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College, in its 63rd year, abandoned a precedent, allowed the freshmen to report the same day as other classes, instead of week earlier. The enrollment was kept down, as of late years, to 1,150. President Henry Noble MacCracken was heard in the college chapel, likewise Dean C. Mildred Thompson. The dominant innovation of the year was a "court of appeals" for student governmentteachers and taught holding the bench jointly.

At Washington, D. C., the Navy Department announced the establishment, at George Washington University and at St. John's College (Annapolis, Md.), of naval reserve officers' classes, the first of their kind in the U. S. in peace time.

At Clinton, N. Y.-Elihu Root, Hamilton '64, patriarch of U. S. law, delivered his annual oration to the students of Hamilton College (111 years old). Mr. Root holds the Chair of Hamilton's Board of Trustees. Said he: "Cultivate your taste to receive joy from a thing of beauty; cultivate your powers for the joy you may obtain from their employment; cultivate friendship and those other simple virtues which are SO commonly admired. No man is truly happy who must depend on outside things for his happiness. Success that is blazoned in the press and praised by all does not come from direct approach .. only from and by the development of stalwart manhood."

Purists Alarmed

Professors and purists were perplexed, dismayed for the future of the King's English in the U. S., when informed of a prize contest opened by the Daily News, Manhattan gumchewers' sheetlet, for contribution of "Slanguage." Said the News: "Sling The old slang is us some slanguage. falling like boulders on weary ears." The News published examples of the "conversational sour notes" it wished to ban: "It's the cat's meow!" "Tell it to mother!" "I'll tell the world!"

The News published some of the prize-winning "new and snappy" expressions: "You smart little son-of-aGump!" "You tell 'em concrete, I'm too mortarfied!" "She's a panic!"

Other new-coined ejaculations the News might have lifted from their currency on lower Broadway: "It's the ant's pants!" "He's such a wet smack he ripples when the wind blows!" (For bald men) "Put on your hat, you're all undressed!"

Purists Glad

Professors and purists were gratified, encouraged for the future of the King's English in the U. S., when

informed of an All-Comers' Cross Word Puzzle Tournament to be held in John Wanamaker's store under the direction of Ruth Hale, Robert C. Benchley, Heywood Broun, Gelett Burgess, John Farrar, Baird Leonard, Katharine Lane-all members of the "intelligenzia." Qualifying rounds were


He kept himself fit

to be puzzled through; a challenger was to be selected to engage William A. Stern II of Manhattan, "World Champion Cross Word Puzzler." A novel note was to be introduced into the festival by a special mixed doubles match, open to all amateur puzzlers. Final matches were to be staged on the platform of the store's auditorium with the use of mammoth blackboards, so arranged that contestants would not see one another yet would remain in full view of the audience. Prizes were offered by the New York Herald-Tribune.


Puzzler Stern won his title by winning a contest held in Manhattan, May 18, 1924. There were 200 contestants; and Puzzler Stern was the first to march to the Judges with his pattern of black and white squares completely and correctly filled. Soon afterward, in a testimonial letter to the publishers of the Cross Word Puzzle Books, he said: "The title

did not fall upon me from the clouds; nor was it owing to the use of any nostrum or patent remedy that I was able to carry home the coveted prize. I won because I kept myself fit with rigorous training. Your Cross Word Puzzle Book was the greatest individual factor in my victory. Constant use of it kept up my mental and moral fibre. . . .

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Plenary Indulgence

The history of the 650 years of the Holy Name Society (TIME, Sept. 22) was printed in 175 U. S. newspapers. It was retold in gorgeous pomp before 100,000 members assembled in Washington.

Not the youthful Archbishop Michael Curley of Baltimore but the venerable senior Cardinal-Archbishop William O'Connell of Boston was the centre to which and from which honor flowed. For the Boston prelate had been appointed Papal Legate by the Pope. Never before has a non-Italian been personal representative of the Pope in this country. The letter of pontifical authority began:

To Our Beloved Son, William of the Title of Saint Clement*, Cardinal O'Connell, Archbishop of Boston:

Our Beloved Son: Health and apostolic benediction.

Blessed is that people among whom is held in highest honor and in public devotion the Divine Name; for surely that people will be enriched by celestial favors and will progress prosperously along the road of happiness.


It concluded:

In order, therefore, that this happy event may bring forth, in the souls of all, worthy fruit, we grant to you, our beloved son, the privilege of blessing those present in name and of proclaiming a plenary indul gencet on the most solemn day of this re union under the usual forms and conditions.


Meanwhile, to all those who have given their aid to this important work of the convention, especially to Father Joseph Ripple, O.P., we gladly give our blessing, and as a proof of our particular benevolence to you, our beloved son, to other Cardinals and Bishops and to the clergy, likewise to the whole people of America, we lovingly impart in the Lord our Apostolic benediction.

Given at Rome at St. Peter's, the 30th day of August, in the year of our Lord, nineteen hundred and twenty-four, and of our pontificate the third.


The Cardinal Legate made a speech condemning radicalism. Holy Name men, said he, are "a great army in battle array, strong with the strength of God, a bulwark against anarchy." He concluded:

"And here under the protecting shadow of the dome which crowns the halls of national legislation, we salute at the same time the cross of salvation and the banner of our nation. And while we send over the wide ocean our signals of love, devotion and loyalty to him who sits upon the throne of the Fishermant, we send also our respectful salutations and our firm pledge of civic loyalty to the President of these United States."

President Coolidge said: "Your great demonstration . . . is a manifestation of the good in human nature, which is of tremendous significance."

So, after inspections and parades. masses, blessings of the Unknown

*Name of small church in Rome of which, as Cardinal, O'Connell is parish priest.

†Full removal of the poena, or temperal punishment, due the sinner after the culpa, or guilt. has been forgiven.

#Throne of St. Peter--according to the Gospels, a fisherman.

Soldier tomb, giving of prizes, repetition of clean-speech and clean-heart vows, the 100,000 dispersed to their homes.

Meanwhile, there was being prepared an almost equally gigantic celebration of the Holy Name in San Francisco in conjunction with the welcome-home to that great churchman, Most Rev. Edward J. Hanna, Archbishop of San Francisco, who, it was erroneously believed some months ago, would be created Cardinal this year.


Not every Bishop is a world figure. One is about to be.

To an episcopal throne will presently be elevated the Rev. Ernest W. Barnes, Doctor of Science, Fellow of the Royal Society, Canon of Westminster and onetime Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. He will become Lord Bishop of Birmingham.

Canon Barnes will shepherd the greatest industrial diocese in the British Empire and will sit in the House of Lords; but his greatness has greater radii.

It is widely conceded that the Reverend Bishop-elect possesses more scientific knowledge than any bishop or archbishop in the history of Christendom.

Secondly, Canon Barnes is probably the greatest inspirational

preacher in England today. It was a Congregational paper (Barnes is, of course, Anglican-equivalent of Protestant Episcopal in the U. S.) which declared that since Dr. John H. Jowett died (TIME, Dec. 31), no preacher has been able to create a queue outside a church-door in London except Canon Barnes.

Greatest scientist, greatest preacher, shepherd of the greatest industrial flock -such will be My Lord Bishop of Birmingham.

But the story is not all sweet. The most definite movement in contemporary English religion is the AngloCatholic, a movement which accepts much of Roman theology and which desires, on its own terms, "reunion" with the Roman Catholic Church. To this Canon Barnes is greatly opposed. Said he: "A reasonable system of faith and thought cannot be derived from the theories peculiar to AngloCatholicism. The earnestness and zeal of Anglo-Catholics only make the more pathetic the fact that their system is a hybrid, bred by fear in the Victorian era.* Its founders were

*Reference to John Henry Newman and the Oxford Movement. Newman and his enemy, Henry Edward Manning, went over to the Roman Catholic Church and became Cardinals; but today, most of the inheritors of the Oxford ideals remain in the Anglican Church. Newman had little influence in the Catholic Church, even as Cardinal: and Manning, ruler of English Catholics, had no sympathy with the reunion idea. Today, powerful Manning is forgotten; gentle Newman is remembered.

afraid of liberal theology. . . . In Latin Catholicism, the ancestral sacramental paganism of the Mediterranean races is veneered by Christian sentiment. To attempt to graft it on the English church is hopeless."

When it was first rumored that the King was graciously about to elevate Canon Barnes, his antagonists bellowed. Under the headline "As



Can a Christian eat caviar?

tounding Rumor," a leading AngloCatholic paper indignantly inquired: "Is the work of God to be threatened by a bishop from whom nothing can be expected but criticism and misunderstanding?"

The Anglo-Catholics have indeed a special grievance. Much of their strength lies in the laboring classes. Birmingham, a new bishopric born of the industrial era, was first tended (1905-1911) by Bishop Rt. Rev. Charles Gore (TIME, May 5), their brilliant and efficient ally. When Premier MacDonald recommended Canon Barnes for the post, they vigorously implored the King not to do the Prime Minister's bidding. The King refused to interfere. Barnes will be Bishop.

The faith of Canon Barnes, a Modernist, is generally described as childlike. He preaches the way of Jesus, His rejuvenative power, the life everlasting. With these themes, he fills churches.

The religious conflict in England differs totally from the U. S. squabbles over elementary science. English clergymen are amazed when they hear that some Americans object, for example, to the evolutionary theory.

They are incredulous when told that U. S. divines predict bodily resurrection despite chemical demonstration of the decay and dissolution of flesh. Englishmen overrode these difficulties 40 years ago. Now their troubles are chiefly two. First, economic: Can one Christian child of God eat caviar when another eats nothing? Second, organic: Is there one true Church? If so, where is it? Who is it? What is it?

Bishop-elect Barnes would probably say that the people who make the most Christ-like answer to the first question will not be bothered by the second.



Acres of Diamonds is undoubtedly the world's most famous lecture. It has been given by Dr. Russell H. Conwell, President of Temple University, Philadelphia, to 6,150 audiences. Dr. Conwell claimed last week that he had raised $12,000,000 for charity by this one lecture. At the same time, he announced that he, aged 81, never more would lecture.

The lecture begins with an anecdote which Dr. Conwell claims to have heard from a Persian guide who was taking him down the Tigris. An ancient merchant dreamt a dream of diamonds, acres of diamonds and, on awaking from sleep, went to a priest of Buddha to ask where he should go to find such riches. The priest told him that if he could find a river that flowed over white sand between high mountains, the bed of that river would be full of diamonds. The merchant sold his orchards, granaries, fields, gardens, and traveled "over all the world" until he died; but he never found the jewels of which, sleeping and waking, he dreamt; while the man to whom he had sold his mansion found diamonds in the stream that watered the garden, thus discovering the famed mines of the Golconda. Taking the thread of this tale, Dr. Conwell elaborated it with over 30 minor anecdotes. He quoted Bailey, the Bible, Garfield, Grant, Robert E. Lee, Rockefeller, Tennyson. In his delivery, he incorporated every known artifice of the pulpit, the stump and the vaudeville stage. He larded his sentences with such aphorisms as:

"He is an enemy to his country who sets Capital against Labor."

"Even if a rich man's son retains his father's money he cannot know the best things of life."

"We ought to get rich by honorable Christian methods; and these are the only methods that sweep us quickly toward the goal of riches."

Such statements he salted with catchy quips, shrewd witticisms. It is believed by some that great numbers of people owe their fortunes to having heard this lecture.

Rich Richard


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Such youngsters as the University of Lithuania also sent congratulations.

There were several hundred scientific speeches by men prominent in various fields of Science.

¶ Dr. W. D. Coolidge, assistant director of the research laboratory of the General Electric Co., told of developing a portable X-ray machine, weighing only 30 lb., which may be used in finding pipe and electrical connections in floors, examining jewels, finding contraband in luggage.

F. W. Peek Jr., consulting engineer of the General Electric Co., told of experiments with lightning, in which he found that the average charge of a bolt of lightning is 100,000,000 volts (about a million times the charge of electricity used for domestic purposes). Its destructive effect comes from the explosive suddenness with which it is discharged. If it could be stored in a storage battery it would drive an electric automobile for about five miles or heat an electric iron for a day. By experimenting with artificial lightning of about 2,000,000 volts, it was found that lightning does not always strike the highest object, except when that | object is 2.5% or more of the distance from the ground to the cloud. When the height of the object is 1.1% of the distance from the ground to the cloud, the chances of its being hit are about 50-50. Nevertheless, a man standing is 15 times more likely to be hit than is a man lying down. | Around every high object there is a safety zone within a radius of about four times the height of the objectfor example: If a flagpole stands 25

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He pleaded for the conservation of helium gas for use in dirigibles. He also foresaw a day when whole flocks of airplanes, guided by radio from a distant plane, would go forth to bombard enemy cities.

Prof. Dayton C. Miller, of the Case School of Applied Science, described the functioning of his phonedeik, an instrument which photographs sound waves.

Major General C. O. Williams, Chief of Army Ordnance, contradicted Major General Patrick, said that, while aeronautical attack has been rendered more deadly, defense has grown apace. He told of highspeed tanks, with guns mounted in turrets; of a new trench mortar more accurate in fire; of a new .50-calibre machine-gun to displace the old .30calibre weapon; of a new 75-millimetre field piece with a range of 15,000 instead of 9,000 yards; of new anti-aircraft guns with an accurate vertical range of 8,400 yards; of an increase in range of the 4.7-inch gun from 14,000 to 20,000 yards; of a new, and improved aircraft machine-gun having been perfected by John Browning; of a new 8-inch howitzer with a range of 18,000 instead of 11,000 yards; of a new smokeless and flashless powder, making artillery. spotting virtually impossible; of a new siege gun, mounted on a railway carriage, hurling a 1,600-pound projectile, and firing a shot every minute; of modern aerial bombs, six times as explosive as those used in the War. ¶ Prof. A. A. Michelson, of the University of Chicago, told of measuring the speed of light by revolving mirrors placed on Mount Wilson and on Mount San Antonio, 22 miles away, and expressed the belief that such light measurements might be used to supplant triangulation in some forms of surveying.

Arthur D. Little spoke on the "Fifth Estate," not the advertising business, which sometimes takes that title to itself, but "that small company upon whose creative effort the world depends for the advancement of science."

Toward the end of the session, a tablet was unveiled at the Bartol Research Foundation to commemor

ate the beginning of research work made possible by the bequest of the late Henry E. Bartol of $1,200,000.

Gorilla Eden

The reputation of the ferocious gorilla, long live his name, tempted a U. S. naturalist, Carl E. Akeley, of Manhattan, to pay him a visit some years ago. When Mr. Akeley came back, he exploded the gorilla myth.

The gorilla in his native haunts is not a monster of ferocity. He is rather a mild-mannered vegetarian, wandering around in the higher reaches of the equatorial mountains of Africa. His terrible war cry, so horrendously described by du Chaillu and other passionate French writers, was nothing but a rather pitiable, semi-human wail. He cannot be

made to fight unless cornered. Mr. Akeley, on one of his expeditions, took two women and a child up into the gorilla country without any danger. And big game hunters have been invading this country and killing the harmless creatures by the score, until now there are probably less than 2,000 in existence.

Mr. Akeley took the matter before the Belgian Ambassador at Washington, Baron de Cartier de Marchienne, and asked that a gorilla reserve be created in the Belgian Congo. The Baron placed the matter before King Albert. Last week it was announced by the Belgian consul at Baltimore that King Albert would create a gorilla reserve of 250 sq. mi. in extent, to be known as Parc National Albert, in a region which now harbors about 75 gorillas, a site selected by Mr. Akeley.

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The announcement read as follows:

"The Belgian colonial authorities are now laying off a large tract of territory in the Kivu district (the gorilla country), and this is to be a sanctuary for gorillas and for all other wild animals. Within these bounds not only the fauna but also the flora will be left undisturbed. Provision has been made for a sufficient number of wardens to prevent the intrusion of hunters and to prevent the des truction of plants or trees. The sanctuary will be a sort of Garden of Eden where the animals may live in peace, amid their natural surroundings, without fear of man. This reserve lies in the northeastern part of the Belgian Conge between Lake Kivu and Uganda. It embraces the three volcanoes of Mount Mikeno, Mount Karissimbi (altitude 13,500 feet) and Mount Visoke, comprising an area of about 250 square miles of high and healthful territory, with a variety of temperatures varying from the mild climate of the plains to the colder atmosphere of the mountain heights. Here our cousin, the go. rilla, may live in peace; and the scientists, disarmed. may come and study the living animal on his native heath."


The schooner Bowdoin nosed her way into Wiscasset, Me., and Explorer Donald B. MacMillan was home at last. He brought back data about the Esquimaux of Northern Greenland, and a geological description of that territory. His friends received him and his facts with open


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When books are reprinted, it is because their first editions were amusing, illuminative, significant or fascinating. Within the last fortnight, the Macmillan Co. reprinted The Glands Regulating Personality, by Louis Berman, M.D., Associate in Biological Chemistry at Columbia University. This book was first published in 1921, when professional respect for endocrinology still hovered in skeptical abeyance; and when popular acceptance of one of the Century's more important revelations did not proceed much farther than the glandular jokes to be heard on Broad


Currently, Dr. Berman's book is received with more intelligence. Publicists, parents and practitioners have been educated, in their respective planes of understanding, to look upon endocrinology as important, intimate, significant. When Dr. Berman describes the cretin, his hideous characteristics and precarious destiny, he is now sure of an attentive audience. When he elucidates the cures that have been wrought upon the cretin, he is now certain that society appreciates while applauding, and that medicos share his enthusiasm as well as his awe.

Few towns and villages have not their broken ragpicker, their derelict mower of lawns or sweeper of streetsbelly lurched out in a flabby bag, neck narrow and bowed to an ugly vertebrate knuckle, legs short and wobbly, feet flat and weak, head huge and misshapen, with drooling mouth, bleary, vacant eye, putty nose and unkempt thatch of hair. He is the "village idiot," the Tom o' Bedlam of an earlier day. His condition is answered for nowadays by Science as resulting from deficiency of the thyroid gland-a small vesicle in the neck that secretes a fluid essential to the vital development of nearly every part of the human organism. "Hands and feet are broad, pudgy and floppy; the fingers stiff, square and spadelike; the toes spread apart, like a duck's, by the solid skin. . . . Even the intelligence common to the higher animals is wanting. The cretins of the 'human plant' kind, as they have been nicknamed, will not recognize mother nor father nor any person about them, nor even a person from an object. . . Hunger and thirst they manifest by grunts and inarticulate sounds or by screaming."

Such are the cretins. But how few,

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suggests Dr. Berman, are aware of the transformation that has been wrought upon these wretches by modern Science. By furnishing the hormones, or vital gland secretion, in pill form, manufactured from the thyroid extract of animals, the village idiot has been reclaimed in thousands of cases. He (or she) rides on the trolley and subway beside you. He works at the next desk, exercises at the next machine, pours tea at any table, walks, talks, transacts, marries, yet is never detected unless somehow cut off, Antaeus-like, from the source of vitality. Cretins must continue their diurnal gland reinforcement or sink back to their deformed, subconscious state by slow, tragic degrees.

Dr. Berman carries his fluent discourse into the foundations of normal humanity, elucidating the rôles played in the body's character and development by the other ductless glands—the pituitary, adrenal, thymus glands and the gonads. He pictures the glands as an "interlocking directorate," traces the mechanics of masculine and feminine, the rhythms of sex, the backgrounds of personality. He proposes that "the individual is what his internal secretions make him."

"Hath Made Thee Whole"

A committee composed of eight physicians, eleven ministers, three university professors, one lawyer was appointed by the General Ministerial Association of Vancouver to inquire into the authenticity of alleged cures supposed to have resulted from faith. Three hundred fifty persons supposedly cured were investigated. Of this number, five seemed to be so distinctly benefited that at the end of six months they were still regarded as cured. Thirty-eight patients claimed improvement, and 212 could see no change in their condition, although at the time of the "anointing" they had been declared cured. Seventeen were distinctly worse; 39 had died; five had become insane.



In Manhattan, the Reorganization Managers of the Missouri, Kansas & Texas Railroad-J. & W. Seligman & Co. and Hallgarten & Co.-are asking for $2.364.249 including $750.000 for

counsel fees. They are represented Cravath, Henderson & De Gersdorff ard Larkin, Rathbone & Perry; and the I terstate Commerce Commission is hole ing a series of hearings to determine the "reasonableness" of these charges.


A number of prominent lawyers, it cluding Alfred Jaretzki, of Sullivan & Cromwell, and Edward Cornell, o Davies, Auerbach & Cornell, testified last week that they believed the coun sel fees of $750,000 were "reasonable" and paid a high tribute to the legal talents of the late E. C. Henderson. Jaretzki said he thought $500 a day was a reasonable fee and W. W. Mille pointed out that ex-U. S. Senator Jame A. O'Gorman, as referee in the Gould estate accounting proceedings, was being compensated at the rate of $65 an hour or $520 a day.

American corporation lawyers are, in some instances, unquestionably the highest paid professional men in the world Who's Who in America states the Samuel Untermyer was paid a fee of $775,000 for services in connection with the merger of the Boston Consolidate the Nevada Consolidated and the Uta Copper Companies. The late Lewi Mayer, senior partner of Mayer, Mye Austrian & Platt, of Chicago, is credite with having received at least one fee ci approximately $500,000. Both Messrs Untermyer and Mayer are Virginians by birth, and were born in the same year (1858).

Other corporation lawyers, who are known to have received princely fees are Frank Hamline Scott, of Scot Bancroft, Martin & Stephens, of Chicago; Richard Vliet Lindabury, of Newark, counsel for the U. S. Steel Corporation; Judge Henry Samuel Priest, of St. Louis; William Gibbs McAdoo, of Los Angeles.

: Fees in criminal cases have never been so high. Clarence L. Darrow received a fee of about $50,000, besides a liberal allowance for expenses, for defending the McNamara brothers (1911) in Los Angeles. This is generally believed to have been a record equalled only by the fee paid Delphin Michael Delmas in the first Thaw trial.

The Canons of Ethics of the American Bar Association provide, with respect to charges for legal services, that it is proper to consider: 1) the time and labor required and the novelty and difficulty of the question involved; 2) whether the acceptance of employment in a particular case will preclude counsel from appearing in other cases likely to arise out of the same transaction; 3) the customary charges for similar services; 4) the amount involved in the controversy and the benefits resulting to the client; 5) the certainty or the uncertainty of the compensation; 6) the character of the employment, whether casual or for an established and constant client.

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