mind. On the contrary, we
would like to agree with the Prime Minister. They may have had no more to do with each other than 'the man in the moon' but we feel bound to say that Ramsay MacDonald and Sir Alexander Grant, with their Scottish upbringing should have remembered the sagacious apostolic injunction to avoid even the appearance of evil.”
The Evening Standard remarked that $150,000 was a handsome endowment for an automobile, the upkeep of which could not possibly cost more than a third of the income to be supplied by the sale of biscuits.
Arrived unostentatiously in the U. S., Malcolm MacDonald, 23-year-old son of Premier MacDonald, a member of the Oxford Union debating team that is to have 17 oratorical matches in the U. S. and Canada.
He was presented to President Coolidge, lunched with Secretary of State Charles E. Hughes, saw many friends, left for Toronto.
The press made much fuss about his visit, compared it to that of Lord Renfrew, as if the comparison were equal. As he had never
met Renfrew, it was suggested that he meet him for the first time on U. S. soil. He replied:
"The Prince is here on a holiday and I don't want to interfere in any way with that. He is here unofficially and wants to be left to his own devices."
In American politics he was extremely interested:
"The political campaign in America is a very much greater undertaking than elections under the British system. The huge number of voters to be reached and the vast territory to cover make American electioneering a task of magnitude beyond anything we have at home."
Ex-Premier George stuck his finger in his mouth and held it up in the air to decide which way the political wind was blowing. He decided that a gentle zephyr was blowing, favorable to Liberalism, so he virtually gave notice to the British public, probably with the counsel of his titular chief, ex-Premier Herbert H. Asquith, that a general election was to be held at the end of the year.
Basing his attack against the Government on the Anglo-Russian Treaty (TIME, Aug. 18), Mr. George said in a speech at Penmaenmawr, Wales: "In so far as it [the treaty] is not a fake, it is folly. In fact, it is both. It was hastily patched up at the end of the session because the Prime Minister had been held up by a number of Socialist gunmen of his own party. Let me emphasize the point that it has nothing to do with the rights or wrongs of the restoration of Russia. It is purely a question of whether out of our depleted till we are to lend scores of millions of pounds to Russian Communists, most of which will be handled and spent by them in their own way.
"We are burdened with heavy debts and are passing through a period of unexampled depression. We need all our surplus cash to finance our own trade and develop our own resources. It is an act of criminal recklessness at such a time to guarantee huge sums of money to be spent in another country by a Government whose principles are predatory and destructive of all legitimate enterprise."
J. H. Thomas, Secretary of State for the Colonies, received in South Africa, where he was on a semi-official visit, a telegram from Chief MacDonald. The Premier informed Mr. Thomas that
Parliament would reassemble on Sept. 30, for "Irish business" and that his presence was necessary. Before sailing Mr. Thomas remarked to a reporter:
"My visit to South Africa has been
"It would be unwise"
most instructive, and I intend making other visits in the Empire, in order to acquaint myself with the problems of the various countries concerned in my department. I have a visit to another dominion in mind, but it would be unwise to tell you at present."
The chronological account of Lord Renfrew's visit to the U. S. is herewith continued:
Precedent was flagrantly flouted when the noble lord planted a tree on the Burden estate to commemorate his visit. Usually royalty, even if it is disguised, plants only acorns. Renfrew's tree was a handsome, upstanding young red oak of 20 summers.
Rain and the consequent postponement of the international polo match (see SPORT) persuaded Lord Renfrew to postpone his departure. While waiting, he spent a typical day. Rose at 10 a.m., took a plunge in the Burden pool, played seven chukkers of polo, lunched with Mrs. Harrison Williams at Glen Cove, teaed at J. P. Morgan's home in the same place, dined and danced at the home of Mrs. W. K. Vanderbilt.
Captain Lascelles, assistant privat secretary to Lord Renfrew, said that h lordship had been reading The Life and Letters of Walter Hines Page, and tha he was very fond of Mark Twain, ha read some volumes twice. The secre tary also said that numerous presents ranging from chewing gum upwards had been sent to him by firms and individuals. The rigid royal rule of not accepting gifts from strangers was adhered to and the gifts were all returned by registered mail, allegedly costing the Baron no trifling sum for postage. It was stated that from 10 to 40 letters daily are received from admiring females whose sole request is for an autographed photograph. Even this trifling comfort has to be denied them. But they receive a form letter, expressing profound regret.
A bath in lieu of a sleep, a fox hunt in which all barriers were taken, though many others flunked them, six chukkers of polo after breakfast and then a sleep, followed by unknown pursuits, rounded out a regular, royal day.
Slipping out of the servants' entrance of the Burden home, the Baron bounded into an automobile, was driven to Manhattan. At the Pennsylvania Station he took a subway to Park Place, walked to the Woolworth Building, was taken skywards by a neatly-uniformed and much impressed "indoor aviator." From the top the Baron himself became impressed with the wonders that were revealed to him. From the Woolworth Building he paid a visit to the New York Port Society, inspected the building, chatted with the seamen. He was much interested to learn that British and American seamen sing in unison God Save the King and My Country 'Tis of Thee, the economy of music being made possible by both songs being set to the same tune. The visit to the seamen over, the Baron was driven up busy Fifth Avenue, did some shopping, returned to his Long Island home.
A vast crowd assembled one fine day at Meadow Brook to witness the muchheralded polo match. Several times that crowd was seen to rise hesitatingly as a succession of young men wearing clothes á la Renfrew arrived. His arrival was unmistakable; the vast hordes of photographers gathered at the main entrance to the field suddenly went "mad dog", scampered hither and thither, stopped, snapped and retired. Cheers and handclaps were absent, but most of the spectators strained their necks. All present were impressed with
beard in the land of Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité.
U. S. Debt. Edward N. Hurley, member of the U. S. World War Debt Commission,* returned to Washington from Paris. In his briefcase was a plan for liquidation of France's war debt to the U. S., which Mr. Hurley stated had the approval of French Government officials.
The amount which France now owes to the U. S. is in excess of $4 billion. The present plan proposed to pay off this sum on much the same terms as those granted to Britain at the beginning of 1923—that is, over a period of 67 years. Two important features, not included in the British debt settlement, were suggested:
1. That a moratorium of five years be granted to France during which period interest shall not be cumulative;
2. That the U. S. Government be required to invest annually half the amount paid by France in 25-year sinking fund gold bonds of French industries, railways,
water-power profits, public utilities and electric development concerns.
This scheme is to be considered by the War Debt Commission in Washington. Nothing was known concerning official opinion, but semi-official circles regarded it as "a valuable supplement" to the Experts' Report in the economic resettlement of Europe.
An outline of the plan is that France is to pay $100 million a year for 67 years in payment of interest and principal. The U. S. will invest $50 million in France. At the end of 67 years, the French Government
*The U. S. World War Foreign Debt Commission is composed of: Chairman: Andrew W. Mellon; Charles E. Hughes; Herbert Hoover; Reed Smoot, Senator from Utah; Theodore E. Burton, Representative from Ohio; Charles R. Crisp, Representative from Ga.: Richard Olney, ex-Representative from Mass.; Edward N. Hurley, ex-Chairman of the Shipping Board; Secretary: Eliot Wadsworth, Asst. Secretary of the Treasury.
will have discharged its War liability, but French industries, etc., will continue to refund to the U. S. $50 million per annum for 25 years. In the whole period of 92 years, the U. S. Government will receive about $11 billion.
Morgan Loan. During the past week, the loan made to France at the time of the franc's collapse (TIME, Mar. 17) by John P. Morgan, was renewed for six months.
Budget. Premier Herriot, having been in the forefront of international politics, began to turn his attention to domestic problems.
One of his election promises was to abolish the unpopular 20% tax increase imposed by Premier Poincaré (TIME, Jan. 28). This he now found himself unable to do. His difficulties:
The budget for the first time since the War is one and indivisible. This means that the French have abandoned the foolish practice of having two budgets, one ordinaire, and one recouvrable. latter (To the charged the expense of reconstructing the war-devastated areas, the amount being a charge against reparation payments from Germany, which were generally unpaid.) This year the Government has to face a budget deficit of about 2 billion paper francs ($100 million). On top of that, it has constantly to worry with maturing short-term commitments. The panacea suggested is to convert into long-term securities the short-term debt of France; but there is no hint of reduced taxation. German Loan. Paris bankers decided to underwrite 5%, or $10 million of the loan to Germany as provided in the Experts' Report (TIME, Apr. 21). It was said that this will be the first time since 1870 that France has subscribed to a German loan.
Ruhr Receipts. The Ministère des Finances announced that the occupation of the Ruhr had yielded to France 3,519 million paper francs ($175,950,000) for the 18 months ending in June. The cost of occupation had been deducted.
The French Academy-the 40 most learned men in France who meet in l'Institut de France and guard the purity of the French language with the vigilance of a duenna-decreed that the word "cocktail" has no place on the tongue of the Frenchman. Not even was coquetele, a substitute compromise, allowed. The word is outlawed.
Georges Clemenceau, "The Tiger," was interviewed in Vendée. He stood under an oak and said: "This is my old friend. A little older than I. It has lived 2,000 years."
The interviewer mentioned the League of Nations. Purred the Tiger: "I thought we were talking about trees. How can you talk of the League when the weather is so sweet, the sky so clear and the oak so beautiful?"
A Polish imposter, who had duped ten French Bishops by pretending to be a prelate of the Roman Catholic Church, was exposed when he entered a railway bar at Saint Brieuc and ordered cognac. The bystanders gazed longingly, so the cleric cried: "Set 'em up for the crowd!" His popularity grew; and at the third round there were three cheers for His Grace. After the fourth round, the "priest" indulged in Rabelaisian tales which shocked even the Breton topers. An investigation followed; and the convivial host was discovered to have been formerly a lackey of the Polish diplomatic mission in Paris.
The Academy finished the first volume, A-H, of the dictionary of the French language begun in 1878. At a uniform rate of progress, it was estimated that the dictionary will be completed in 2022.
At 2 a. m. one black September night, Lisbon, capital of the Republic of Portugal, was startled from its sleep by the firing of seven large rockets. The signal for a Communist revolt had been given.
Hundreds of Communists immediately captured the arsenal, the War Office, the telegraph station, the Customs House. Then Republican troops came on the scene, surrounded all the captured buildings, forced the Communists to surrender by 5 a. m. Thus ended the three-hour revolt.
From the scanty reports that escaped through the mesh of the Spanish censorship, the war between the Moorish rebels under Abd-el-Krim and the Spanish forces under Director Primo Rivera appeared to be going from bad to worse for the latter.
The Spanish evacuated several gar
risons of great importance owing to the difficulty of maintaining supplies. No decisive fighting took place.
From a French source, the forces of Abd-el-Krim, "an able chief," were said to be inferior in numbers to the Spanish Army, which numbered approximately 60,000.
As far as could be ascertained, the tactics of the rebels is to avoid open attack on Spanish strongholds but to intercept communications, to rout Spanish convoys. Due to the fact that the Moors are excellent marksmen and that they are familiar with the country, their campaign plans were meeting with considerable success.
On the other hand, the forces under the ex-bandit Raisuli (subject of President Roosevelt's famed telegram: "Perdicaris alive or Raisuli dead"), who was recently made a Spanish Governor, were being mobilized for attack on Abd-el-Krim's forces. The Spanish troops were also being concentrated near Tetuan, capital Morocco.
In one of those screeching vehicles labelled S. P. Q. R. (Senatus Populusque Romanus)*, known also as "tramways," sat Fascist Deputy Armando Casalini with his 14-year-old daughter. As the trolley car moved off, a welldressed young man answering to the name of Giovanni Corvi jumped on the rear platform, drew a revolver, fired three fatal shots at Casalini, who fell forward and remained motionless despite the pathetically desperate invocations of his frightened daughter.
The assassin, having completed his ghastly deed, turned, jumped off the car, fell, picked himself up and made off, chased by an angry mob. Several shots were exchanged between chased and chasers, but without effect. Blind terror made Corvi's sprinting feat shame the legendary effort of Mercury. Faster and faster he sped over the uneven cobblestones of Rome, occasionally looking back at his angry pursuers. In such a moment, he ran full tilt against the muzzle of a loaded rifle, at the butt end of which was a stern
*S. P. Q. R. is derisively translated by northern Italians, who are industrious and detest the slothful Romans, as signifying: Sono porci questi Romani (these Romans are pigs).
"An able chief"
Italian soldier who ordered him to surrender; this he meekly did.
Meanwhile, the trolley had stopped; and Signor Casalini was removed to the hospital, where he died soon after.
At the police station, Corvi was identified as a carpenter whom his victim had often helped modestly in a financial way, when drinking to excess had lost him a job. He was said to be unconnected with any political party and it was generally supposed that his crime was the product of a diseased mind. Nevertheless, he stated that he had killed Casalini "to avenge my brother in idealism, Matteotti," murdered by Fascisti three month ago (TIME, June 25).
The deed aroused Italy, including most of the Opposition, to a fervor of indignation such as the Latin races alone are capable of displaying. Flags were at half-mast all through the Peninsular; places of amusement were closed; many shops had posted a notice on their closed doors: "Have closed as a sign of public mourning." Indignation heightened and sorrow became more profound when it was learned that the murdered Deputy was a poor man and had left a widow and five young children totally unprovided for.
Benito was quick and energetic to forbid any reprisals on the part of the Fascisti. Troops were confined to barracks and kept in readiness for any emergency; strong posses of police guarded all strategic points; cavalry bivouacked in many piazze of many
towns. In Rome and some other large cities, the public was treated to the novel spectacle of seeing the offices of the Opposition press, which had so hotly and often denounced Benito's régime, guarded by the black-shirted Fascist legions.
From his office in the Palazzo Chigi, Italian Foreign Office, Benito telephoned to the Prefects all over Italy, told them that he would hold them personally responsible for any disturbance that might occur. The Fascist Directorate, hierarchy of the Fascist Party, with Benito interpreting the role of Zeus, ordered peremptorily all Fascist leaders to keep the peace. No disturbances took place.
At the same time, the Fascist organizations were incensed at the bloody murder of their comrade, and roundly excoriated the Opposition for instigating the crime. The Opposition retorted that the Fascisti themselves had caused the murder by their violent methods. The bulk of the press, however, voiced a strong plea for an end of internecine party strife and a strong desire for a return to internal peace. The Giornale d'Italia took a non-partisan viewpoint of affairs:
"The murder of Deputy Matteotti had this untoward consequence, that it exasperated the passions of both sides till the country now lives in an atmosphere which is almost unbreathable, so red hot and full of poisons is it. The Italian people ardently wish peace and tranquility and insistently call upon every one to disarm, both materially and spiritually. But nobody disarms. The Opposition continues to deal blows, hoping to precipitate events; Fascism continues to believe that it must defend its position and its power like a conquered trench.
From Milan, Benito's paper, Il Popolo d'Italia, said:
"Though our indignation is profound and overwhelming, and though we disdain to stoop to reprisals and revenge, we cannot but shout our denunciation of the instigators of this atrocious murder, and especially of the Opposition press. It is three months that Fascism and its chief leaders are victims of a relentless daily campaign of insidious, vindictive, provocative, insincere attacks and insinuations. Our sense of discipline and our convictions lead us to endorse the appeal of the Directorate of the Fascist Party against reprisals, but we feel that it is not sufficient. The public opinion is most disturbed and demands reparation. It insists that our rulers take a series of steps which shall break this chain of revolting murders. Public life must not degenerate into a brawl."
Benito granted an 80-minute interview last week to King Vittorio Emanuele III, on the latter's return to Rome. Benito told his Sovereign what conditions were, and later issued a manifesto stating that order must be maintained.
Following an interview with Benito, Alexandre
Constantinescu, Rumanian Minister of Agriculture, declared that Italy and Rumania must coöperate. The usual alluring remarks were made about Italian development of the riches of Rumania and the hopes for an ItaloRumanian Treaty. In conclusion, Constantinescu said that the Rumanian monarchs, "King Marie and Queen Ferdinand," would visit Italy in the near future.*
"Down With Shame"
During the past week, a number of athletes, of both sexes, paraded Moscow streets. Men with bulging biceps and prominent pectorals walked with equally muscular maidens. The sole costume was a little apron and a red ribbon across the shoulders, bearing the inscription "Down With Shame." Infuriated crowds gave chase and the shameless ones found safety in police protection. The Red authorities said: "Don't do it again,
M. Luigi Criscuolo, head of the Manhattan Branch of the Committee for Montenegrin Independence, sent a memorandum to the League of Nations at Geneva requesting justice from that body for Montenegro, forcibly annexed by Yugo-Slavia in 1921. Points from the memorandum:
Nearly six years have elapsed since the question of the independence of Montenegro was first brought to the attention of the nations of the world.
There is no abatement in the practice of the Serbs in imprisoning, torturing and murdering Montenegrin men, in mistreating and even violating women, in persecuting old men merely because they have refused to swear allegiance to the new Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes and persist in maintaining that they are Montenegrins and that the sovereign rights of their country shall not be violated.
The ostensible object of the League of Nations is to prevent wars. For years, those who sympathized with the aspirations of the
A former visit was postponed (TIME, Apr. 7), following Benito's "insult" to Marie and Ferdinand by objecting to Rumania's attempt to repudiate all foreign commercial debts,
Montenegrin people have been pointing out to the world that the inhuman policy of the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes towards its minorities would only lead another struggle in the Balkans. The attitude of the Croatian separatists under M. Stefan Radich, of the Macedonian insurgents under Alexandrov, of the Montenegrin insurgents under the late Savo Raspopovich gives proof that the spark exists that can kindle another war, if it be not extinguished.
The League of Nations is hereby petitioned to appoint a Commission to investigate the condition of the minorities in the Balkansin Montenegro in particular-in order to ascertain the truth of the assertions which we have made, and with a view of conducting an impartial plebiscite in Montenegro at the earliest possible moment.
If it is possible for small nations to be forcibly annexed by large ones and no ob jection is forthcoming from an international tribunal such as is the League of Nations, then this is proof that civilization is declining rather than advancing.
There is no one question that would inspire more faith in the League of Nations and gain for it many thousands of adherents and supporters than an immediate solution of the question of Montenegrin independence. This is particularly so in the United States, where the question has been brought to the attention of the American public and has received srong support* by the press of the country which, while realizing the almost hopelessness of the fight, has, nevertheless, in many instances maintained that the forcible annexation of Montenegro by Serbia was a crime against humanity as well as against International Law.
Oust the Greeks?
Sat in Constantinople, former capital of the Ottoman Empire, a mixed commission to decide whether or not Greeks, resident in Constantinople before Oct. 30, 1918, should be deported. The commission decided that they should not.
Turks were angry, stated that in October they would oust the Greeks despite the ruling of the commission. Greeks were troubled, thought the Turks' threat might be carried out.
Two points of view are herewith juxtaposed:
The Greeks, most of whom are Levantines or Levant traders of a low order, have for long been the backbone of Turkish commerce. Having done much for Turkey in this respect, they naturally think they are justified in maintaining their right to trade in Constantinople.
The Turks, who are at present going through a Turkey-for-the Turks phase, have ever despised the lowly and, be it said, dirty Greek and other Levantines for their unscrupulous methods. Foreigners who visit the bazaars of Constantinople have noticed that it is always the Levantines who cheat and hardly ever the Turks.
ARABIA Hejamy Massacre
On the barren plains of Arabia was witnessed a grim tragedy.
The Wahabites of Nejd (central Arabian country without precise boundaries) descended upon the town of Taif, 70 miles southeast of Mecca, in the Hejaz, over which Hussein is Emir. According to a Mecca message:
"After having destroyed the tomb of Eben Abdarsi, they killed the people, respecting neither young infants nor the aged. In a word, all people were passed under the sword, including foreign subjects."
The message then contained an appeal to the civilized world: "We appeal to the League of Nations to put an end to these crimes and to take severe measures against this savagery, which makes humanity and civilization tremble."
Super-Tuchun Chang of Manchuria, over-lord of the Provinces of Fengtien, Kirin and Heilungkiang, allied with Dr. Sun-Yat-sen, of Canton and Tuchun Lu of Chêkiang. Driven from Peking, where he was Pooh Bah in 1922, by Super-Tuchun Wu, Chang seeks to oust Wu and President Tsao Kun and resume his lordly sway in the Capital. Like all Chinese leaders, he interprets his ambition as a step toward reunifying China. Possibly the whole trouble with China is that there are too many leaders trying to do the same thing. It was rumored during the past week, that he was being financed by Japan; but, naturally, this was denied.
Super-Tuchun Wu of Chihli, Shantung, Honan, Kiangsu, Shansi, Shensi and Szechwan, greatest power and most brilliant military genius in China. He is the military power of the Peking Government and is allied with Tuchun Chi of Kiangsu against Chang and his cronies. His precise strength was not known, due to the fact that it was not certain that all the provinces under his sway would permit themselves to be swayed his way. In China, as elsewhere, every man is first and foremost for himself.
President Tsao Kun, Tuchun of Chihli, all of which is now overlorded by Wu, is one of the Chinese wonders. Bordering upon 60 years of age, most of his career was necessarily made during the Manchu régime. It was, and still is, considered