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Scandals. George White has clapped together the best revue since he initiated his series to relieve visiting buyers and firemen of the Summer doldrums. More, he has presented one of the best revues of a season that has not been without its highwater mark in this aspect of our civilization.

The new musical show has been staged with the requisite regard for pace and variety, gives no opportunity for a yawn to get started. Thus, the Williams Sisters perkily berate the audience in a chanted number for being late and missing the opening chorus-which does not exist. Then comes a series of skits wherein the mortifying consequences of being tardy are revealed, generally with a sly double entendre sneaking in.

The production has more than its fair share of novelties, chief of which is a deceptive lighting effect which changes girls in varicolored bathingsuits into marble statues in a wink. It also, by a painless amputation, obligingly transforms a damsel into the armless Venus de Milo.

The imported Paris costumes are in admirable taste and profusion, but Mr. White does not hesitate to strike at the eyes of a revue audience with the luxury of sheer simplicity. One of his most satisfying scenes is attained by the use of nothing more sensational than a huge bank of flowered parasols. And the chorus whom these trappings adorn are the comeliest that have stretched the necks of metropolitan audiences this year. Each one would be the ace of any ordinary revue ensemble. White has again wisely limited his coryphees to intoning their lyrics clearly rather than blurring their point in the yelp of the usual song. Therefore the

chorus scores one of the spontaneous hits of the performance by boldly asserting its reasons for not being one of the ubiquitous troupes of Tiller girls.

There are fewer dancing solos than usual, and the ordinarily elastic Lester Allen and Tom Patricola have to restrict the natural exuberance of their limbs to a few hoof thumpings. But in that way no one is ever on the stage long enough to wear a crease in the audience's patience. The show has two fine singers in Richard Talbot and Helen Hudson, the latter

showing one of the sweetest voices this side of grand opera.

White again shows a regrettable tendency to lapse into invective against blue-law reformers (now somewhat of a dead issue). Perhaps this inverted tendency to preach is a consequence of the juvenile spiciness in some of his skits. But these


"No opportunity for a yawn"

are galloped through at such speed that the offhand presentation of "low taste" can hardly give offense.

The sketches themselves at times are rather forced to beat a dishpan to excite humor. But Winnie Lightner, abetted by the insouciant Will Mahoney and the boisterous Patricola, carries them along by dint of magnetic personality, sometimes called high animal spirits. And the revue contains two of the best travesties on darky melodies ever perpetrated.

Mud. Only the waning season can account for the descent upon the stage of a comedy like this. It represents the efforts of various groups to gain possession of a farm which contains a beauty clay and therefore becomes, for the purposes of farce, as precious as the Ruhr valley. The authoress, Katherine Browning Miller, manages to hammer out a witticism now and then by virtue of trying.

The Best Plays

These are the plays which, in the light of metropolitan criticism, seem most important:


COBRA-Sloughing off the scales of sex, with very little hint of reptilian slime.

HER WAY OUT-A fairly absorbing picture of the seamy lining to the royal purple of Washington politics, with a touch of bawdy house atmosphere that does not offend the eyes with its red light.

THE WONDERFUL VISIT-Wells' and Ervine's stimulating play, wherein an angel holds the mirror up to human nature and finds it cracked.



EXPRESSING WILLIE-A deft satire of the business man who mistakes Spring fever for a yearning after soulfulness. THE SHOW-OFF-A pungent comedy of human striving to impress, that is almost pathetic in its revelation of the insect-like futility of mankind.

BEGGAR ON HORSEBACK-A blazing satire on the Babbitt family, that yet extorts laughter from such successful morons themselves.

MEET THE WIFE-Last week of this comedy. A woman having her way over the embattled wills of two husbands.


High notes in the present musical comedy score are sustained most successfully by Charlot's Revue, I'll Say She Is, Kid Boots, Ziegfeld Follies, George White's Scandals.

TIME, The Weekly News-Magazine. Editors-Briton Hadden and Henry R. Luce. As sociates-Manfred Gottfried (National Affairs, The Press). John S. Martin, Thomas J. C. Martyn (Foreign News). Weekly Contributors-Ernest Brennecke, John Farrar, Kenneth M. Gould, Willard T. Ingalls, Deborah Douglas, Alexander Klemin, Agnes Pike, Frank Vreeland, Peter Mathews. Published by TIME, Inc., H. R. Luce, Pres.; J. S. Martin, Vice-Pres.; B. Hadden, Sec'yTreas., 236 E. 39th St., New York City. Subscription rate, per year, postpaid: In the United States and Mexico, $5.00; in Canada, $5.50; elsewhere, $6.00. For advertising rates address: Robert L. Johnson, Advertising Manager, TIME, 236 E. 39th St., New York: New England representatives, Sweeney & Price, 127 Federal St., Boston, Mass.; Western representatives, Powers & Stone, 38 S. Dearborn St., Chicago, Ill.; Circulation Manager, Roy E. Larsen. Vol. IV, No. 2.


The Golden Ladder*
Mr. Hughes Gives a History

The Story. Betty Bowen Jumel Burr-famous or infamous as you choose started life in the gutters of Providence when that town was noted mainly for its smells of whale-oil, rope, duck, slaughter-houses and rum made from molasses. Aside from these industries, it busied itself right patriotically, when the time came, with turning out muskets and cannon -"cannon to stand still for the Rhode Island defenses and wheeled cannon for the troops of Washington to lug about with them in their everlasting retreats."

To be exact, Betty "arrived in America in 1775, along with the Goddess of Freedom, and with as little prospect of success." Her family's savory reputation left her little choice

of a career. Her mother was the town scandal, and a boom had scraped her no-account father off his boat into the harbor of Newport and eternity. So Betty trafficked her only wealth-her beauty-wherever a likely purchaser appeared, and rose through a succession of what one might euphemistically term "protectors," through the advancing agencies of drunken sailors, a sea-captain, a social parasite, a wealthy French merchant, a U. S. Vice President. That in the two latter cases, Stephen Jumel and Aaron Burr, she actually achieved matrimony, is eloquent testimony to her skill and resource. be sure, it was during Burr's eclipse, when that precious knave was a doddering old gallant of 78, and his eyes were fixed as much on Betty's fortune as on her face.


Nevertheless, it enabled her, some 16 years after she had divorced him and some 50 years after he had been Vice President, to ride regally through France on the glory of his title. Once, on a country road, when her carriage was checked by some marching soldiers, the indomitable old bluffer stood up in her carriage and cried: "Place à la veuve du Vice Président des Etats-Unis!" And the awe-struck military, not being expected to be conversant with so much American history, promptly stood at attention as she drove imperially past.

Throughout the black squares in Betty's checquered career, she had always, paradoxically, the urge to be "respectable." Though she got no further than the urge, she has graciously left us the record of a

THE GOLDEN LADDER-Rupert HughesHarper ($2.00).

colorful ascent, trail blazing her through stiff-necked, whale-oil Providence, through outwardly outraged but inwardly envious New York, through the magnificently indifferent French Imperial Court. She knew the horrors and cruelty of the French

Jumel Mansion

MADAME JUMEL-BURR "Place à la veuve!"

Revolution and the chaos of the subsequent Restoration; she mingled with French Royalty, later owned the sapphire coronet Napoleon had placed on Josephine's head and the emerald rings that had twinkled on that lovely Creole's toes; she dispensed hospitality in the stately Jumel Mansion in old New York, where once was Washington's headquarters; she drove her gay coach-and-four through the gaping streets of Saratoga Springs in the heyday of its glory; she built up a fancy fairy-tale of gentility to account for her origin and bulwarked it with cunning lies and deceit. But she never became really respectable. And who shall blame her? At all events her picture, in all this historic frame, glows astonishingly meteoric and lifelike and hangs smiling in the timeless, inglorious gallery of the Du Barrys, the Maintenons, the Pompadours.

The Significance. As literature, Mr. Hughes' story is, regrettably, not pure gold. But as a cracking good yarn strung on historical data, it deserves mention. In its pages are fascinating glimpses of early American history, revitalized. Days of the sprawling growth of the bristly, sturdy little Nation, days of triumph for Washington, of jealousy between Aaron Burr and

Alexander Hamilton, ended so tragically on the bluffs at Weehawken, days of wickedness and glamour in the dazzling French Court, days of snobbery and naïveté in awkward little New York, days of the fizzing of "the waters" at Saratoga and the journeys thither of troupes of the gentility, some driving up from as far as Virginia, their black slaves making camp by the roadside by night and lighting the darkness with their campfires and the mournful, exotic cadences of their African songs. All this, as background to the career of one lovely lady who was at once a termagant and a belle, an alluring little vixen and an unconscionable idiot.

The Author. Born a Missourian in 1872, Rupert Hughes has been writing prolifically almost ever since, except when he was an Army Captain during the Spanish-American War, and serving on the Mexican border in 1916. Among his novels and plays: The Whirlwind, We Can't Have Everything, Cup of Fury, Beauty, Souls for Sale, Excuse Me, What Will People Say?


New Books

The following estimates of books much in the public eye were made after careful consideration of the trend of critical opinion:

CREOLE SKETCHES-Lafcadio HearnHoughton ($2.00). In this collection of early notes about New Orleans, lovely, sleepy "City of Dreams," are frequent bits of that exquisite phrasing and wayward charm for which Hearn was later famed. The sketches appeared in The New Orleans Item when the unkempt, erratic and friendless young genius was eking out his early years doing hack newspaper work and living on the "ultra-canal" side of the city. There are vivid, shimmering bits of description and portraiture, some humorous, some elusively lovely and redolent of the quaint, exotic charm of the picturesque old city.

THE TREASURE OF HO-L. Adams Beck-Dodd, Mead ($2.00). Tucked in between covers of Chinese blue, with unruffled Chinese cranes strutting on them, is an absorbing tale of jade, dragons, chop suey, hidden shrines, legendary treasure, lotus flowers, all served up with an authentic Oriental flavor. It is the story of one John Mallerdean, in the Peking Customs Service, whose great-great uncle first got a foot in China's open door by curing the Emperor Chienlung of his gout and temper. A most provocative mixture of fact and fancy, some at least of Mallerdean's adventures in the "lost Buddhist temple beyond the Western Hills" have a basis of historical truth, vouched for by the author's intimate knowledge of his locale.

oseph Hergesheimer

He Dresses Well

Joseph Hergesheimer is undoubtedly e of the most spectacular of our presit-day stylists-and his accomplishents as a writer place him indisutably in the front ranks of American ovelists. Presently we shall have a ew novel of his to read, Balisand, his rst since the impassioned Cytherea so ecently celebrated in the cinema.


Mr. Hergesheimer uses words with istinction and unction. They leasant trophies to him, to be adroitly ung about his plot, to be celebrated, to e worshipped. There are times when

like his style immensely. There are imes when I do not like it at all. Yet t is far, far better to write beautifully s Mr. Hergesheimer does, and to annoy ccasionally with involved sentences or vord-tricks than it is not to make any retence at fine writing at all, which s the case with a multitude of his felow-novelists. There are no finer »tories in American annals than those in the collection Gold and Iron. There are [ew better novels than The Three Black Pennies. Those who consider some of Hergesheimer's characters passionless must seek his emotion in words. He often characterizes a screen as lovingly as a woman. Nothing is so inanimate as to be stone to this high priest of the


Born at Philadelphia in 1880, Joseph was educated at a Quaker school and at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts. Most of his life has been spent either in being or in becoming a writer. He is fairly large, slightly rubicund, but, withal, impressive to look upon. He dresses well. It has often been remarked in the public prints that he dresses with something of a swagger. This is true. He has a charming wife and they live in West Chester, Pa. He is often in Manhattan and may be seen jovially present in the lunch room of the Hotel Algonquin.

I have never talked to him at length; but in correspondence have found him remarkably cordial, sane and helpful. My one effort at conversation with him, however, was a trifle disastrous-as he hummed Yankee Doodle absently through it all. This, however, I judged less of an insult to my New England ancestry than a mere matter of distraction. In short, Hergesheimer is a good fellow, with a few peculiarities of fellowship and a fine writer with a few peculiarities of writing. J. F.


The New Pictures

Captain January. Baby Peggy's public is composed of persons with an unbounded capacity for "cunningness" in other people's children. If you can revel for hours in childish winsomeness, even when it is faintly self-conscious, and still long to kiss "the little darling" goodnight before she scampers upstairs to her supper, Captain January was just made for you. The story, which flourished during Elsie Dinsmore's palmy days, is of a sea-tossed waif, rescued and reared by a hungryhearted lighthouse-keeper. Stock villainy and fairy godmotherhood (both well cast) complete the plot. Take the children.

Wanderers of the Wasteland. Colored at cinematography has last achieved a colorable success. "Technicolor" is the process with which this picture paints Zane Grey in hues like unto none he ever dreamed of conveying to the babbitt consciousness. His reddest Indian, his most blushful sunset, his glaringest desert appear before the eye, often with a marked degree of credibility. The characters thus incolorated are incarnated in Jack Holt, Noah Beery, Kathlyn Williams, Billie Dove. These, together with Death Valley, the Arizona cacti, Red Rock Canyon-flawless in beauty all-glorifying themselves forever.

Between Worlds is another German film (notwithstanding its "European" label). It is not as good as Dr. Caligari, having a more amphorus texture, more turgid symbolism, more labored scenic effort for sensation. Even so, it leaves the mass of present-day American films far, far behind. Known abroad as One Night Between Worlds it argues the fantastic irony of death. Through a young fraulein's dream phantasmagoria, a shadowy Stranger stalks and skulks, luring her amid exotic scenes in Peking, Bagdad, Venice on one of those baffling nightmare quests for a dead lover. Fritz Lang directed; Lil Dagover performed this vehicle for Germanic supernaturalism— now absurdly childish, now weirdly beautiful.


At Christie's

Approximately $100,000 was realized at an auction of 63 of the paintings from the collection of the Duke of Westminster (onetime owner of the Gainsborough Blue Boy), the top price being $32,550, paid by an anonymous Parisian dealer for The Repose of the Holy Family, by Nicolas Poussin. Murillo's St. John with the Lamb went for $9,375; Memling's Virgin and Child Enthroned to a New York dealer for $9,185 and Van Dyck's Virgin and Child with St. Catherine brought $17,750. The sensation of the sale occurred when three huge canvases by Rubens, part of a series ordered by Philip the Fourth, failed to draw a single bid. They were finally bought in by Westminister's representative for a nominal sum. Dealers agreed that "not half a dozen houses in the world" were big enough to accommodate these mammoth paintings and apparently there was no demand from museums or public buildings. Undoubtedly, many of the pictures purchased by continental dealers will find their way to the U. S. before long.

Mayfly King

Current Opinion, a U. S. magazine purporting to publish an accurate monthly news review, reproduced in its July issue the portrait of King George V which was exhibited by its creator, Charles Sims, at the Royal Academy, London, in May (TIME, May 12).

The Sims portrait shows Britain's monarch in full regalia, with sceptre It and sword, seated on his throne. idealizes and refines the not-unlined face. It gives His Majesty dainty, tapering legs. It makes the fingers, actually the short, muscular digits of a sport-loving country gentleman, appear long and willowy.

All reliable critics adjudged Mr. Sims' effort as one of the most questionable in the entire Academy. They felt sure that Mr. Sims had obtained, at most, only one sitting of his regal subject, had fallen back perforce on lay models for the body of the work.

Some critics said: "A mayfly king." "Bedecked and beribboned like a magnum of champagne."

"With toe nimbly pointed, as for the pirouette or gavotte."

In the face of such criticism (wellnigh unanimous), Current Opinion ignorantly entitled its reproduction: "The Most Human Royal Portrait Within Living Memory" (a phrase quoted from the critic of the Illustrated London News).



The school teachers of the U. S. made out the term grades, dusted their blackboards, shut their desks, drew their pay, boarded trains for Washington, D. C. There they swarmed upon the steps of the National Capital for a vesper service that opened the 62nd annual meeting of the National Education Association. That organization now has 140,000 members, of which 80% are classroom teachers.

The National Congress of Parents and Teachers had been invited to meet with the N. E. A. Many of its members did so.

Speeches. President Olive M. Jones (New York) was determined that the gathering should concentrate upon teachers rather than upon those taught. She keynoted: 1) Retirement; 2) Tenure; 3) National Recognition of Education. "I believe the time has come when the


of the country must stand solidly united and resolved to obtain rightful recognition of education in our government." (Miss Jones repudiated the idea of an educational "bloc"; urged the Sterling-Reed Bill for a Federal Department of Education.)

Prof. W. C. Bagley, Teachers College, Columbia University, staunch worker for the Sterling-Reed Bill, evoked "a storm of applause" by denouncing Democratic and Republican discourtesies to education. He was for supporting a Third Party en masse if its platform carried the proper plank.

Points by other speakers:

Experts are needed to plan the organization of high schools and classify high school pupils.

Ten types of accrediting agencies now pass on college candidates. All are faulty.

Over 4,300,000 illiterates will be entitled to vote in November. "The effects on commerce and labor are highly deleterious.”

One-fifth of the 5,000,000 teachers in the world are now enrolled in the World Federation of Education Associations, founded 1923 at San Francisco.

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big "Tax-dodgers, heartless rich, interests and an arrogant aristocracy" are violently opposing support of schools.

The following suggestions made:


Compile a list of educational films.
Watch malnutrition.
Teach more music.

Provide women coaches for girls' athletics.

Resolutions. After attending committee meetings, listening to speeches, studying reports, the delegates resolved:

That parents should have the right of choice between public and private schools for their children so long as the institutions meet the approval of state authorities. (This was held significant in view of controversies that have arisen over school laws in Oregon and other States.)

That the proposal for a Federal Education Department receive the backing of the Nation's educators.

That a Tenure Committee of the Association be authorized to assist any state group in protecting individuals from political machination.

That the retirement (pension) system be improved.

Against sex discrimination in appointments.

Against war; for U. S. leadership toward international tribunals.

That teachers shall inspire respect for law and law enforcement, especially with respect to liquor-selling, cigarettes for children, obscene literature, posters, pictures.

That home, school, church shall train character.

That the Constitution be taught in upper elementary grades.

That literacy tests be prerequisite for voting.

That the states be encouraged to ratify the Child Labor Amendment.

That the District of Columbia schools be made models for the Nation.

Officers. Jesse H. Newlon, Superintendent of Schools of Denver, was elected President of the N. E. A. The new Treasurer is Cornelia A. Adair, Richmond. Vice Presidents chosen from Arizona, California, FlorIllinois, Indiana, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Minnesota, New York, South Dakota, Wyoming.

ida, common

In teaching arithmetic, criteria of social utility should supplant old formal doctrine. "Useless processes": derivation of cube roots; divisors and least common multiple beyond the power of inspection, metric system, troy and weights, complex and




Coolidge. Business over, the teachers "spent a glorious Fourth making

patriotic pilgrimages to histond shrines." But not until they had jammed the Central High School Stadium and been addressed by President Coolidge, whom they pre sented with a huge basket of birthday flowers.

Cheers greeted the President's ma jor points, which were two:

1) "We are coming to give more attention to the rural and small vi lage schools, which serve 47% of the children of the Nation. It is signit

cant that less than 70% of these chil dren average to be in attendance on any school day, and that there is a tendency to leave them in charge of undertrained and underpaid teachers. The advent of good roads should do much to improve these conditions The old one-room country school such as I attended ought to give way to the consolidated school with a modern building and an ade quate teaching force. . . ."

2) "Pending before the Congress is the report of a committee which proposes to establish a Department of Education and Relief, to be preside over by a Cabinet officer. Bearing in mind that this does not mean any interference with the local control and dig nity but is rather an attempt to recognize the importance of educational effort, such proposal has my hearty endorsement and support."


Impressed by his accomplishments, Columbia University in December invited Giovanni Papini (famed Italian author: Life of Christ, etc.) to deliver Italian lectures this summer. Papini, "delighted as a child," accepted.

A month later, he met with a motor accident, broke a bone in his heel. His eyes, always troublesome, became worse. Depressed, he retired to a tiny farm near Assisi, taking with him his children and his illiterate, once-beautiful peasant wife, Giacinta, whom he married for "her chestnut mane and savage, beautiful teeth."

Anxiety at Columbia was aggravated by Dr. Charles Fama, President of the New York Board of Pension Surgeons. Dr. Fama asked Congress to deny Papini admission to the U. S. because he had written a book, The Dictionary of the Savage Man,* wherein were thrusts at America.† Fama styled

*Written in collaboration with Domenico Giuliotti. Papini calls himself "The Savage." † Specimen thrusts: "America is the home of trusts, skyscrapers, phonographs, lynco laws, of the insupportable Washington, the boring Emerson, the immoral Walt Whitman. the disgusting Longfellow, the angelic Wilson and other great men of similar stripe."

"In compensation, America produces poison. ous tobacco, sticky chocolate, indigestible pota

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Papini "an adherent of the law and murder party" (meaning the Fascisti). Papini learned of this attack, was furher depressed, lost all interest in his American visit. For two months Colimbia sought to placate offended genius, Dr. N. M. Butler writing at length on 'academic freedom" in answer to Dr. Fama. To no avail. When the Italian ectures began last week, it was Dr. Arthur Livingston of Manhattan who stepped to the platform.

At Saratoga Springs

At Saratoga Springs, N. Y. (famed turf centre), convened the 46th annual conference of the American Library Association.

Prominent librarians predicted a new era of community service with greater obligations, demands, scope for library workers.

Gifts totaling $239,100 were announced.

Gratification was expressed that the status of librarians was recently changed by the Personnel Classification Board in Washington from "clerical" to "professional" and "sub-professional"; that 25% salary increases for Government librarians went into effect on the second day of the Conference.

At Chicago

The Chicago Institute of International Politics (TIME, Apr. 21, May 5), scholarly and scientific counterpart of the Williamstown Institute of Politics (held by some to be "popular"), entered into its sober deliberations. Dr. Herbert Kraus, of the University of Königsberg, East Prussia, was active, prominent.


Methodist Union

The plan for union of the two branches of the Methodist Church, which was almost unanimously approved by the Northern Church at Springfield, Mass., (TIME, May 19), was accepted by the General Conference of the Southern Church at Chattanooga, last week. Opposition led by Bishop Collins Denny was violent, but union received the necessary twothirds majority on the first and only ballot, 297-75. Ratification by districts will follow shortly.

The plan for union provides for two separate general jurisdictionsSouth, North. Opponents of the plan failed to get large support because the plan would seem to be, for prac

tical purposes, as innocuous as the World Court.

Unionists themselves admitted it was only "a step in the right direction."

Presbyterian Difference

1) The Presbyterian Church in the United States of America.

2) The Presbyterian Church in the United States.

The majesty of the law looks down upon these two imposing names and recognizes two entirely distinct corporations.

In practice, too, they mean quite different things.

No. 1 exists principally north of the Mason and Dixon line. No. 2 thrives in the South. No. 1 has yielded a point or two to Science. Many of its pastors believe that the earth is round, that it revolves round the sun, and some of them entertain a doubt as to whether man was created in the image of God, including the left eye-lash. But No. 2 adheres strictly to Faith, uncorrupted by Science, and rejoices in the fact that Evolution has been legislated out of the schools of several good old Southern States.

However, since No. 1 and No. 2 are so nearly twin in name, and since both can reflect upon a good deal of Scotch and Genevan history in common, there has, not unnaturally, been much talk of union and reunion.

No. 1 favors "organic union." No. 2 favors "Federal union." And so, for the present, there will be no union.

This announcement was made last week by Dr. Thornton Whaling, Moderator of No. 2, who concluded his defense of "Federal union" by the following parable:

"I venture to say to my Northern brethren that consolidation was patterned after the mollusk or the oyster, while Federal union was fashioned after the majestic lion or the Heaven-soaring and imperial eagle."

"Keep it Holy"

The Romanward wing of the Anglican Church won a great victory in London last week when the House of Clergy voted, 176-91, to amend the Prayer Book to permit "reservation of the Sacrament."

What does this mean? With no attempt at theological niceties, and admitting that the explanation is technically inadequate, it means this: At the mass (or "Lord's Supper") the priest blesses or consecrates a certain physical amount of bread or wine or both for distribution to the participants in the holy feast. (In the Roman Catholic Church, only the

priest drinks of the wine; in the Protestant Churches, the communicants may also drink thereof.) If the total amount of bread and wine so consecrated is not consumed by those attending the service, these "elements" may be "reserved." That is, having been blessed, the bread is put into some sacred place and may later be "adored" by the worshippers. That is called "reservation of the Sacrament." It is usually applied only to the bread.

Hitherto, such reservation has not been technically permitted by the Anglican Church, except for subsequent use by the sick or dying. It is, henceforth, permitted not only for the sick but also for the purpose of adoration by believers.

Is this significant? Yes. It is the whole question of transubstantiation vs. consubstantiation all over again. Four hundred years ago, the world was torn in two, ostensibly because of this question.

Transubstantiation, a dogma of the Holy Roman Church, is the belief that the bread at mass does actually become the Body of Jesus Christ. Martin Luther finally came to the conclusion that Rome was in error

on this point. He said, in effect: "The bread and wine do not become the Body and Blood of Christ, but they have the effect of being so." Eventually Protestants went further and declared that the bread and wine were simply a sacred token of the Body of Christ.

Obviously, if the bread is in very fact of fact the Body of Christ, it is worthy of adoration. Hence, if not consumed by the priest or worshipper it should be "reserved," kept holy, for future adoration by those who so believe. The House of Clergy so voted.

"Fourth Largest"

For the first time in 700 years England will dedicate a new Cathedral, July 19th, at Liverpool. It will be the fourth largest in the world, 130 feet longer than the Cathedral of Seville, costing more than $10,000,000 which is to be raised by public subscription. The foundation stone was laid by King Edward in July, 1904. The design, chosen from competition, was the work of a youth, done in his spare time. Gilbert Scott, the designer, grandson of the famed architect Sir Gilbert Scott, was a pupil in an architect's office when the competition was announced; he made his drawings after finishing his office work. Salisbury, "Queen of English Cathedrals," was the last to be dedicated.

*First is St. Peter's, Rome; second is the Cathedral of Seville, Spain; third will be the Cathedral of Saint John the Divine, Manhattan.

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