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"Mrs. Donahey is a peach. She's had twelve children-ten are living-and she's listened to Vic's banging since 1897. . . ."
J. A. O. Preus of Minnesota. "But Jake doesn't laugh at politics. He takes it as seriously as most people take mah jong; and he plays the game day and night. 'He's the best d- office-holder in the world,' one of his political opponents told me. He never leaves his desk until everything is cleaned up and in good shape. Then he'll go out and address 40 million picnics, and arrive at every one on time. When it comes to political meetings, Jake's a regular Paul Revere."
John Blaine of Wisconsin. "At the election in November, Blaine of Boscobel received 336,000 votes; his opponent a little more than 100,000!
"That's a great record!' I exclaimed.
"What? Mine?' laughed the Governor. "That's nothing compared with Calamity's-Calamity Mechtilde De Kol, I mean-why, her record shows 28 pounds of butter in seven days, and if she hadn't been such a delicate feeder'
"John,' put in Mrs. Blaine sweetly, 'Mr. Collins came to see us, not our cows.'
"And I never did hear about Calamity's indigestion."
Percival Baxter of Maine. "The Governor is a character. Bachelor. Tall, strong and pink. Forty-six or 47 in the record books, but much younger with his hat on. Just a nice age!' as one Maine woman expressed it. Rich, too. It's a shame he isn't married. But I looked vainly in his office and study and bedroom for a sign of an impending romance. On his desk are 23 ivory images,-dogs, elephants, lions, rabbits, ducks, lizards, eagles, horses, cats and one 'hanatonosawaemikaarima'-but no women."
Gifford Pinchot of Pennsylvania. "Mrs. Pinchot's blue slippers and silken ankles appeared at the top of the stairs -quite the smartest slippers and the nicest ankles I have ever seen in an Executive Mansion. As she descended rapidly, drawing on an Egyptian sweater over her American house-dress, I could see that she was tall, like her
husband, and slender, too; but of stately slenderness-not a lanky one like Gifford's. . . . She is a beautiful woman, Cornelia Pinchot, with a strong body and a stronger face, and a deep, room-filling voice which manages somehow to be inconsistently feminine; and she is not afraid to be intelligent. I liked her. But, then, I am no judge. I always did like red-haired women."
George Silzer of New Jersey. "George Silzer has brains-enough to be a lawyer and a judge, enough to amass a considerable fortune; he has a character-enough to be a big man in the legal, financial and religious life of his State; he has culture-enough to talk
You'd never think I'd bait a hook.
You'd never think I'd any fun.
""The first two charges were true,' he told me, as we walked under the shade-trees from the Capitol to the Governor's mansion. 'I don't smoke. And I don't drink. Not even coffee or tea. Just water and milk.""
Friend W. Richardson of California, "As he talks, especially as he becomes interested in one of his favorite topics-economy, for instance-he looks out at you from under extraordinarily heavy eyebrows, and his eyes snap and his brows twitch. He buries superficial crudities under a river of picturesque language, which flows from a mountain of facts. Suddenly, you do think that he's the Governor, and you understand how it is that in the end he 'gets' 'em."
Louis Hart of Washington. "First he was a lawyer; then an insurance agent; for 14 years he was secretary of the Odd Fellows in the State of Washington. He joined the Maccabees and the Elks, the Masons and the Red Men, the Ancient Order of United Workmen; in fact, he joined everything that came to Washington. He never made any money, but he made a lot of friends. He became 'Brother Hart' to thousands of his fellow-citizens. And after a while he loomed up as a good man to have as LieutenantGovernor. But nobody thought of running Louis Hart for Governor-and nobody ever would-if Governor Lister hadn't taken ill and abdicated, leaving the office to easy-going Louis."
"A League with teeth in it" has long been the battle cry of those who are dissatisfied with the present League of Nations structure. Last week's closure of the Fifth General Assembly of the League of Nations at Geneva, in which 55 nations took part, showed that the teeth have begun to grow.
Unrest. It is a fact that, with the downfall of the Central Empires at the conclusion of the War, occurred the downfall of Europe. The whole Continent needed regeneration. What was the new Europe to be like? The signs and portents were that it would not differ materially from the old. France, with enlightening logic, impinged on the cornerstone. "I must have security," said Marianne.* Then Britain and the U. S. declined to sign an alliance with France to protect her against aggressive warfare. The builders of the edifice caught the cry of France. "Security," called CzechoSlovakia. "Security," reëchoed the small nations of the earth. "Disarmament," voiced the idealists. Then the gruff roar of Great Britain rolled out the word "Arbitration." But the cornerstone remained the only part built of the new Europe that everyone wanted.
A year ago, Lord Cecil became the chief designer of the architectural plans. He drew a scheme (TIME, Aug. 20, 1923), by which nations should be grouped in accordance with They their geographical situation.
were then to conclude treaties, promising each other assistance in case of armed aggression. "Pooh," remarked John Bull, "I don't think much of that." "Blah," grunted Uncle Sam as he folded it up and lit his pipe with it.
The "American Plan." "Now then, gentlemen," was the figurative saying of Prof. James T. Shotwell of Columbia University to the Council of the League of Nations last June, "you are mistaken. What you really ought to do is to outlaw war." Here the Professor's nine coadjutors clapped a hearty endorsement. "American Plan" (TIME, June 30), while by no means a perfect instrument, was the first to have any actual elements in it. For example, it:
1) Defined aggression as meaning a concerted action taken by a State in defiance of
Allegorical personification of France. Cf. John Bull, Uncle Sam.
a ruling or summons made by the Permanent Court of International Justice at The Hague. 2) Made that P. C. of I. J. the executor of the plan.
3) Laid down rules for enforcing, in the first place, economic and, in the second place, military sanctions (punitive measures) without in any way infringing upon the sov ereignity of individual nations.
4) Made the plan open to members and nonmembers of the League.
5) Provided for periodical conferences on disarmament.
In the Halls of Peace at Geneva, the American Plan received marked favor; for it had been read by every statesman in Europe worthy of the name, and all found it good.
Fifth Assembly. When the Fifth General Assembly met at Geneva (TIME, Sept. 8) it had many matters of routine to dispose of. There were thorny problems to solve; but all these things were as nothing compared to the task, which had been set, of drafting a plan for the building of new Europe and the renovation of the rest of the world. Two great speeches from Premiers Ramsay MacDonald of Britain and Edouard Herriot of France indicated that the building was to be in the style of arbitration, security and disarmament. The chief draftsman was no longer Lord Cecil; Dr. Eduard Benes was the man nominated for the post; and his ideas were largely synonymous with those of Prof. Shotwell and his colleagues.
There was already a plan in existence aiming at the maintenance of world peace ad infinitum. This document was called the Covenant of The League. The new ideas, it was decided, should not interfere with the Covenant, but should reinforce it. A protocol to the Covenant was the method adopted of putting the new ideas into effect. It was early decided to reserve the matter of disarmament for a special international conference to be convoked at Geneva on June
Protocol. All during September, the drafsmen labored on the protocol and then presented to the Assembly an elaborate document of 21 articles -21 teeth that are to make the League's bite mightier than his bark. Ex-Premier Aristide Briand of France, chief French delegate to the Assembly, asseverated:
"I declare to you, it is the most precious moment of my public life, this in which I stand before the nations of the world and say to them,
in the name of France, that she has placed upon the protocol her signature."
Forty-seven states followed France's lead in signing the protocol; all of them had something high and idealistic to say.
Protocol Analyzed. Analyzed, the protocol is an elaboration of the "American Plan" submitted by Professor Shotwell and his associates. Thus, it is somewhat of a paradox that the nation which has, perhaps, contributed more to the theoretical banishment of war is the U. S., which is not a member of the League. The protocol is based on the principle of obligatory arbitration. Members and non-members of the League can endorse its terms; all become aggressors if they either fail to take their dispute to the League or ignore a League or P. C. of I. J. ruling. The Council of the League is empowered to exert economic, financial, naval and military sanctions against any aggressor nation, member or non-member alike. The amount of economic, financial, naval or military support to be given by the member nations, in the case of what might prove to be a League war, depends upon the amount of assistance demanded by the Council and upon the amount the member states are able or willing to concede.
Before the Assembly closed, Japan carried an important eleventh hour amendment. The League may, according to its terms, consider matters "solely within domestic jurisdiction" of a state. Thus a state under this amendment, is an aggressor only if it disregards the verdict of the League or has not previously submitted the question to the Council or Assembly." This means (theoretically) that the U. S. must now bow to the decisions. of the League or challenge the whole League Army. "Either there are to be no wars or future wars are to be bigger and better in every way." Other business transacted before the Fifth Assembly adjourned:
¶ Belgium, Brazil, Czecho-Slovakia, Spain, Sweden and Uruguay were elected to the non-permanent seats on the Council for the year 1924-25. When the result of the elections was made known, the entire Chinese delegation arose as one man, left the auditorium. They thought that, as China is one of the greatest Asiastic Powers, she ought at least to be entitled to a seat on the Council.
COMMONWEALTH | Kingsley Wood, Conservative, gratuit
(British Commonwealth of Nations)
In Parliament, strenuous efforts were made by the Conservatives and the Liberals in preparation for causing the downfall of the Labor Government by carrying votes of censure.
Conservatives. The Conservatives decided to move a vote of censure condemning the Government for abandoning prosecution for sedition against J. R. Campbell, acting Editor of the Communist daily, The Workers' Weekly.*
Liberals. The Opposition brought a number of questions concerning Russian affairs to the attention of the Government. Ex-Premier Asquith's motion for the rejection of the AngloRussian Treaty was also laid upon the table. The motion read:
That this House will be ready to support any practical and businesslike steps for promoting Anglo-Russian trade and for protecting British interests in Russia and to approve the use of export credits and trade facilities for assisting trade with Russia on the same terms as with other foreign countries and our dominions; and, while welcoming a definition of fishing areas and fishing rights on the Russian coast, it is unable to approve the treaty which, instead of providing a genuine contribution toward solving the problem of unemployment, threatens to divert resources which are urgently needed for national and imperial development; and which, amongst other objections, contemplates that the British taxpayers should be made liable for further loans to the Russian State, raised by means of the guarantee of the British Government as a condition upon which any part of the private claims of certain British creditors should be recognized or met by the Soviet Republic.
During the season, when a statement was read saying that the Prime Minister had announced that he would be no party to increasing his own salary as First Lord of the Treasury†, Sir
*On July 25. The Workers' Weekly published an article entitled An Open Letter to the Fighting Forces. This letter was virtually an incitement to mutiny. Sailors, soldiers, airmen were advised "to form committees in every barracks, aerodrome and ship, to refuse to shoot down your fellow workers, to refuse to fight for profits and to turn your weapons on your oppressors." They were told: "The next war is being prepared; and you will be sent to shoot, shell or bomb French or American workers in uniform. You are workers yourselves. Why do it?"
J. R. Campbell was arrested on Aug. 5 and charged at Bow Street Police Court with inciting mutiny. The trial was scheduled for Aug. 13, but the Public Prosecutor offered no evidence and the case was dismissed.
It was alleged that "for the first time in England's history, the course of Justice in the law courts had been changed by outside political forces." Sir Patrick Hastings, Attorney General, questioned in the House, said that the case was dropped because Campbell was a responsible editor and therefore conviction appeared to be unlikely. That he did not wish to dignify the Communisists by martyring them was the follow-up he offered.
Conservative and Liberal newspapers joined forces in denouncing the Government's action in interfering with the course of Justice.
†Premiers of Britain usually hold the office of First Lord of the Treasury jointly with that of the Premiership. The Premiership is unpaid and Premiers have to depend upon other office for a salary. Premier MacDonald is also Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, but does not receive any pay as such.
ously asked: ". . . whether before that decision was arrived at, consideration was given to the fact that the present holder of the office had found the emoluments of his office insufficient and had to go to a private concern?" (TIME, Sept. 22).
"Dirty! Dirty!" cried angry Laborites, shaking their fists.
"Dave" Kirkwood, fiery Clydeside Laborite, stretched his index finger and pointed with scorn to the rash knight: "That," said he, "is a gentleman”; and there was no mistaking the grinding
The hubbub grew wilder and wilder until the Speaker arose. "I must insist," he warned the Laborites, "on honorable members allowing me to conduct the business of the House. I will not continue unless I have proper support." He then rebuked Sir Kingsley for having put a supplementary question which could not appear on the
The Conservative motion was considered almost certain of defeat and the Liberals were expected to support the Government. But on the issue of the Anglo-Russian Treaty, the Conservatives and Liberals agreed; neither will support the Government. The Treaty was, however, not expected to come up for debate until November; and the indications were, despite the antipathy to a general election, that the Cabinet of Mr. James Ramsay MacDonald would fall and that the King would dissolve Parliament.
"What terrible weather you English have," said Egyptian Premier Zaghlul Pasha to Premier MacDonald.
"Yes," replied MacDonald, "the political elements always get aroused about this time of the year." "I think I must go now. Your soldiers in Cairo will be expecting me back."
"Well, I'm terribly sorry I couldn't do anything for you. Come again sometime when we're having better weather."
It was reported from London that the Anglo-Egyptian conversations* between Premier MacDonald and Zaghlul (TIME, Oct. 6) had broken down. The latter was unable to obtain any concessions from the British Premier, so, "in view of the in
clement weather and in anticipation of the meeting of the Egyptian Parliament in November," Egypt's Premier decided to quit Britain's shores.
It was generally assumed, owing to the uncertainty with which the British political situation was fraught, that Premier MacDonald was unwilling to make any promises in connection with a modification of British policy in Egypt or with a revision of the Anglo-Egyptian condominium of the Sudan. This implied that the next Government might not recognize any arrangements made by him.
Lords and Commons assembled at Westminster to pass legislation that is to authorize the Government to appoint a delegate for Northern Ireland on the Irish Boundary Commission (TIME, Aug. 11, Oct. 6).
Second Reading. The second reading (the first was before Parliament adjourned) of the Irish Boundary Commission Amending Bill was moved by Premier MacDonald. He said in his speech that "everything would be done" to bring about a compromise between the Free State and Northern Ireland before the bill became law. Meanwhile, he contended, the measure must be passed because Britain's honor was at stake. Then, paying a pretty compliment to the Conservatives, he asseverated:
"The fact that recently there has been no party decision on Irish affairs is an immense achievement, which has been mainly due to the Unionists; because, in the face of real difficulties, they have made it easy for the Government to follow the policy they initiated in the pacification of Ireland.”
After speeches by ex-Premier George and ex-Chancellor of the Exchequer Austen Chamberlain, the bill passed its second reading by 291 to 124 votes.
Committee. The House went into committee; and the bill was read for a third time and carried by a vote of 251 to 99. The bill was sent to the Lords.
Lords. The House of Lords was expected to amend the bill and send it back to the Commons. This is to give the Conservatives a chance to vote for the amendments (which have no chance of being carried), thereby placing the responsibility for the bill entirely on the shoulders of the Government. The bill is then to be sent back to the House of Lords in its original form; but their lordships, satisfied that the onus of responsibility is not shared by Conservatives, will pass the bill, which will then
become law after the Royal Assent has been obtained.
That the Irish crisis will, however, be intensified by the passage of the Boundary Amendment Act was the opinion of competent observers.
Whatever the decision of the Boundary Commission may be, it will fail to please Northern Ireland, unless the Commission confirms the boundary as it is at present delimited. In the latter case, the Free State will probably revolt against the Government. However, the finding of the Commission is much more likely to be one that will please neither side. In this event, Northern Ireland will appeal to the Privy Council on the ground that the decision of the Commission was ultra vires. The issue will then be up to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council, whose decision will be final, because it is the highest court of appeal in the realm.
M. Etienne Clementel, Minister of Finance and le Senateur de Puy-deDôme, presented to the Finance Committee of the Chamber of Deputies the budget for 1925. A feature of the new proposals is the retention of Premier Poincaré's hated 20% tax increase (TIME, Jan. 28). No loan was suggested, although it had been widely circulated that one would be asked for.
Expenditures reached the record figure of 32,500,000,000 francs (about $1,700,000,000); receipts amounted to only 26,500,000,000 francs (about $1,400,000,000). The difference-about 6,000,000,000 francs-is to be met by rigorous enforcement of the income tax law and the imposition of a new tax on land values.
Included in the expenditure column is 700,000,000 francs (about $37,000,000) for increased pay for state employes (one fourth of what they asked); the cost of the year's reconstruction of the devastated regions; 1,000,000,000 francs ($53,000,000) to take care of obligations maturing during the fiscal year.
It was claimed that France would have, for the first time in ten years, a balanced budget. That was not entirely the truth. Among the credits appeared an item of 800,000,000 francs (about $42,500,000) expected from the Germans under the Experts' Plan. In the past, France has theoretically balanced her budgets by crediting payments from Germany that were never made. The present budget is following a precedent, not creating one.
Finance repeated the well-known proverb: "Don't count your chickens before they are hatched."
In his speech to the Committee, M. Clementel said:
"It marks the end of the policy of raising loans to meet normal chargesa policy which threatens to engulf France in financial quicksands. Once the deficits due to previous budgets have been regulated by a loan of liquidation, any appeal to the national thrift must have but one object-consolidation of the floating debt and completion of the restoration of the devastated region. . . .
"Thanks to the plan of the experts and the London Agreement, France can today hope to see Germany at last execute the engagements she has solemnly taken. The Allies will watch over the execution of these engagements. Germany's payments are steadily growing and henceforth are definitely fixed. They should, when the plan is fully working [in about two years], provide funds for the redemption of war loans and permit a policy of financial reformation that will gradually give our national money back its value and so reduce the cost of living."
A reprint in The Living Age from the Report of the British Commercial Counselor at Paris upon the present
economic condition of France made the following points:
"The entire population of France is in full employment.
"Production has been consistently retarded by the dearth of labor; and, for the last year, more than 6,000 immigrant workers have been arriving every week.
"For all practical purposes of mere industrial output, the reconstruction of the devastated areas is terminated.
"The total coal output of the damaged or destroyed mines will soon exceed the pre-War figure.
"The yearly production of coke is now nearly two million tons more than in 1913."
German Trade Parley
Representatives of France and Germany met at the Quai d'Orsay (French Foreign Office) to negotiate a trade treaty.
These negotiations are made necessary by the termination, next January, of the trade relations between the two countries as expressed in the Treaty of Versailles. Their importance may be considerable. On both sides are men who avowedly sponsor a great steel trust. In France's Lorraine are found Europe's greatest iron deposits; in Germany's Ruhr Valley are the greatest deposits of coal. An agreement to abolish the duties upon iron ore entering Germany and upon coal entering France would have but one effect: France and Germany would be able to undersell their foreign steel competitors.
Chancellor Wilhelm Marx was confronted with the greatest political enigma that has yet crossed the threshold of his career.
At the time that the Experts' Plan legislation was passed by the Reichstag (TIME, June 16), support from the moderate Monarchists was obtained by promising them seats in the Cabinet. The greatest supporter of this compromise was Dr. Gustav Stresemann, Foreign Minister and leader of the Volkspartei (People's Party). He argued that the inclusion of the Monarchists was most desirable from every standpoint: First, the Government should honor its promise; and second, Mon
archist Ministers in the Cabinet would be a real step toward linking the past with the present.
The Chancellor was not of the same opinion. He thought that Monarchists and Socialists should be admitted in equal numbers. In an interview, he said:
"The reason for this was an ultimatum from the People's Party - a member of the present Government coalition most friendly to the Nationalists [Monarchists]-threatening to 'reserve its liberty of action' unless other parties forming the coalition consent to the admission of Nationalists into the Government."
The position was this: The Socialists refused to join the Cabinet if the Monarchists were admitted; the Monarchists refused to join if the Socialists were to be represented. Foreign Minister Stresemann threatened to secede from the Government coalition unless Chancellor Marx gave the Monarchists the promised seats. The Chancellor wished to admit both Monarchists and Socialists into the Cabinet. The enigma defied solution. Resignations, dissolution of the Reichstag, with consequent general elections, were hinted. Herr Wirth, onetime Chancellor, and Herr Breitscheid, a Socialist leader, were mentioned as prospective Chancellor and Foreign Minister, respectively. Only one thing remained clear: Something had to be done. Beyond that, the future declined to speak.
All week long negotiations proceeded between Dr. Hjalmar Schacht, President of the Reichsbank, Dr. Hans Luther, German Finance Minister, and U. S., British and Continental bankers regarding the flotation of the $200,000,000 loan to be made Germany under the terms of the Experts' Plan.
It was expected that $100,000,000 of the loan would be placed in the U. S., $70,000,000 in Britain and the remainder on the Continent. Final terms were not published.
On one ground or another, hostility to the loan was evinced in London and Paris; and rumors were spread that the loan might not be successful. In plain point of fact, the loan is certain to be successful if for no other reason than that J. P. Morgan and British bankers have endorsed it. Probably it will be oversubscribed.
General Degoutte is a hero to the French. His War record and the stern efficiency of his rule in occupied Ger
He is a hero in France
many as Generalissimo of the FrancoBelgian troops combined to endear him to French hearts. In Germany, however, he was one of the best hated men among the hated "invaders."
Last week, a Mainz-Mannheim express steamed out of Mainz station and a few minutes later, in a tunnel, a local train crashed into it, "turning the tunnel into a smoky, gas-filled hell."
To the scene of the wreck rushed General Degoutte, the French Bishop with the occupation army and the German Bishop of Mainz. While the General personally directed rescue work, the two Bishops administered last rites to the dying.
In a vast uncharted Arabian desert are sixteen different states.* Some of these countries move whenever their inhabitants decide to strike tents. Some, again, are half settled-that is to say, the inhabitants roam about and return to a fixed settlement. Others are more or less fixtures. In a country of this nature, where whole states are moved on the backs of camels,
*The 16 States of Arabia:
Kingdom of Iraq; French Mandate of Syria; Kingdom of Hejaz; Emirate of Nejd and Hasa; Emirate of Jebel Shammar; Principate of Asir; Imamate of Yemen; British Protectorate of Aden; Sultanate of Oman; Sultanate of Koweit; Emirate of Kerak; Emirate of Bab-el-Mandab; Emirate of Lahj; State of Hadramaut; Emirate of El-Mohammerah; Emirate of Bahrein.
lies the cradle of Islam, and that cradle was rocked last week by the terrible hand of Emir Faisal Ibn Abdul-Aziz Ibn Saud.
Last Week's Events. Emir Ibn Saud, Sheik of Dariyah, Sovereign Lord of Nejd and Hasa, descendant of Mohammed Ibn Saud (founder of the Wahabite Empire), had declared war on Husein Ibn Ali, King of Hejaz. Verily, the fierce troops of Ibn Saud were at the gates of Mecca, Mohammaden Holy City.
Husein Ibn Ali, made King of Hejaz by the British for fighting the Turks in the War, made Calif of Islam by no other than himself, opposed the heretical warriors of the Emir of Nejd; but he was not so successful as his sons, Faisal, King of Iraq, and Abdullah, Emir of Kerak (Trans-Jordan). These two monarchs had been able to employ war birds of Britain and strike terror and confusion into Ibn Saud's ferocious men by dropping fire from the skies. Husein, himself had asked the loan of a flock of war birds. But Britain refused. She could not become implicated in a religious war. She had definite obligations to the rulers of Iraq and Kerak under mandates given her by the League of Nations. Husein was independentso independent in fact that he had hesitated overlong to sign a treaty with his ally, Britain. He must defend himself as best he could.
Unable to maintain himself in Mecca, King Husein last week abdicated the Throne of Hejaz and the CalifateIslam was again without a Calif for the second time within a year. King Husein, tears in his eyes, declared that his abdication was a temporary measure designed to protect Mecca from possible destruction. A despatch from Cairo stated that the royal signature to the document of abdication was affixed only after "he had spent many hours in prayer and wireless communication with his sons," Faisal and Abdullah.
Immediately following the abdication of Husein, a Provisional Government was formed. The first act of this Government was to send a delegation to Emir Ibn Saud for the purpose of arranging terms of peace before the occupation of Mecca by the Wahabis.
New King. The Government, or Hejaz National Committee, then elected Ali (oldest son of Husein, Emir of Medina) King of Hejaz, in