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The crush at the gates of U. S. colleges and universities (TIME, Sept. 29) continued. On every hand record enrolments were reported. Many said this indicated a tremendous spread of the educational idea in the U. S., “a return to the days of Abelard." A few added: "But, of course, the natural growth of population also has a bearing upon this vast number of seekers after light."
At Cambridge, Mass., town folk watched the doors of a vine-clad chapel open, heard the strains of a Bach fugue issuing forth behind the students of Harvard University as they departed from the opening service of Harvard's 289th year.
Prompt to start publica
tion, the Crimson launched an early editorial at Harvard authorities for their "polished neglect" of Prof. George Pierce Baker, long the director of the 47 Wordshop (dramatics). The Workshop will be closed this year, its quarters having been reconverted for dormitory For Prof. Baker this means
At Boston, Dr. Lemuel H. Murlin, for 13 years head of Boston University, announced his departure from Boston "not later than Dec. 1" to accept the presidency of De Pauw University (Greencastle, Ind.), whence he was graduated in 1891.
At Providence, young men were described as ushers of a new era by President William H. P. Faunce as he ushered in Brown University's 161st year with a speech.
¶ At Northampton, Mass., "first chapel" at Smith College was dignified by the Faculty's academic robes, donned to inaugurate a new tradition. It was Smith's 53rd year. The college grounds were dignified by Grecourt Gates, erected since June, at the main entrance, to commemorate Smith's War unit.
At New Haven, the 224th year of Yale University found a new institute of psychology and a new natural history museum ready for use. At the one, Profs. Robert M. Yerkes (onetime member of the National Research Council) and Raymond Dodge (erst of Wesleyan), and Clark Wissler (Manhattan), will lecture. Into the other,
Yale's stuffed animals, pressed flowers, and labeled rocks will be transported and displayed for examination by the inquisitive.
In Manhattan, Columbia University enrolled some 35,000 for its 171st year. Dr. Nicholas Murray ("Miraculous") Butler led the academic parade along Morningside Heights, reminded those who listened to his speech in the Gymnasium of Columbia's beginnings in 1754 when Dr. Samuel Johnson selected eight young gentlemen for the first undergraduate body of King's College.
At State College, Pa., green skull caps bobbed hither and thither through the streets. Pennsylvania State University had opened.
At Princeton, N. J., President John Grier Hibben mounted to the rostrum of Alexander Hall and mildly berated his undergraduates for a falling-off in scholarship that took place last year. Said he: "What shall it profit a man to make the Triangle Club (dramatic society) and to drop out of Princeton?" It was Princeton's 178th year.
At Baltimore, Goucher College (for women) and Johns Hopkins University enrolled some 350 new students each. Goucher had added 22 to her teaching personnel. The famed Hopkins medical college limited its new class to 75.
At Lexington, Va., the doors of Washington and Lee University swung wide for the 175th time. In the absence of President Henry Louis Smith, still convalescent from motor injuries suffered in July, Dean Campbell delivered words of welcome and advice in the Robert E. Lee chapel.
At Athens and Atlanta, Ga., "College Nights" were occasions for speechmaking, singing, cheering among the undergraduates of Georgia State University and Georgia School of Technology.
¶ At Ann Arbor, Mich., the University of Michigan started another year with 13.000 undergraduates. In the medical school, an honor system went into effect.
What price a college education ten years after graduation? No statist'cal bureau in the world could answer the question. Nor were statistics on the Class of 1913 of Princeton University, published last week, at all indicative of what a college graduate may expect from the world in return for his having spent four years improving his mind. The faccountless; and Princeton, 1913, may have been an exceptional class, either for ability and helpful associations or for ineptitude and lack of helpful associations. Still, the
The Century for October contributed much food for the thought of parents and pedagogs on higher education in the U. S. It published speculations by one Irwin Edman, Assistant Professor of Philosophy at Columbia University. upon the mentality, moods and the painful dilemma of "Richard Kane," undergraduate of today, brother of "Ferguson-Rex," whose portrait appeared last month in the Atlantic Monthly (TIME, Sept. 22).
"Richard Kane" has often walked into Teacher Edman's office between April and June seeking surcease from the throes of graduation, wondering what he is to do with his awakened, sensitive self in a cold, hard world. Says Teacher Edman: "The problem of giving Richard advice would have been simplified if he were a genius. He isn't. He is simply one of a constant group who come to college and become genuinely attached to what its defamers call the higher life. He is, if you will, living beyond his intellectual income. He is a dilettante, an amateur. what he once ruefully called himselfa "Nearly." He knows good prose when he sees it; memorable bits of it haun him. But he has neither the flair nor the facility of a writer. He loves poetry without being in the least a poet. He 'gets' philosophy without being technically expert or agile or spiritually profound. He admires scholarship truly and yet has not the patience nor the exactness of the scholar."
For having got "Richard Kane" into this predicament, by half-fledging the wings of his spirit and not developing his practical mental legs, educators almost qualify, says Mr. Edman, for the title the Athenians gave Socrates"corrupter of youth." Not that Edman stands advocate for courses in horseshoeing, manicuring, potato culture or space-selling; but he sees a possibility for "following the example of certain recent journalistic enterprises"-combining both the cultural traditions and the practical discipline of educationand "retaining the best features of each,"
"There is a growing belief in some academic quarters that the day of the
old four-year college course is over. Following the high school, it is prophesied there will be two years of junior college, similar to the pre-professional work in our larger universities. After those two years, in character like the closing years of the French lycée or the German gymnasium, a student will naturally move into some line of special professional or scholarly training in the university."
College Girl's Mind
Other timely educational copy was to be found in The New Republic for Oct. 1.
Vida D. Scudder, Professor of English at Wellesley College these 14 years, briefly suggested the content of "The College Girl's Mind," by publishing some of the questions which students of hers, in a sociologico-literary course. asked before the course opened. As a teacher of some experience, Miss Scudder doubtless realized that many such questions are put with feigned seriousness and interest by students either in desperation or in an effort to impress their mark-giver. Still, Miss Scudder felt that there was something significant in the fact that "heads black, brown, yellow, straight and curly, bobbed and fluffed" could think up queries such as:
"Can we ever have perfect international understanding and preserve, at the same time, a love for our own country and a sense of its special importance?"
"Is communism possible? Can class distinctions ever be done away with?"
"Must we destroy what we have in order to start anew?"
"How far can the idealist compromise?"
What is the "relation of the college girl to the working girl?"
At Princeton, N. J., Dean Andrew F. West, President of the American Classical League, published the text of a report prepared by a committee of the League on the place now occupied by the study of Latin and Greek in U. S. education. Some points:
In 1923-24, of 20,500 secondary schools, 94% offered Latin-a larger percentage than the total offering all modern foreign languages combined. Nearly a million pupils were enrolled for these Latin courses. Over 22,000 teachers taught them.
Of 609 colleges, 234 offered beginning Latin; 470 beginning Greek; 237 teacher-training courses in Latin; 214 required to the A.B. course.
Asked for their attitude towards Latin, 39 of the 48 State School Superintendents declared themselves sym
pathetic toward Latin; 7 were neutral; 2 were unfriendly.
Toward Greek, 8 were friendly; 24 neutral; 16 unfriendly.
In the Country
A bulletin of the Bureau of Education related how one Martin, able farmer, had given up his land, had moved to town, had said: "The school business is what drove me off the farm."
"In Martin's state," said the bulletin, "the rural schools are handicaped, chiefly because of the small school district system and because of unscientific. methods of raising school revenues." More progressive states than Martin's contribute, in addition to income from a permanent school fund, extra appropriations for local school maintenance. In Martin's state, these extra appropriations come annually to only about 32% of the fixed school revenue.
The bulletin then pointed out that the legislatures of 42 states would be in session shortly. The moral was: "Vote more local school maintenance appropriations and keep the Martins on the farm."
Chicago public school teachers were told that class hours are for teaching, not for pow-wowing. Since September, 1922, it had been their custom to hold council meetings among themselves at when pupils were in school. Last week. William McAndrew, vigorous Chicago School Superintendent (TIME, Sept. 15), asked to know: 1) what advantage was lost by holding council meetings at other than school time; 2) what was gained by the teachers' excluding the Principals from councils. When Mr. McAndrew appealed to the Chicago Board of Education, showing that, though the teachers' meetings were valuable, the city's school time was worth $500 a minute, the Board sustained his objections. Hereafter, Chicago teachers will meet after school.
Most women can get the last word. Not all can get the correct word. A national crossword puzzle contest is no place for sisters of Mrs. Malaprop. To that notorious assassin of correct speech, however, Mrs. Ruth F. von Phul, Manhattan housewife and onetime Wellesley College student, last week proved herself no relation. At the national women's crossword puzzle championship, held last week in the auditorium of John Wanamaker's store, Manhattan, she was the first of 200 entrants to hand in a complete construction of the crossword puzzle proposed.
In an open qualifying round to select a challenger to meet William Stern II,
world's champion puzzler (TIME, Sept. 29), Mrs. von Phul was runner-up to C. F. Hunter, of Sound Beach, Conn. Before the challenge round was played, Hunter had to rush for his afternoon train. So Mrs. von Phul stepped to the blackboard,* climbed her ladder, chalked up a solution several consonants and a number of vowels ahead of Puzzler Stern. As world's champion, Puzzler von Phul was thereupon showered with puzzle books, dictionaries, medals, flattery. Said she: "I don't know where I got my skill."
Puzzler Stern and his wife (who advocates vocabulary jousts as an antidote to divorce) became national mixed doubles champions.
Boston University-stating that it is not merely an institution which exists in Boston, but an institution which exists for Boston-announced a fortnight ago a comprehensive group of law courses for the police officers of all cities and towns of Greater Boston. Under the direction of Dean Homer Albers and Prof. Melvin M. Johnson, these courses will be given by Charles Willock, Assistant Clerk of the Municipal Criminal Court of Boston; A. C. Webber, former Assistant District Attorney of Suffolk County; Capt. Louis Lutz, Drillmaster of the Boston police force.
In Massachusetts, a policeman of a city is a public officer holding his office as a trust from the State, and not as a matter of contract between himself and the city. Police appointments are referred to cities and towns by the legislature as a convenient mode of exercising a function of government.
Said the Boston Transcript: "A considerable part of the value of the training to be given will be in its upbuilding of the police officer's knowledge of his precise relationship to the community which he serves, both in its legal and its social aspects. It is quite as important that a police officer should know when not to make an arrest as when to make
This is true for several reasons. One is that a police officer, not the municipality appointing him, is liable in a civil suit for negligent or illegal acts. A verdict against him in a suit for false arrest might easily sweep away the savings of a lifetime.
*In world's championship crossword puzzle contests, the early rounds are played on paper, the finals on large blackboards.
One Dr. H. C. Weber, Presbyterian statistician, produced figures. Last year, said he, 87,632 people joined the church. But, said he, if the Presbyterian Church had been functioning proportionately as well last year as in any one of the years 1826 to 1834, it would have added 1/3,000 people to its roll. He declared that modern theological controversies were responsible for the small harvests, and called special attention to the work of Harry E. Fosdick, Baptist preacher in the Presbyterian fold.
Thereupon, one Dr. Harlan G. Mendenhall, Clerk of the New York Presbytery, produced figures.
"There are five leading Presbyteries in our church, which in their order, according to their membership, are Pittsburgh, Philadelphia, Chicago, New York and Los Angeles. The Presbytery of New York now numbers 38,497 members, which is a slight decrease over 1923, but the conservative Presbytery of Pittsburgh shows a like decrease in membership. There were fewer additions to the New York churches last year than in the preceding year, but the Presbytery of Philadelphia shows a similar decrease, as do those of Chicago and Los Angeles. The striking thing about these figures is that the Presbytery of New York, which has the smallest number of churches of the above group, received last year a larger average addition per church than the other Presbyteries."
With all these figures before them, the leaders of American Presbyterianism met in Atlantic City, laid plans for an energetic campaign. "The business of the church," said Dr. Henry C. Swearingen, Moderator of the General Assembly in 1921, "is selling the gospel, and there is danger that the church will forget that this is its principal task, and will become purely an ethical society or organization for the promotion of philanthrophy."
Dr. Sweringen is pastor of the House of Hope Presbyterian Church, St. Paul, Minn. Не was chosen campaign manager.
It became certain last week that Canada will continue to contain Presbyterians.
After long years of debate, Canada's Parliament passed a bill, last spring, officially uniting the Dominion Presbyterians, Congregationalists, Methodists. But each and every
church in each of the denominations may decide for itself whether or not to accept the union. It now appears that the number of Congregational and Methodist churches which will vote to remain outside the union will be insufficient to warrant the perpetuation of those two denominations in Canada. But of Presbyterians there are irreconcilables aplenty. Nearly a third of the Presbyterian churches will probably hold aloof from the union.
Meanwhile, the example of Canada is being preached throughout the world by advocates of church union.
Their Eminences. Cardinals O'Connell, Dougherty, Mundelein, Hayes, respectively Archbishops of Boston, Philadelphia, Chicago, New York, met together at Washington. Antiquaries searched the files, announced that never before had four American Cardinals assembled together.
Millions throughout the world abstained from work, pleasure, food; worshipped the God of Abraham, Isaac, Jacob; prepared to celebrate the high holy days of Rosh Hashana, Yom Kippur, Shmimi Atzereh; greeted the year 5685. Most of them were in the U. S.-Israelites of the circumcision. They recalled the days when Moses and Aaron and Joshua would say unto the twelve tribes: "Thus saith the Lord."
The mote-and-beam doctrine had its reiteration in a letter addressed by Tokutomi Kenjiro, famed Japanese littérateur, to U. S. missionaries, on the conclusion of the fourth decade of his Christian life. The Living Age republished from the Japan Weekly Chronicle:
DEAR AMERICAN MISSIONARIES IN JAPAN AND KOREA: It is high time that you went home, where you are urgently needed. Gardeners sent to work in neighbors' yards will find their own gardens covered with weeds upon returning.
Dear America! What a naughty boy you are growing to be! Prosperity has spoiled you; you have grown too fat to retain your tender sensibilities. You are too active, and have got out of control. You don't mean to be bad, after all, and you were born a good child. I love you all the same. But never theless you are too arrogant.
You are giving military drill to your girls. Shame! You are making military prep arations day and night. Against whom? Whom are you afraid of? Of Japan?
We want our American missionaries to re turn home and there to melt up all the heavy cannon to cast a statue of peace, to be erected, say, at the entrance to the Golden Gate.
(Signed) TоKUTOMI KENJIRO.
*The twelve tribes of Isreal are: Reuben, Simeon, Judah, Issachar. Ephraim. Benjamin. 'ebulun, Manasseh, Dan, Asher, Naphtali, Gad.
Foundations and Pineapples
There is a type of psychological test, by word associations, in which an examiner calls a work and the examinee answers with the first word that comes into his head. The chances are that if an average person were given such a test today and the word "Rockefeller" shot at him, he would reply either "rich" or "oil." But if the same thing were done a century hence, it is a good guess that the average person would answer "Rockefeller" with the word "foundation." Sic transit gloria pecuniae. So endure the benefits of science.
It was perhaps with this in mind that a New York millionaire set up a new foundation. He is Colonel William Boyce Thompson. He has an estate on North Broadway in Yonkers. Across the street from his home, he opened last week the first buildings of his foundation. The foundation is known as the William Boyce Thompson Institute of Plant Research. Thompson has endowed it with about $5,000,000. The buildings already erected-a research laboratory and greenhouses-cost about three-quarters of a million and are only the nucleus of a larger group to be erected.
The object of the Institute is to do for plant life what the Rockefeller Institute does for human life. It is to delve into the foundations of the science of botany, carrying on its work in pure science, from which it is believed in the long run that the greatest practical results will spring, Prof. Vernon H. Blackman of the Imperial College of Science and Technology of London, in a speech at the opening of the new building, indicated the significance of some of the work which the Institute will undertake.
The distinguished guests at the opening of the Institute included Dr. Leo H. Baekeland (TIME, Sept. 22), Joseph P. Day, E. D. Ball (Director of Scientific Work, Department of Agriculture), Arthur Brisbane, Will H. Hays.
A typical example of the kind of work that may be expected from the Institute was recently accomplished by Dr. William Crocker, the Institute's director. Nursing an anemic pineapple, a jaundiced, sickly, inarticulate pineapple, back to health was the task that confronted Dr. Crocker.
The chief pineapple plantations of the U. S. are in Porto Rico and Hawaii. In both, a disease has been afflicting the luscious fruit. It made their leaves yellow and sickly looking. It diminished the yield. Research discovered that this was a deficiency disease. The poor pineapples were starving for the want of iron, the ingredient which makes leaves green and promotes plant meta
regions affected was inspected, plenty of iron was found. Further research disclosed that the iron was made unassimilable to the plants, in Porto Rico by an excess of lime in the soil, in Hawaii by an excess of manganese. Experiments were made in feeding iron. It was found that 3,000 lbs. of iron sulphate per acre added to the soil made no difference whatever; the lime or ganese "locked it all up." But by taking 50 lb. per acre of the same iron sulphate, and spraying it on the leaves of the plants the desired object was accomplished.
Transferring the same method from the pineapple to the pine tree, similar results were obtained in Federal nurseries in the West afflicted with alkaline soil which brought about the same ironstarvation in pine seedlings.
Madison Avenue at 47th Street
Luncheon, Afternoon Tea
A Deep, Deep Well
The proposal to sink a deep shaft ten or twelve miles into the crust of the earth is not new. It has been advanced from time to time in recent years. Frequently it has been
coupled with a proposal to tap the interior heat of the earth for industrial purposes.
Last week, it was renewed by Sir Charles A. Parsons K.C.B., F.R.S., at a luncheon tendered him by the Engineers' Club of Manhattan. He suggested that the shaft be sunk purely in the interests of Science with no prospect of pecuniary profit. He suggested that it be twelve miles deep, and calculated that it would cost about $100,000,000. The expense of this huge undertaking he would have borne by those all over the world who are willing to contribute to the interest of Science.
After the luncheon he explained his project as follows:
"We don't know what there is down there and we ought to; that's the point. I have been doing preliminary experimentation for eight years and I am certain that such a shaft is a practical engineering project and that the only thing necessary to make it a reality is the money. It might be possible to go deeper than twelve miles.
"I would have the shaft 20 ft. in diameter and lined with granite, which experiments have shown would not fall in. The shaft would be sunk to different levels, in the same way that mining shafts are sunk, and it would be necessary, after we got down to a sufficient depth to have the heat pumped out. It is not a commercial project and there is no money to be made out of it by myself or any one else but, from a scientific standpoint, it should be undertaken as something equally as important as polar exploration. The spot where the shaft should be sunk ought to be determined by geologists."
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The mills of the gods of golf ground out some long-awaited grist. After eight fairly patient years of waiting, Robert Tyre Jones Jr., of Atlanta, last week won the national amateur championship.
Pink of cheek, blue of eye, modest of demeanor, he stood upon the 10th green of the Merion Cricket Club's West course at Ardmore, Pa., and received the cheers of 5,000 or more galleryites, the handshake of George Von Elm, youthful Los Angelist, whom he had defeated 10 and 8* in a ruthless final.
Golfdom had known that some such scene was inevitable, sooner or later. Ever since his first try for the championship (1916, also at Merion), Jones had stood close to the head of the title-waiting line. Last year golfdom's estimate of him as the leading U. S. amateur medalist was verified when he won the open title. Last week, golfdom's shadow of doubt about him as a match-player was dissipated when he beat W. T. Thompson (Canadian champion) 6 and 5; D. C. Corkran (Gold Mashie winner, tournament medalist) 3 and 2; R. E. Knepper (onetime Princetonian, demon putter) 6 and 4; Francis Ouimet (onetime amateur and open champion, clock-work putter, inexorable match-player) 11 and 10; then Von Elm.
Max Marston, defending champion, survived until the semi-final. There Von Elm trampled him, 7 and 6, into his native sod. W. L. Hope, of Turnberry, Scotland, was longestlived of the British entrants; but it was in the second round that Dexter Cummings, intercollegiate champion, did away with him.
Over the Alps in Italy lay the heavyweight boxing championship of Europe, secure in the possession of fierce Erminio Spalla. Undaunted, huge Piet Vanderveer of Holland journeyed to Milan, undressed, put on his fighting gloves, attacked the champion. An enormous crowd of Italians, no less demonstrative than most of their countrymen, loosed vociferous cheers as first one big man and then the other launched staggering blows. Piet rushed the fight. Erminio beat him back. On came Piet again, pummeling, fighting close. Erminio thumped him solidly. By the 20th round honors stood even. Then Erminio fell upon brave Piet in a final burst of violence, won the decision, retained his title. The crowd made known its pleasure.
*All matches in a National Amateur Championship are at 36-holes.
Epinard, prize package of French horseflesh, cantered to the post of the Aqueduct (L. I.) racecourse, stood patient while five of the fleetest steeds in the U. S. milled about beside him. They were to run a mile and see who finished first. Finally aligned, the six were signaled "Go!"
Off they bolted, Major August Bel
mont's Ladkin on the rail, then Epinard, then Wise Counsellor (Epinard's conqueror at Belmont Park on Labor Day), then Zev, Little Chief, My Own.
Sweeping the turn, streaking down the backstretch, Epinard's chestnut, head showed the way. Inch by inch Wise Counsellor moved up abreast, ahead. Came Ladkin farther out, little by little; then he too was ahead. On the turn Epinard was seen to slow up, veer right, flatten out again in a dash for the outside after losing four lengths. Jockey Haynes had feared a "pocketing," but his caution was costly. Racing through the home stretch Epinard was one heart-breaking stride short of Ladkin at the finish.
Major August Belmont, Ladkin's owner, was in receipt of $28,750-the purse for International Special No. 2. Gratified, said Major Belmont; "What can a man say? What can a man say who has just 'won so great a triumph?"
Said Pierre Wertheimer, owner of Epinard: "I believe my horse should have won the race."
Said Jockey Haynes, whose over-cautious riding turfmen blamed for the French stallion's second U. S. defeat: "It was a shame."
A new locality was printed, definitely, unmistakably, upon the polo map of the U. S. Besides Long Is
land, Rumson, N. J., Buffalo, Chicago and possibly Boston and Philadelphia, there is now Los Angeles, writ large.
Those responsible were the purpleshirted followers of Captain "Carty" Burke, of the Midwick Country Club. With Eric Pedley heading the attack, they fell upon the Wanderers, a team captained by Thomas Hitchcock Jr., famed internationalist, in the finals of the national open championship at Meadow Brook, L. I., and bore off the title 6 goals to 5. Hitchcock, relying on Louis E. Stoddard, onetime internationalist, at back, twice tied the count with spectacular effortsone a blow from midfield. At the desperate finish, his play was "as a wild man's," but without support. The Midwicks rode together, gave Pedley's brillance a solid setting.
Last month the Midwicks swooped upon the national junior title in finals played at Rumson.
Not since 1914 and the Meadow Brook Magpies had junior champions won the open title as well.
Another year of professional baseball reached its denouement. At the Polo Grounds, Manhattan, Manager McGraw and his "Giants" made their supremacy of the National League a mathematical certainty by banging out a 5-to-1 victory over Philadelphia. At Shibe Park, Philadelphia, the Washington "Senaators" fattened their percentage at the expense of Manager Connie Mack's once-famed "Athletics," and lifted the American League pennant beyond the reach of the New York "Yankees" (1923 world's champions). For the first time in four years, the World's Series was thus rendered other than an all-New York affair.
The Giants' four years of plenty (a *Forty-five years or more.