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National Affairs-[Continued]


The suit (TIME, Nov. 24) of Taxpayer William B. Shearer to prevent the uncompleted battleship Washington from being sunk in a series of tests off the Virginia Capes went to the District of Columbia Court of Appeals. Again the taxpayer was denied an injunction forbidding the Secretary of the Navy to have the great ship sunk. The injunction was denied on the basis of a previous decision of the Supreme Court which held that a taxpayer has not sufficient interest to restrain a Government official from performing his official acts.

Meanwhile, the armored hull of the Washington, anchored offshore where it had been towed by five tugs, was subjected to a series of tests with underwater bombs placed at various distances from the ship. Her resistance to the concussions was said to "justify the expectation" of the naval architects. Later acroplanes were to be called upon to bomb her, and the battleship Texas to test her deck armor with long range fire.

Wild and premature press accounts of how the Teras had bombarded the Washington, "sending chips of armor flying high in the air," and an account of two shells "passing completely through the hull" were received at the Navy Department with elevated eyebrows.

The Washington is the third ship disposed of by the Limitation of Armaments Treaty to be sunk for experiment. She was preceded by the New Jersey and the Virginia. The North Dakota is destined for a similar fate. Of the other condemned ships, 24 were sold for scrapping, or scrapped by the Government and the material sold at a total net profit of $1,410,000. Two partly completed cruisers, the Lexingion and the Saratoga, are being converted into aircraft carriers.

Hence to the Antipodes

Admiral Eberle, Chief of Naval Operations, issued formal orders for next year's fleet maneuvers. The main scene of the maneuvers is to be in the neighborhood of Hawaii. A number of vessels from the Atlantic Fleet go West for the occasion. The special event of the maneuvers will be the cruise of a fleet of twelve dreadnaughts, four cruisers and 36 destroyers to Australia and New Zealand.

They will leave Honolulu on July 1 and visit Pagopago (Samoa), Auckland and Wellington (N. Z.), Sydney and Melbourne (Australia), returning to Honolulu on Sept. 10. The fleet will be

by far the most powerful U. S. Armada which has ever plowed the waters surrounding the sixth Continent, considerably outweighing the fleet which Robley D. (“Fighting Bob") Evans took around the world in Roosevelt's time.


At El Paso

For the 44th time, the American Federation of Labor assembled. In Liberty Hall, El Paso, Tex., 400 delegates representing the 3,365,979 members of the Federation sat down to hear the welcome of Samuel Gompers, venerable President. For the first time in the many years of his presidency, Mr. Gompers committed his address to paper, had it read. It began:

"Events of recent months have made me keenly aware that the time is not far distant when I must lay down my trust for others to carry forward. When one comes to close grips with the eternal things, there comes a new sense of relative values; and the less worthy things lose significance."

Meanwhile, across the Rio Grande at Juarez the Mexican Confederation of Labor was holding its sixth annual Convention. That afternoon, the Mexican delegates, 1,000 strong, marched across the international bridge into El Paso. There came agrarian delegates, sandaled, in white cotton suits, with pink and orange scarfs and straw sombreros; there came industrial delegates in overalls; there came white-collared workers in white collars; there came women workers in orange and white blouses with black shawls. Straight to Liberty Hall marched the Mexicans and entered amid cheers. The leaders of the parade, one of them carrying a Mexican flag, embraced Mr. Gompers. Speeches followed; and translations. Then Mr. Gompers called for representatives of the British Trades Union Congress, the Canadian Trades and Labor Congress, the German Federation of Trades Unions. They came to the platform; and all clasped hands. Tears rolled down Mr. Gompers' cheeks.

The next day the A. F. L. returned the visit of the M. C. L.

Other events of the session:

An attempt to amalgamate all the unions engaged in various phases of the work of the iron and steel industry into one great industrial union was defeated.

Resolutions were passed recommending the passage of the Edge-Kelly Bill, increasing the pay of post office employes, over the President's veto; opposing a modification of the Japanese exclusion clause of the Immigration Law; endorsing citizens' military train

ing camps in so far as they are 1 for youth and not militaristic in inter asking the abolition of convict lai»= demanding Federal laws prohibiting transportation of workers to comm ties where there are strikes; favo the abolition of tax-exempt securities A special report of the Execzn Council recommended that the Fe tion continue its non-Partisan Polit Campaign Committee and declare "We are partisan to principles-not to political Party." Adherence to the Follette Party was definitely voted dear

When news of the death of M Harding was read, the delegates stus. in silence; and then adjournment w taken for the day.

John L. Lewis, President of th United Mine Workers, secured the psage of a resolution condemning Warr S. Stone, President of the Brotherho of Locomotive Engineers, for failing renew a wage agreement with the Unite Mine Workers at coal mines owned the Coal River Collieries, of which M Stone is Chairman of the Board of D rectors.

Proceedings were hurried up in der that the delegates might take tra for Mexico City in time for the Inte uration of President Calles and te meeting of the Pan-American Federa tion of Labor on Dec. 1.


Their Excellencies

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The practice of having conferences of Governors of States is gradually taking form. It remains to be whether Governors' conferences >> develop into a national institution. The advantage of these conferences as a aid to the coördination of governme in a Nation composed of 48 states is obvious. It makes possible the exchang of valuable experience expensively at quired in legislation and executive attion. It makes possible unification, of at least conformation of 48 diverse las codes. It makes for intra-national u derstanding.

Nonetheless, the Governors' conferences so far held have generally at tracted a great deal less than hali their Excellencies, the 48 Governors But the institution may be still in its infancy. Last week, 23 Governors fore gathered at Jacksonville for their 16th annual conference. Alabama, Colorad Delaware, Florida, of course, Georga Indiana, Kansas, Louisiana, Maine, Mas sachusetts, Minnesota, Montana, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oklahoma, South L Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vir ginia, West Virginia, Mississippi and the Territory of Hawaii were repre sented.

The Governors discussed taxation t

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National Affairs-[Continued]

servation of natural resources, gradessings measures to make automobile yers financially responsible for inies to persons and property. After two s of conference, they set out as guests Governor Hardee of Florida on a 1) up the St. Johns River and through

southern part of Florida. They hored by their presence the dedication the new six-mile, three-million-dollar icrete bridge connecting St. Peters

g and Tampa, one of the greatest eneering achievements of the South. entually they went home.

Two things may be considered as gely responsible for small attendance these affairs (some of the largest tes, New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, inois, Missouri, California were unresented): the fact 1) that the conence was not held at a centrally loed point; 2) that it savored in many pects of a pleasure jaunt, not requir; attendance unless entirely convenient.


Charles G. Dawes, Vice Presidentect, recovering from an operation r hernia in a Chicago hospital, ighed and joked, refused to make blic messages of congratulation from inent friends.


Clem L. Shaver, Chairman of the emocratic National Committee, sse H. Jones, finance expert of the me Committee, George W. Olvany, ss of Tammany, all rushed down to e harbor in Manhattan to say fare11 to the French Liner Paris. board were Mr. and Mrs. John W. avis.


The Pilgrims sat down to lunchThe Pilgrims-the modern Pilon. -ims, not the Fathers, of coursee fond of such an amiable proceedg. By such means they seek to rengthen the bond of mind and ngue and blood (in part) of old ngland and new United States. So everal times a year they surround a ommon board, listen to the lighter oservations of ambassadors and digtaries, rejoicing in the amenities nd urbanities of Anglo-American retions.

Last week, the Pilgrims assembled

Manhattan for such an occasion. was noteworthy in no particular anner, save that it brought together vo patriarchs of U. S. politics. And atriarchs of politics they are. Yet


He observed a contest

the two have been only occasional politicians. They have been great figures in their time, have aspired to high offices, have failed of the highest.

In the toastmaster's chair sat Elihu Root, who in less than three months will attain to the honorable estate of octogenarian. In the chair of the guest of honor sat Chauncey M. Depew, who became an octogenarian more than a decade ago.

Said Toastmaster Root: "We are observing a contest in longevity between the bronze statue at Peekskill* and the subject thereof."

Said the guest of honor: "There are many anniversaries which mark our journey through life. At 21 years of age we are welcomed to manhood and citizenship; at 60 and 70 we do not like to have the dates well-known because we wish to be considered younger; at 80 we begin to brag about our age; and when we enter upon the last lap or the century at 90, then the world rejoices and helps us along."

Thus Mr. Depew began one of those speeches that have made him America's after-dinner orator-the great post-prandial patriarch of the Nation.

Root, the great master of logic, the brilliant mind; Depew, the master of eloquence, the brilliant tongue, sat there together, enjoying what has come to them as the rewards of their life work. Mr. Root has never so exactly put his reward in words as

*At Peekskill, N. Y., birthplace of Mr. Depew, there is a statue of him which is said already to be showing the marks of time.

Mr. Depew once did when he said: "If I am known as an after-dinner speaker, I hope I am known also as a man who works. My dinners never have interfered with my business. They have been my recreation.

"Most men get their relaxation in cards. That makes them keep late hours in a room with bad air; and they drink too many cocktails. So the public says they have been killed by overwork; and they are lauded as martyrs to their activity.

"When I was young, I decided to make dinners my recreation. Speaking was very easy to me. Every man has his forte; and I suppose that is mine.

"I find that when I walk around my library table for an hour before dinner and think of the subject I'm to talk on, everything I have ever heard or read about that subject comes back to me. After my speech, I go home and am in bed about 11 o'clock. The next morning, I am fresh and ready to be at work on time. For years, I worked in my office without even going out to lunch -I ate it on my desk.

"At six o'clock I would go home and take a nap for ten minutes. Then I would find what I was to speak on and be ready to keep the engagement, at eight.

"My digestion might have bothered me had I not been careful to eat the dinner just as I would have at home... I experimented to find just what I could eat best. I soon determined to play with everything, but eat nothing except the roast and game courses. A public banquet, if eaten with thought and care, is no more of a strain than a dinner at home."

Both men have eaten their roast and game and have progressed to coffee and cigars.

Mr. Depew's Career. For Mr. Depew, the roast and game was all eloquence. In school days, he was an athlete and a humorist rather than a student. Yale made him Bachelor of Arts in 1856 at the age of 22. His eloquence at once took him into the campaign of that year in which he supported the newly-born Republican Party. Two years later, his ability had won him admission to the bar; and he went that same year as a delegate to the State Convention of his Party. Two years later still, the historic campaign of '60 brought his persuasive tongue out of the law office and put him upon the stump. A year later, his golden tongue swept him into the New York State Legislature, although he ran in a Democratic dis


National Affairs-[Continued]

trict. Two years again passed, and making two speeches a day for six weeks running, he won the post of Secretary of State of New York. At 30, he was declining the post of Minister to Japan.

Yet, after ten years of success in politics, he turned away from it to business. Commodore Vanderbilt made him attorney for the New York and Harlem R. R. As the Vanderbilt railways grew, Depew grew with them until in 1885 he was made President of the New York Central.

In the meantime, he had an eventful career. On the one hand, as a lawyer and speaker representing the railways, his appearances before the U. S. Supreme Court became public attractions, much as Mr. Borah's speeches in the Senate are public attractions today. On the other hand, he turned ever and anon to politics. In 1872, he supported Horace Greeley for the Presidency, and ran for Lieutenant Governor of New York. Greeley and Depew went to defeat together. In 1881, he ran for U. S. Senator from New York. After the Legislature had been deadlocked for several weeks over the election, Mr. Depew withdrew in order that the deadlock might end and New York might be represented in the Senate. In 1888, he placed Benjamin Harrison in nomination at the Republican Convention, but on the first ballot got 99 votes to Harrison's 80. After a few ballots he withdrew his name-and Harrison won.

So it went. That he was an unequaled orator, none denied. He was the speaker on such great occasions as the unveiling of the Statue of Liberty and the opening of The Chicago Exposition in 1893. That he was an able lawyer was proved by his services to the Vanderbilt railways. But the political plums fell into the laps of others.

Mr. Root's Career. The career of Elihu Root, eleven years Mr. Depew's junior, has been in some ways a striking parallel. Mr. Root began as valedictorian of the class of 1864 at Hamilton College. At the age of 25, he had a good law practice in Manhattan. He was called upon to defend the notorious Tweed Ring; and, although he was partly successful, the incident turned out later to be a dubious feather in his political cap. It happened that he was the personal counsel of Chester A. Arthur. When Arthur became President, he was made a Federal Attorney and conducted some notable prosecutions.


He appeared thus as a quintagenarian

Then in January, 1885, some ruffians in London exploded a charge of dynamite beneath Westminster Hall and damaged the House of Commons. A few hours later, Mr. Root addressed the Lotos Club in Manhattan, discussed the subject, as it applied to the allegation that the dynamite plot had been hatched in the U. S., showed how anarchists might prepare such plots here, even with the knowledge of our authorities who would be powerless to interfere. As a result, our laws were amended so that dynamiters and anarchists may be apprehended or extradited.

President McKinley, recognizing his ability, made him Secretary of War. Mr. Root first took prompt measures to put down Aguinaldo's insurrection in the Philippines. When peace came, he drafted the entire plan of the civil government which was given to the Islands. He likewise drafted a constitution for Porto Rico, and both were enacted by Congress. For a time during the Boxer Rebellion in China, he was simultaneously acting Secretary of State, Secretary of War and Attorney General. After a time he was indeed shifted from the War to the State Department, but not until he had completely reorganized the War Department and created the office of Chief of Staff of the Army. He did great service to the cause of friendly relations in the Western Hemisphere by diplomatic journeys to Canada and to South America. He induced the Senate to ratify a convention providing for a U. S. commission to act practically as

a receiver for Santo Domingo. E made a brilliant attack on W Randolph Hearst that helped to Charles Evans Hughes the govern ship of New York.

President Roosevelt, grateful, sa of him: "He is the ablest man I hav known in our Government service will go farther-he is the ablest m that has appeared in the public i of any country in my time."

When his Cabinet days were cr in 1909, Mr. Root went to the Sena as a representative of New York, be the scene there was not to his liki and he left it gladly in 1915. In 1917 President Wilson sent him on a spe cial diplomatic mission to Russi Even later, he organized the Wit Court for the League of Nati Slowly he approaches the time whe if the world can forgive him his clea unimpassioned mind, it will "pat him on the shoulder."

Like Mr. Depew, Elihu Root ha also missed his opportunity for the highest office in the land. In 1899, he was firm in his refusal to run for Vice President on the ticket with Me Kinley, and acceptance would have made him President, after McKin ley's assassination, instead of Roose velt. In 1916, he was one of the candidates before the Republica Convention, running, in the first two ballots, second only to Hughes wher he had helped to make. But, E Mr. Depew, he soon withdrew F name in the interest of harmony

So these two dined last week, rich in honor, rich in years, but unadorned with the tokens of office.


Ambassador E & P

General John J. Pershing, U. S. A. retired, will be Ambassador Extraord nary and Plenipotentiary for a da That day, Dec. 9, will be spent 11,60 feet above sea level, at the battlefield Ayacucho, Peru. He will represent the U. S. at the official centenary of the battle which freed South America c Spanish dominion.

The battle of Ayacucho was foug on Dec. 9, 1824, between Spanish fores and an army organized by the gre Bolivar but led at the time by the p triot General Sucre. The victory w to the revolutionists and today Pert ans regard the battle much as US citizens regard the battle of Yorktow



The Narcotic Evil"

In many lands of the Far East, ppies are manufactured into um*, Coca leaves into cocaine;

many men become slaves "in ndage to the ruthless master, the rcotic evil," as Bishop Charles H. ent of the U. S. so aptly puts it. In order to end the opium scourge, ngressman Stephen G. Porter (of nnsylvania) led an American deletion to Geneva where opened the ague of Nations International bium Conference.

In the preliminary session of the inference, after Herluf Zahle of enmark had been elected President, r. Porter brusquely insinuated that e first conference, called to discuss e means of eliminating illicit trade opium (TIME, Nov. 24), had been asting time. The American deletion, he inferred, was out to force e issue. Said he: "We have no reement before us and yet we must al effectively with the question of oduction. The dictates of common nse demand a frank admission of e dilemma in which this failure has aced the second conference, and e consideration of the possibility id wisdom of widening the scope of e discussion to include the subject progressive suppression of the affic in prepared opium."

On the first real working day of

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the flower have fallen and the capsules ve assumed a whitish color, they are puncred in the evening with a small threeonged instrument. The following morning, e juice, having exuded and thickened by posure of the air, is scraped off by a small on instrument previously dipped in oil.


then worked in a heated pot until it is ick and can be formed into cakes about four unds in weight. The cakes are than packed leaves to prevent them sticking together, d dried. This is raw opium. Prepared opium is made in many different ys according to whether it is to be smoked eaten. The usual form is to boil it with her chemicals (clarify it for eating) and ake it into pills which are then smoked th ordinary tobacco.

Whether it is smoked or eaten, the effects opium vary according to the mental dispoion of the consumers. To the bright, happy an all manner of pleasing scenes are prented; an ambitious man will fancy himself glorified Napoleon; a liverish man will be zed with morbid visions and filled with Tror and dismay. About half to one hour necessary for the opium to take effect and slumber from which the wakes exhausted, pensive and melancholy, he drug is dangerously habit-forming and comes so necessary to the addict that he nnot live without a regular supply.





"-without ulterior motives"

the Conference, Bishop Charles H. Brent, President of the International Opium Commission of 1909 in Shanghai and of the First International Opium Conference at The Hague in 1912, made an eloquent speech in support of a U. S. Plan which the delegation had presented to the Conference. The plan, said he, was in reality suggestions "to which every signatory of The Hague Convention is pledged-the ultimate suppression of the abuse of opium and cocaine and their derivatives, and the restriction of their production and manufacture within the requirements of medicine and science."

He continued: "We lay our case before the convention without reserve and without ulterior motives. There is no guile hidden beneath our service. If we are bold in our proposals, we are also frank in the presentation of them."

The Bishop also said that little had been done during the past twelve years and that it was high time the problem was energetically tackled.

The main provisions of the U. S. plan:

1) Prevention of surplus production of raw opium and the coca leaf."

2) Prohibition of distribution of heroin, a derivative of opium, without scientific or medicinal value.

3) Progressive reduction of importation

of raw opium at the rate of 10% per annum by those countries which permit the manufacture of prepared opium for smoking.

4) Progressive suppression of the manufacture of and internal trade in prepared opium.

5) Establishment of a central board to which all countries should furnish estimates of their opium requirements and, at the same time, guarantee to prohibit excess importations.

Prompt to support the Plan were Mr. Alfred Sze, Chinese Minister to the U. S.; Dr. Henri S. Beland, Canadian delegate; Michael Mac White of Ireland. But, despite their support, coupled with that of Cuba, Japan and Italy, the Business Committee of the Conference framed a program limiting the business of the Conference and eliminating many of the points raised by the U. S. plan. As Mr. Porter had all along insisted that the Conference should deal with all phases of the narcotic evil, he made a stipulation:

"It is the opinion of the United States' delegation that the report of the Business Committee may curtail unduly the Conference's scope, and the delegation from the United States, not desiring to delay matters, will vote in favor of the adoption of the report only on the express condition that it will be permitted to present to the Conference, or an appropriate committee, for consideration on their merits, American suggestions or such portions thereof as it may deem germane to the Conference's purpose. Our instructions are such that we would find it difficult to proceed further in the Conference without this clear understanding."

But the necessary assurances were not forthcoming; and when the program of the Business Committee was adopted Mr. Porter declined to cast a vote. The limit placed on the scope of the Conference was, however, thought by many to be largely academic, which meant that the U. S. delegation would have ample opportunity of pressing U. S. suggestions.

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Foreign News-[Continued]

the Government of the U. S. S. R. and signed on Aug. 8 last [TIME, Aug. 18].

"I have the honor to inform you that, after due deliberation, His Majesty's Government find themselves unable to recommend the treaties in question to the consideration of Parliament or to submit them to the King for his Majesty's ratification.


A second note concerned a letter alleged to have been sent to British Communists by Grigori Zinoviev, head of the Communist Internationale at Moscow. Rakovsky declared it a forgery; but in this note Mr. Chamberlain stated that "information in the possession of his Majesty's Government leaves no doubt whatsoever in their mind of the authenticity of Zinoviev's letter and his Majesty's Government are therefore not prepared to discuss the matter." He goes on to inveigh against the systematic dissemination of "revolutionary propaganda."

A third note declined to take cognizance of a demand from the Moscow Government for an apology for having allowed the Zinoviev letter to be published without reference to Moscow. The note said there is "no intention of departing from the decision communicated to you by Mr. MacDonald and recorded in this office, that the note in question was one which his Majesty's Government cannot consent to receive."

There was no hint that recognition of Russia would be withdrawn; but opinion was divided as to whether the Bolshevik Government would break off negotiations or not. Meantime, recognition of Sovietland by Britain continues to be a lame and empty joke.



General Maurice Sarrail, who commanded the Third Army in France during the War, has many friends; these friends started a verbal rumpus to have him made a Marshal of France.*

The friends of General Michel de Castelnau, also numerous, heard the faint hubbub of Sarrailites and started a campaign to have their hero made a Marshal of France.

When Generals Fayolle and Franchet d'Esperey were given the batons of a marshal, General de Castelnau was one of the disappointed Generals. His friends declared that

At present six men hold batons of Marshals of France: Generals Joffre, Foch, Lyautey, Fayolle, Franchet d'Esperey, Pétain.



A baton would quiet his friends

the authorities had slighted him because of his well-known Royalist sympathies. At the same time, they were able to prove that the able General had served brilliantly and faithfully Republican France.

However, there was no sign that the French War Office was taking any notice of the agitation that was shaking its windows.


On Aug. 7, 1918, the Senate, sitting as a High Court of Justice, condemned Louis Malvy, onetime Minister of the Interior, to five years exile for "culpable negligence in the discharge of his duties."

On Apr. 23, 1920, the Senate, again sitting as a High Court of Justice, condemned onetime Premier Joseph Caillaux to three years' imprisonment, five years' exile from Paris, loss of civic rights for ten years on the charge of having "impeded prosecution of the War."

During the past week, the Senate, sitting as a legislative assembly without juridical power, passed the Amnesty Bill (TIME, July 21). A motion to include Louis Malvy within its terms was passed, after ex-Premier Poincaré had expressed his belief in his innocence, by 195 votes to 62. A like motion to include Joseph Caillaux was passed by 176 votes to 104.

Louis Malvy, now a Communist Deputy, served his sentence of banishment to the full. All that the Senate

has done for him, therefore, is tear out a page in its black book

Joseph Caillaux (TIME, June 2 however, was still serving his sente and had not been to Paris since 19 until special permission was given to attend Anatole France's funera inonth ago. He is thus restored

full citizenship and can now funca actively in politics.


Loan Floated

In the U. S., there was floated loan to France of $100,000,000 by P. Morgan & Co., the First Nationa Bank (Manhattan) and Messrs Brown Brothers & Co.*

According to M. Etienne Clemente French Minister of Finance, the money is to be applied "to the reduc tion of the Government's indebted ness to the Bank of France, which will hold and use the proceeds as it may deem wise for the protection and stabilization of the franc. The Government's indebtedness to the Bank has already been materially reduced since the peak of such borrow ings, reached at the end of 1920."

The loan was issued in the form 25-year sinking fund gold bonds. T: price of issue was 94; interest at the rate of 7% on the par value, making a net return of 7.53%. The operative of the sinking fund, however, makes the interest much larger. Each year the French Government will p monthly instalments to an annual sink ing fund of $4,200,000, a sum sufficier to return the debt in 25 years at 105


The ashes of Jean Jaurés, fame French Socialist, who was assassin ated on the eve of the outbreak the War in 1914, were deposited i their final resting place the Pan theon, national shrine of Republicas France.

All Paris, except the Royalists ar Communists, turned out to witne the passing of the cortège. In th Latin Quarter, men, women and ch dren broke through the police lines to throw red eglantines and red ca nations on to the catafalque, pust by brother miners of Jaurés' her Department.

In the Pantheon, the ashes of t dead man's body were laid to rest

*This year, the U. S. has lent 1: $150,000,000, Germany $110,000,000, Car $90,000,000. The amount of foreign b purchased by Americans amounte! $1,136,506,000 -the highest amount bought.

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