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Hogbin (Constitutionalist) was struck in the face by a stone while he was convassing. Ex-Premier Asquith (Liberal), "paternal and pedantic," was frequently called a liar and many a time he was booed. His speeches were frequently drowned by cat-calls and screechings of The Red Flag. Mr. Asquith called them "a set of unintelligent hooligans" and stated that he might just as well address a menagerie.
The worst case of rowdyism was reported from Monmonthshire when Major Beaumont Thomas (Conservative) was hit about the legs, had one of his arms twisted. His coat and hat were torn from him and his wrist-watch was smashed. An attempt was even made to overturn his automobile. Eventually he managed to get away, but was forced to cancel several engagements on account of his injuries.
Sir Robert Horne in desperation said: "Free speech is the foundation of democratic Government." But this dictum merely incited the unruly toughs to renewed disorders. In a lull of boos and countercheering he declared: "You may try to reduce this old country to the condition of Russia, but you will never succeed."
Sir Laming Worthington-Evans (Conservative) was successful in foiling the rowdies by speaking into a portable microphone strapped about his person. In vain they tried to shout him down. Then, stopping at nothing, they produced drums and cymbals and completely defeated the loud speaker.
Sir Alfred Mond (Liberal) berated the interrupters thus: "We are not going to be 'Bolshevised' in South Hackney or anywhere else. The Labor Party had better learn that very soon or they will get some rough-houses they won't like, both there and in other constituences."
Constitutionalists. One of the features of the campaign was the emergence of Constitutionalists under the leadership of Winston Spencer Churchill. This party, which has identified itself with the Conservatives, champions the British Constitution against the Socialists.
Posters. Labor headquarters said it had supplied 40,000,000 pamphlets. The Conservatives talked about having sent out 20 tons. Liberals said that hourly they were being requisitioned for further supplies which were being promptly
A Labor poster shows a player "heading" a football. Underneath is the inscription "Use your head and vote Labor."
Another shows MacDonald as "the hope of the world" being led by the Angel of Peace, while the satellites
France, Russia, Germany look on admiringly.
A Conservative poster shows Hubert Herkomer's famed Worker on Strike. He stands glowering at the door of his house, while his wife with her child in her arms hides her face in misery on his shoulder. The caption is "The Socialists promised me work, I've not got it."
Another is a reproduction of Harold Speed's painting showing a dock laborer looking up from The Daily Herald (the Labor journal), exclaiming "Socialists! They've done nothing for me."
The Liberals have the hardest task, for they have to fight both Conservatives and Laborites. Their best poster showed
a stalwart Liberal marked "It." On one side is a dapper baldheaded Conservative with a gouty foot, labeled "Past It"; on the other side is a shabby Communist, tagged "Beyond It."
Next Parliament. The date of the opening of the Sixth Parliament of King George V was set for Tuesday, Nov. 18.
Forecast. Betting continued to favor the Conservatives. Many thought that the Conservatives would obtain a clear majority in the next House of Commons. Lloyds offered 3 to 2 on the Conservatives.
Parties. At the Dissolution of 1923 the state of Parties was: Conservatives
The account of the visit of Lord Renfrew to the U. S. and Canada is concluded:
He quit Canada for Manhattan, telegraphed to Governor General Lord Byng: "My journey across Canada and back has given me one more mark of affection for the Dominion. At every point in it I have been welcomed with true hospitality and made to feel that in Canada I am assured of a real holiday.
"I say good-bye with great regret and with the hope that it may soon be possible for me to return."
In New York harbor, the Olympic got ready to receive the Heir Apparent. An official of the White Star Line said:
"The table chosen by the Prince is a small one, seating two, and is in an inconspicuous corner formed by an alcove on the starboard side not far from the entrance. Adjacent tables
have been taken for the Prince's party. The ship's jazz orchestra, which plays in the reception room outside the dining room, is posted on the same side of the ship and the space used for afterdinner dancing is also on that side.
"The ship's gymnasium, swimming pool and squash racquets court will be available to the Prince at hours to suit his convenience. As he is an enthusiastic squash player, it is expected that he will use the court an hour or so each morning. He will find in William Bryant, the attendant in charge, an old acquaintance, with whom he played frequently some years ago, on the courts at the Bath Club in London."
On board the Olympic, the Baron stuck his nose into the royal apartment. Said he: "This is too pretty for me. I'll give this to Trotter [groom in waiting]."
In a farewell message he said: "My stay in the North American Continent has been a very interesting and happy one. I am very sorry it is over and look forward to returning."
Before the ship steamed away J. Butler Wright, Third Assistant Secretary of State, called upon Lord Renfrew on behalf of President Coolidge and wished him God Speed.
At 1 o'clock in the morning the Olympic churned American territorial waters with her propellers and slowly, silently, majestically, carried away Lord Renfrew to her own country where he will once more be Prince of Wales.
Although Northern Ireland has a Parliament of its own, it continues to send 13 members to the Parliament at Westminster.
In the election of 1921 Eamon de Valera, Anglophobe Republican was elected a member of the Belfast Parliament for County Down. He never took his seat; and the Government took the step of denying him entrance to any of the border counties.
When the general elections for the United Kingdom and Northern Ireland were announced, Mr. de Valera said he would enter the county to speak in support of the candidate for County Down. The Belfast Government countered by threatening his arrest, but Eamon laughed in its face. Into Newry, County Down, went he and-was speedily arrested. Next day he was released and told that if he again showed his face he would be liable to two years' imprisonment. De Valera laughed, said he would be back. And back he came, this time to Londonderry. Police arrested him. Shortly before his arrest De Va
lera made it clear that, in the event of his being arrested, England would be to blame. He would show the world "what their boasted freedom is." The matter, however, was one that concerned only Ireland. Certainly it was none of England's busi
At Aberavon, Premier MacDonald's constituency, the Premier announced that the Government had appointed Joseph R. Fisher minister for Northern Ireland on the Irish Boundary Commission, which is to decide the perplexing question of the boundary between the Irish Free State and Northern Ireland (TIME, May 26 et seq). Mr. Fisher was formerly editor of The Northern Whig, a Belfast journal, foreign editor of The Daily Chronicle and assistant editor of The Standard, both London newspapers.
Other members of the Commission are John MacNeill, representing the Free State, and Mr. Justice Feetham of England, Chairman.
Canada exercised her full treatymaking powers for the first time last week when she signed a commercial agreement with Belgium.
By a majority of about 40,000, the Province of Ontario, Canada, decided to remain dry. At once an impetus was given to the prohibition movement.
It was claimed that a famous victory had been scored by the drys, but this was untrue. The victory was scored by the wets, who reduced their minority of 400,000 votes in the 1919 plebiscite to about 40,000.
Problem. For weeks Chancellor Marx tried to reorganize his Cabinet. As the price of obtaining Nationalist (Monarchist) support for the passage of the Experts' Plan legislation, the Chancellor had promised the Nationalists four seats in the Cabinet. He was, however, anxious to admit a certain number of Social Democrats (Socialists).
But the Nationalists threw up their heads, planted their feet firmly on the ground, refused to collaborate with Socialists. At length, the Chancellor gave way. As a compromise between the Democrats (not Socialists), who were hostile to the Nationalists, he asked the latter to accept three instead of four seats. The Nationalists accept
ed the offer, but the Democrats balked -never would they co-operate with the Kaiser's men. If the Chancellor insisted upon including the Nationalists, then the Democrats would withdraw from Government, which meant that able Minister of War, Dr. Gesslet, would resign.
Dissolution. The Chancellor, tired from his exertions, decided that it was impossible to reshuffle the Cabinet. Accordingly, he marched to the Berlin home of the German President, Herr Friedrich Ebert, and asked for dissolution of the Reichstag. After a short discussion, the President agreed.
New Elections. In the Reichstag Chancellor Marx told the assembled Abgeordneten (deputies) that the President had signed a decree dissolving the Reichstag. The reason for this step was the impossibility of forming a Cabinet, due to the line-up in the Reichstag parties. He called for general elections for Dec. 7.
Communists' Flight. The immediate result of the dissolution was the frantic haste with which the 62 Communists dashed out of the building and sought their funk-holes in various parts of Germany. The reason was that as soon as the Reichstag had been dissolved, they, ipso facto, were no longer deputies and therefore were not immune from arrest.
Colors. Back to the colors went the 27 political parties of Germany. Under the banner of the schwarz-rot-gold (black, red, gold-colors of the Republic) were grouped the Social Democrats (Socialists), Centriste (Catholic Party, quasi Monarchists), Volkspartei (People's Party, quasi Monarchists), Democrats and a number of smaller parties.
True to the schwarz-weiss-rot (black, white, red-colors of the Empire) were the Nationalists (Monarchists), Freiheitspartei (Freedom Party, extreme Monarchists) and several smaller par
Under the red flag were the Communists.
Issue. As in the U. S. and Britain, there is a scarcity of issues in the German campaign. At the last election the paramount issue was acceptance or rejection of the Experts' Plan. At this election the Plan is a fait accompli and, with the exception of the Freedom Party and the Communists, every shade of political accepts, willingly or willingly, the necessity of supporting it. Reports that the Nationalists are hostile to the Plan and seek to reject it are mainly propaganda.
The paramount issue this time, as it has been since the adoption of the Weimar Constitution in 1919, is whether or not the Monarch is to be restored The
Forecast. That the Communists will receive a set-back was accepted as a foregone conclusion. The economic condition of Germany is better than it was in May (date of the last elections); there are more contented people and contented people are usually enemies of Communism.
The Freedom Party, led by the notorious ex-First Quartermaster General, General Erich von Ludendorff, was singled out for extinction. This prophecy was probably unduly optimistic, for the conceited General has a noisy following of Junkers.
With regard to the remaining parties, nothing definite was said. The Monarchist idea is so part and parcel of the German people that the Nationalists are unlikely to lose many seats. The Social Democrats, however, were considered to have a fair chance of increasing their representation, because most of the Communist seats are expected to be captured by them. Centrists and People's Party, it was said, would probably hold their seats. Summed up, it appears that the Reichstag situation is not likely to be materially altered - that is, neither the Socialist, Government nor Monarchist blocs will be able to command a majority.
Possibly one of the greatest causes of friction between the Holy See and the Italian Government has been removed.
Some time ago, Premier Mussolini decided to put an end to the widespread misuse of titles in Italy. To that end he appointed a commission to inquire into the matter. Political wiseacres, almost without exception. foresaw the abolition of all papal titles bestowed since 1870 when the
Foreign News [Continued]
temporal power of the Papacy came to an end.
Last week the Italian Government put to flight these notions. It recognized all titles bestowed by the Popes since 1870 and decided that they and any future creations shall be considered in every way equivalent to titles given by the Italian King. Moreover for a simple fee any Papal noble can have his name placed in the Golden Book of Italian nobility.
The Cabinet decision, which took the form of a decree-law, was sent to the King for his signature under cover of a letter which explained that it was "dutiful homage paid to the universal moral sovereignty of the Pope in all Catholic countries irrespective of government policies."
Another decree recognizing all Papal decorations without exception was expected to be submitted by the Cabinet to the King in the near future.
Crown Prince Umberto arrived in Rome from a three-months' visit to South America. It was aid that the young Prince would travel a good deal in the future.
A rumor persisted in Rome, despite official denials, that Princess Giovanna (third daughter of the King of Italy) and the Crown Prince of Belgium are shortly to be engaged to be married; also Crown Prince Umberto of Italy and Princess Marie-José of Belgium.
Countess Michael Karclyi, known in Hungary as "Red Catherine," arrived in Manhattan on the George Washington "to recoup her lost fortune" by giving lectures at $250 apiece on Hungarian affairs before and after the War.
The Countess and her husband were responsible for the establishment of the Hungarian Republic in 1918 Next year, so their enemies averred, they "sold the country to the Bolsheviki." Hence S. Stanwood Menken, President of the National Security League, was up in arms to prevent the landing in the U. S. of "Red Catherine." Said he : "According to reports I received at first hand in Budapest last summer, the Countess is regarded as the most valuable ally the Bolsheviki have in Central Europe, because of her charming personality, her beauty and her ability as
S. S. MEN KEN Not squeamish.
an actress to present in varying tones her cause and to make appeal to fashionable audiences. Her husband's record is history and there is no denial that she has been his constant ally. I was further informed that when Bela Kun was taken from jail it was the Countess who was his escort on that occasion. We have deported the Emma Goldmans and others whose sufferings make them prey to any people, whether communistic or nihilistic. And the entire policy of the Government is the prohibition of just the type of undesirable as Countess Karolyi. . . . I regret having to launch an attack upon a woman, but the issue is too important for squeamishness."
To the charge that she was a Bolshevik, the Countess retorted: "This is quite ridiculous. My husband and I are Socialists, but that does not mean that we are Communists."
"I am coming here to lecture for three months at the invitation of a committee of American women, and my subjects will be Hungary and European Peace, Why I am an Exile and the Last Three Hungarian Revolutions.
Immigration officials questioned the Countess for twelve minutes, bade her land.
Countess Michael Karolyi, née Andrassy, was once considered the most beautiful woman in Hungary, where a very large proportion of women are beautiful. She is not yet 30 years of age and is the step-daughter of Count Julius Andrassy, last Foreign Minister
a majority of four over all the other Parties.
Egypt's Premier, Saad Zaghlul Pasha, arrived at Alexandria on his return
from Britain (TIME, Oct. 6 et seq). He was forced to admit that he had returned empty-handed; that he had been able to achieve neither Egypt's nor the Sudan's complete independence from Great Britain.
His request for independence, said he, "had been refused without proof or justification." He exhorted the Egyptians to remain faithful to "complete independence for Egypt and the Sudan." "We will never admit," he concluded, "nor will those who come after us, that a single foreign soldier shall remain on Egyptian soil."
Super-Tuchun Chang of Manchuria, opposed in the North to SuperTuchun Wu.
Super-Tuchun Wu, head of the Peking forces opposing Chang.
Marshal Tsao Kun, President of China, supporter of Wu.
General Feng Yu-hsiang, "Chinese Christian soldier," ally of Wu.
The war (TIME, Sept. 8 et seq.) continued. Strange events took place and a strange situation was created.
In North China. Along a line south of the Manchurian frontier, the armies of Super-Tuchuns Wu and Chang battled for supremacy.
Earlier despatches told of terrific attacks and ghastly slaughter in which the Wu troops were victorious. Then Chang exploded a land mine under the Wu armies, killed thousands. Immediately a formidable attack was launched by Chang; and the Wu armies began to retreat.
On the right of Super-Tuchun Wu, there was an ominous silence. Strange, unaccountable phenomenon-the sup
porting troops commanded by General Feng, "Chinese Christian Soldier," had disappeared. The position of Wu became desperate.
In Peking. As if from the clear, blue sky, General Feng and his troops
suddenly entered Peking. The gates of the city were closed behind them and the following proclamation was issued: "Feng Yu-hsiang does not want to make war, which is ruining the country and causing the loss of many lives. Feng has called a conference between the Government and the other side with a view of stopping the war. He is bringing his troops back to Peking for garrison duty and asks the people that order be preserved. Foreigners will be protected."
The conference met; and, as a result, President Tsao Kun ordered the cessation of hostilities, dismissed SuperTuchun Wu from his post of Commander-in-Chief of the Peking forces, appointed him Chief Commissioner of the Koko-nor district in Tibet. This appointment was virtually banishment. Rumors then emanated from the Capital stating that the Cabinet had been arrested. These rumors were, however, unconfirmed.
A lull-then it was announced that the Cabinet and the President had resigned. The whereabouts of President Tsao Kun was unknown. Events that followed merely complicated an already complicated situation. It was impossible to confirm any news.
Situation. The situation as it was reported: Super-Tuchun Chang announced that the war was over. Super
Tuchun Wu continued the war against Chang, but detached a.large part of his army which marched against Peking to rid the world of "traitor Feng." Feng, in control of Peking, said that he had acted only to stop a fratricidal war and that Wu had been dismissed because of incompetence, gross civil and military misuse of his powers. He declared that he would continue the war against Chang if the latter did not heed the President's order to cease hostilities. (This he appeared to have done.)
Developments were impossible to prognosticate. Feng seemed in a shaky position; Wu's situation on the whole appeared desperate. Chang must have been the only Chinese leader who could afford to smile.
LATIN AMERICA Notes
Chile. Señor Arturo Alessandri, President of Chile, who is enjoying forced leave of absence from his executive duties (TIME, Sept. 22) arrived in Paris with his sense of humor intact.
He told his friends a story. He quoted a speech that he had made to the Italian Crown Prince on the occasion of the latter's visit to Chile last summer: "Your Highness will forgive us for having nothing grandiose here to show you such as you possess in Italy-no Coliseum, monuments, cathedrals or works of art. We are a simple, hard-working people, proud of our institutions of liberty and security and the stability of our Government."
With a sad smile he concluded: "The royal guest had not got out of Chilean waters before I was obliged to take refuge in the American Legation. I was forced to leave Chile only a few days after the Italian Prince, who must have had a quiet chuckle to himself concerning the 'stability of our institutions.'
Mexico. The Rosalie Evans murder case (TIME, Aug. 11 et seq.) was opened at Mexico City, after a twomonths delay due to difficulties in obtaining counsel for the defense.
The Mexican Government nounced that it had ordered the withdrawal of all its consular officers from Britain. This means that both diplomatic and commercial relations have been broken off between Mexico and Britain. The announcement specified that British consular officials would receive every courtesy and consideration if their Government decided to leave them in the country.
Honduras. The long drawn out second Honduran revolt continued. In a battle between the Government troops and the rebels in which 600 were killed, the rebels fled and the Government troops fled after them.
Samuel Clemens Enjoys a
An old man with a white mane, lying in a bed strewn with the ashes of his cigars; pipes, tobacco, cigars at his elbows; a stenographer catching his words as he talks on, slowly, reminiscently: an old teller of tales picking out of the jumble of his past those episodes, ideas, memories that come uppermost in his mind.
When Samuel Clemens set about leaving the world a record of himself as he saw himself, he resolved on a new method of autobiography. It comprised two new features: First, he would have no method. He would talk at his ease about whatever came first to his mind, leaving his readers to pluck unity from the disorder of his memories and opinions. This, he points out with not uncharacteristic complaisance, would be the perfect autobiography. Second, he specified that it should not be published until after his death. Thus, from the grave, he could speak his mind candidly, without reserve.
As a matter of fact, from the grave or otherwise, there is little in this account to shock the unwary or to change the opionions of those who have known him in his work. His memories paint the picture of a good man and a great American, but there is nothing to surprise or alarm the scholar.
His Life. "It is good to begin life poor; it is good to begin life richthese things are wholesome; but to begin it poor and PROSPECTIVELY rich! The man who has not experienced it cannot imagine the curse of it," says Samuel Clemens. He was born in Missouri, in an almost invisible village deep in mud or dust, as the case might be. His family had lost all their money, but owned 75,000 acres of undeveloped land on which they fed their hope of rapid wealth. The hope was not conducive to labor.
The town church rested on five-foot piles, had a log floor through which you saw the hogs that dwelt beneath. There were fleas enough for the whole congregation. On weekdays, the church was a schoolhouse.
Mr. Clemens Sr. kept a store; butter was six cents a pound. A slave-girl could be rented for $12 a year. The Doctor received $25 a year for doctoring an entire family, which meant gallons of castor oil gratis. Grandmothers were adequate physicians in the case of minor ailments. For tooth
*MARK TWAIN'S AUTOBIOGRAPHY-with an introduction by Albert Bigelow Paine (2 Vols.)-Harper ($10.00).
ache, you chose between the doctor and his tongs and a woman faith-healer who cured handily by the magic word "Believe!"
Young Samuel's career was variedtypesetter, river pilot, miner, editor, lecturer, writer. He settled in Hartford with a wife whom he affirms was the loveliest person he ever knew. He lost $190,000 on a typesetting machine that failed. Of his lawyer he writes: "He is a great, fat, good-natured, kindhearted, chicken-livered slave; with no more pride than a tramp, no more sand than a rabbit, no more moral sense than a wax figure and no more sex than
MR. TWAIN He was coached.
a tapeworm. He sincerely thinks he is honest; he sincerely thinks he is honorable."
When Mr. Clemens lost his entire fortune, he earned enough lecturing and writing to pay back every cent.
The first time he met Mrs. Cleveland (at the White House), he made her write on his card: "He did not," and sign it. He sent the card to his wife. She had written him, saying: "Don't wear your arctics in the White House."
Said he: "I do not laugh easily." It is said that there has never been a cheerful humorist. Mark Twain was philosophically and by temperament a pessimist.
Criticism he calls bitterly. "the most degraded of all trades." His daughter Susy, aged 12, however, he excepted. She was his chief critic, and with her sisters guided not only his work but his social conduct. From behind screen they were wont to coach his behavior at the dinner table.
He had a good memory: "When I was younger I could remember anything whether it happened or not; but I am getting old and soon I shall remember only the latter."
The Significance. Lovers of Mark Twain will enjoy the book because he wrote it and because it fills out the pic
ture of a kindly, sad and great man. It adds little to the known facts about his life and opinions.
The Author is the creator of Huckleberry Finn, Tom Sawyer, Pudd'nhead Wilson, The Prince and the Pauper, the Yankee who went to King Arthur's Court.
THE ROMANTIC LADY-Michael Arlen-Doran ($2.50). Another volume of eloquent elegance and luxurious naughtiness from "the Harold Bell Wright of the sophisticates." The Romantic Lady, like These Charming People, is a collection of four short stories-one of them not very short. The Romantic Lady itself is the story of a lady of surpassing charm who chooses her husbands somewhat at random and divorces them with equal facility. Fay Richmond is about a man and a girl, and the realization of their love which came too late-but not too late for a still later fleeting consummation. Consuelo tells of another dazzling woman whose honor-and the physical well-being of whose illicit suitor-were saved by the opportune appearance of a cigar with a long, undisturbed ash. The Romance of Iris Poole is the tale of Red Antony and his brother Roger, of the revenge of Antony upon Roger, whom he hated even as he admired him.
Michael Arlen (Dikran Kuyumjian, Armenian) is reported to be in the U. S.
THE BACK OF THE BOOK-Margaret Leech-Boni & Liveright ($2.00). Vergie Stilson was 28 years of age and not unattractive. She pictured herself as "an author of brilliant subtlety," until she found that her embryo novel was no more than a bundle of disjointed reminiscences. Meanwhile, she worked in the offices of Good Taste. came and went. Men There was Roger, the kindly ironist, who married her young sister, "Pet," after long courtship of herself. There was Crump, who had all the charm of a little puppy dog. There was Roy Peck, the publicist with the genial personal touch. She loved Roy, but his environment proved too strong for her love. Finally there was Louis Bayard, cultured, a little dried up, in whose elegance she finally found comfort.
Everywhere she sought-but her tortured, inquiring mind never found the "answers in the back of the book." This novel has been highly received by such critics as Edna Ferber, F. P. A., Heywood Broun, Laurence Stallings.
PAULUS FY-Helene Mullins and Marie Gallegher-McBride ($2.00). Ronald Firbank and Daisy Ashford might well have collaborated to produce this picture of the perfect esthete