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MATTRESS

dinal O'Connell of Boston in dedicating a Catholic church near the gates of Harvard University. The Cardinal had said: "Some centuries ago, some of the great schools of Europe, like Oxford and Cambridge, forgot their duty to their mother." Of Harvard, the Cardinal had said that, if she "had the old faith of Christ for which she was sup

Paul Thompson

JOHN JAY CHAPMAN He rebuked a Cardinal

posed to have been erected, her influence would be tremendous, and we [i. e., the Roman Catholics] would be the first to gather round her. . . . This temple of God represents the whole truth, the real truth. . . . Life can dispense with every other sort of half truth. So much for Harvard's boasted advantages."

Mr. Chapman called the Bishop's attention to "the customary silence with which such statements by Roman prelates are received in America. It is thought unkind and subversive for any Protestant to resent the claims made by the Roman curia, or even to call attention to them. The outspoken purpose of the Roman Church is to control American education." Later in his letter, Mr. Chapman referred to the election, some years ago, of a Catholic (James Byrne, of Manhattan) as one of the seven Fellows of Harvard. "Under present conditions of Protestant speechlessness, the presence of a Roman Catholic on the governing board of a non-Catholic college or school makes it impossible to discuss the great issue frankly."

With one exception (Owen Wister, of Philadelphia), the Harvard Fellows demurred at Mr. Chapman's identification of their colleague with "the outspoken purpose of the Roman Church." Ralph Adams Cram, Boston architect, Protestant, wrote to Mr. Chapman : "Will you . . . state explicitly where and when the Roman curia, or any other official body of the Roman Catholic Church, has declared it to be its 'outspoken purpose' to control American education? . . . I do formally chal

lenge you to show cause for makin your amazing statement. For my ow part, I deny it explicitly."

Last week, Mr. Chapman answered Mr. Cram: "I refer you to the histor of the papacy. . . . Let us look about us We see the Roman Catholic Church i every branch of its discipline, whether in its universities, seminaries, school monasteries, convents or in the paro chial commands that are read aloud in its churches, openly drilling its adher ents into contempt for American inst tutions and especially proclaiming intention to control our education... With regard to the Board of Fellows of Harvard... I call your attention to the fact that Bishop Lawrence has n yet noticed my letter."

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Westerners

At Kansas City, Mo., Henry Doherty, public utilities man, speaking of selecting new executives for his extensive enterprises, declared: "I don't know why it is, but we always ha better luck with Western men. Once in a while an Eastern university graduate makes good, but not so often. Approx mately 90%.. are products of the schools of the Middle West or West

At Columbia

To the Biological Department of Columbia University, Manhattan, at the opening of the fall term, came a new teacher. Her last name was Rockefeller. Pressmen investigated, wrote stories about her, for it was found that she was Miss Isabel Roockefeller, grandniece of John D. Rockefeller, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Percy A Rockefeller, of Manhattan.

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"Anarchy"

Patrolman Patrick Powers, of Madison, Wis., found a man on his back porch at midnight. The man ran: Patrolman Powers cried, "Halt!", took a shot in the dark, killed Peter M Posepny, Wisconsin University undergraduate. A jury acquitted Patrolman Powers of murder. Thereupon, the Daily Cardinal, Wisconsin undergraduate paper, published an editorial allegedly written by one Wesley Dunlap, of Salt Lake City. "We should like to see the police force tremble in its boots at the approach of a student. We should like to see terror thrown into their hearts when the word 'student' is mentioned."

There was trouble. Leaders of nine campus organizations declared the editorial misrepresented student feeling. The Cardinal board went into conclave The Rev. Pastor Hengell of the uni versity chapel declared that atheis and anarchy were abroad in the unversity and this was but an outcropping thereof. It was the kind of writing that led to the assassination of Presdent McKinley, thought Pastor Hengell. Said he: "May it not lead some youthful student with a grandiose complex of mock heroics, to assassinate a Madison policeman?"

George Eastman, Kodak King, disbuted his stock holdings in the EastEn concern, retaining only enough to able him to participate actively in its nagement. The aggregate worth of ese shares ($15,000,000) he divided as llows:

To Rochester University, $8,500,000. To Massachusetts Institute of Techlogy (M. I. T.), $4,500,000.

To Hampton and Tuskegee Institutes, ,000,000.

Said Mr. Eastman: "I am now upard of 70. I would like to see the sults from this money within my reaining years."*

LAW

Badger Game

At London in the High Court of Jusce, King's Bench Division, before Lord ustice Darling and a special jury comosed of men and women, was heard a ise legally described as Robinson v. fidland Bank, Limited. It was a civil ction, but such were its ramifications at it involved the nephew of Lieutennt General His Highness Maharaja -ir Pratrap Singh, Maharaja of Jammu nd Kashmir, a single state in the orthernmost part of India. Said The imes:

Great writers have sometimes sought to aint the underworld. Not the most daring mong them put upon canvas scenes more evolting or more despicable in the coldlooded and sordid vices they display than everal which the evidence in this case has epicted. The cynicism of most of the charcters in the drama provokes laughter, but is laughter of amazement and of scorn. There is something ludicrous in this naked arade of greed and of obscenity; and the redominant impression it leaves in minds not squeamish over common frailties is that -f unmitigated repugnance and disgust.

Some time in 1919, the Maharaja of Kashmir decided that his nephew, Raja Sir Hari Singh, should go to Europe for a visit. To pay his expenses, nearly $4,000,000 was given to him.

Upon this European trip, Sir Hari took with him his aide-de-camp, one Captain C. W. Arthur, whose duty was to safeguard him from danger in all its forms. This position, virtually an appointment by the British Raj, calls for man of incorruptible honor with the highest sense of duty.

The visit to the Royal Family over, Sir Hari remained in London for a short time before crossing over to Paris to disport himself. In this brief interval, he succumbed to the wiles of a certain bewitching Mrs. Robinson. Apparently, however, the Raja did not treat his lady-love with the liberality that she had expected. Therefore, according to the evidence given at the trial, she became implicated in a plot.

In a certain bed, in a certain hotel, in a certain part of Paris, Sir Hari and

*Mr. Eastman's public benefactions already include $5,000,000 to establish the Eastman School of Music at Rochester University, a total of $11,000,000 to M. I. T., the donation of a complete dental infirmary free to everyone in Rochester (TIME, March 31, Music.)

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"Maudie" Robinson were comfortably settled when who should burst into the room but a man who said he was Mr. Robinson-and, as Gilbert said, "here's a pretty how d'y'do." The upshot of the incident was that the young Raja, frightened out of his life, as Lord Darling put it, was forced to part with two cheques for about $750,000 each in order to prevent divorce proceedings which would most certainly implicate him as corespondent and have incalculable repercussions back home in Kashmir.

Later, upon the advice of his solicitor, Sir Hari stopped payment on one of the cheques, but the other was cashed. One Hobbs, a reprobate solicitor, received the unstopped cheque and deposited it in the name of Robinson in a London Branch of the Midland Bank. Later, he withdrew the money, gave Robinson $125,000, divided the remaining $625,000 among the plotters.

In this year of grace, Robinson sought to recover all the money which had been deposited in the Bank, suing that institution for negligence in turning over the money to Hobbs without his authority upon the authority of two forged cheques. Alternately, he claimed damages. But the Bank affirmed, and was upheld by the Court, that Robinson to them was merely a fictitious name and that it was, therefore, entirely within its rights in returning the money to the depositor who represented himself to be Robinson. Furthermore, the Bank de

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clared that, in point of fact, as the money belonged to a certain Eastern Potentate and was forced from him by duress, Robinson's claim could in no way be maintained.

At this juncture Lord Birkenhead's bleary eye caught the words "Eastern Potentate." As Secretary of State for India, he knew the name of this man, realized the significance of its publica

LORD DARLING

"Since the fall we are none of us innocent"

tion, and, acting well within his rights, he asked the court to withhold the Potentate's name. The Potentate then became "Mr. A" throughout the proceedings of the case.

It developed during the trial that Captain Arthur, the aide-de-camp, was a party to the plot, that he had sold his birthright for $200,000. Hobbs, the man who had handled the money, retained for his share another $200,000 for "professional services rendered." One Newton, who had impersonated Robinson in the bedroom scene because Mrs. Robinson had a very low opinion of her husband's physical beauty, also received $200,000. A Mrs. Bevan who "decoyed" the aide got $25,000 and the Robinsons received $125,000, which the male Robinson paid over to the female, and started divorce proceedings. It was at first represented that $125,000 was all that had been received; this sum was also divided among the six plotters. Sir John Simon, K. C., acting for the defense, suggested that $25,000 was Mrs. Robinson's share, inferring sarcastically that she was the most deserving.

Lord Darling here interposed: "But do the deserving always get most money?" (laughter).

Lord Halsbury, who conducted the case for the plaintiff, Robinson, was forced into a difficult position. As Lord Darling outlined in his summing up,

Robinson was not a party to the plot but, once the conspiracy had taken plac he claimed "all the benefits." Said the learned Judge: "I cannot conceive tribunal of the King's Bench, above all allowing him to come into court and claim a part of the proceeds of a theit

But Lord Halsbury declared, during the argument about costs, that "Robin son is entitled to say he has been found innocent."

Retorted witty Darling, so often cen+ sored by his colleagues for his levity: "You are never found innocent, but no guilty. People use words so loosely Since the fall we are none of us inno cent."

Judgment was entered for the defendant (Midland Bank) with costs amounting to about $150,000.

The case was over, but the sequel had yet to be written. The case was such that the Public Prosecutor could not possibly wink his eye at it. Several arrests were made: Captain Arthur, who had fled to Paris (he fought extradition on the ground that the ple had taken place in Paris and that the British Courts had no jurisdiction over him); Hobbs, the solicitor, whose trial began; several others, unnamed. The Robinsons and Newton were put unde police surveillance.

But at this point the Home Secretary bumped his nose, legally speaking. against a brick wall. It would be impossible in a case conducted by the Crown to conceal further the identity of "Mr. A." Lord Birkenhead, not without some pressure, was finally persuaded to sanction the publication of Sir Hari Singh's name.

"Lazy Judges"

In New York, the legal world has been exercised by the statement of one Meier Steinbrink, that "many of the Supreme Court judges in Brooklyn and Manhattan are lazy." Mr. Steinbrink, in a published interview, went on to say that many of the judges were "not worth $1,700 a year as law clerks instead of the $17,500 they are receiving as judges." It was at once proposed that the Brooklyn Bar Association investigate these charges, but Edward J. Byrne, its president, stated such an investigation would be futile as "laziness was a relative term and nobody was competent to determine what laziness was."

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Hours of Labor

Pending an appeal to the U. S. Supreme Court, the twelve-hour day is said to be practically eliminated from the railroads of the country as a result of a decision just handed down in Chicago by the U. S. Circuit Court of Appeals of the Seventh Circuit in a test case brought by the Government against Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe R. R. The case was brought on the complaint of the yardmasters that the twelve-hour day for yardmasters was contrary to the Hours of Service Act limiting the hours of railroad employes to nine,

DISTINGUISHED

ECONOMIC STUDY

In the belief that the

Theory of Wages

is of exceptional importance, and that constructive study of it should be stimulated, a Committee composed of

PROFESSOR J. LAURENCE LAUGHLIN, Chairman

PROFESSOR JOHN BATES CLARK

HON. THEODORE E. BURTON

PROFESSOR EDWIN F. GAY PROFESSOR WESLEY C. MITCHELL

has been authorized by Messrs. Hart Schaffner & Marx to offer in 1926 a cash prize of

THE

Five thousand dollars

for the best original treatise on this subject

HE Committee places no restrictions upon the scope, method or character of the studies submitted beyond the requirement that they make genuine contributions toward our understanding of the problem. Emphasis may be laid upon analysis of the economic principles underlying the determination of wages, upon the conditions which set maximum and minimum limits to the prices paid for important types of labor, upon quantitative studies of the factors involved, or upon any other aspect of the problems which a writer can show to be significant and upon which he can throw new light.

The prize will not be awarded except for a work of high merit. Contestants are not

limited to any country; but the manuscripts must be in English. This offer is entirely separate from the annual competition in Classes A and B of the Hart Schaffner & Marx prizes elsewhere announced.

The ownership of the copyright will vest in the donors, who will arrange for the publication of the book.

Competitors should inscribe their manuscripts with assumed names and in sealed envelopes give their real names and addresses, together with degrees, distinctions, or positions held.

Inquiries concerning the competition may be addressed to the undersigned. Manuscripts should be sent on or before October 1st, 1926, to

J. LAURENCE LAUGHLIN
UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO
CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, U.S.A.

SCIENCE

Conclave

For the 45th time, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers assembled for its annual meeting. The place was Manhattan. The attendance was composed of a group of the most eminent engineers in the country. The object was the exchange of ideas, discoveries and criticisms which each of these scientific minds had been maturing privately during the past year.

The Federal Government was present. The Government is interested in mechanical matters. Only a few years ago, war turned the entire Government into a great mechanic. Now for both war and peace aims, the Government keeps in touch with mechanical progress. So its liaison officer, Assistant Secretary of War Dwight Filley Davis, the man whose special function it is to foresee and mechanically to forearm for war, was on hand to open the session on National Defense. He set forth the two basic ideas of the War Department: 1) industrial preparedness as assurance against war; 2) the apportionment of its burdens in accordance with prearranged plans, so that the burdens might be equalized and provision made for their efficient carriage. Said he:

"If the War Department had even laid down a definite program before our entry into the World War and had computed approximately its munitions requirements under the program, our effective entrance into the European conflict would have occurred months sooner than it did; and the consequent saving in lives and money would have been enormous. In the item of leather goods alone, we estimate that $200,000,000 I could have been saved.

"We have recently appointed 15 commodity committees to which have been assigned the task of getting together the total requirements of all supply branches for certain assigned commodities. Having ascertained the total requirements, the committee submits them to a designated supply branch. It is the duty of this branch to maintain contact with the industry and to make a plan for procuring the commodity in time of emergency. This plan is then cleared by the commodity committee and, when satisfactory, becomes the procurement plan for the War Department for the commodity."

Thus spoke War's hypothecator, pledging the nation's resources, in case of need, to war-preparing peaceful plans for future emergencies, enlisting scientists-peaceful scientists-in the interests of national defense. It was perhaps one of the last things one would have expected 25 years ago of the tall, good-looking, young Missouri tennisplayer, who, then at Harvard, offered the trophy afterwards to become famous as the Davis Cup, who for two years defended it in person, who sailed boats, played polo, who became Park Commis

sioner of St. Louis and started the Municipal Athletic League. His turn towards the field of industry in war came in 1921 when he was made a director of the War Finance Corporation, from which post he came to be the Assistant Secretary of War in 1923.

The scientists listened and fell to their

ALEXANDER KLEMIN He is the helicopter's prophet

deliberations on many subjects. Some of the main topics:

Dr. Julian D. Sears of the Geological Survey warned the engineers that they must find more economical means of producing, refining and using petroleum and predicted that the 1924 production of crude oil would fall 32,000,000 barrels behind the demand.

Prof. Alexander Klemin, in charge of the School of Aeronautics of New York University, discussed the problems and development of the helicopter. Only a day or two before, Thomas A. Edison, in an interview in Collier's Weekly, had declared that the next great invention would be a practical helicopter. Klemin explained the requirements of a successful helicopter and foresaw its future development, not as a rival to the airplane but as a supplement adapted to special purposes such as rising and descending vertically and hovering over one spot.

Prof.

Henry Zoelly, a Swiss engineer, declared that the steam locomotive is lagging "pitifully" in scientific progress and foresaw the development of a turbolocomotive.

Colonel Tracy C. Dickson of the Ordnance Department of the U. S. Army told of the development of a 280,000-volt X-ray apparatus to take pictures through three inches of steel. The use of the apparatus is to detect flaws in castings, thus preventing gun explosions.

Dr. William LeRoy Emmet of the General Electric Co. told of the development of the mercury vapor turbine, explaining that he believed it would prove 40% more efficient than the steam turbine.

The principal speaker at the annual

dinner of the Society was Dr. Living. ston Farrand, President of Cornell University, who deplored the loose thinking which characterizes the American people.

All the addresses, with few exceptions, were extremely technical, which was what the engineers desired and understood. They also understood the less technical language of Dwight F. Davis.

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Relatives

Recently, Dr. James H. Jeans delivered a paper before the Royal Astronomical Society (London). It so aroused Prof. Henry H. Turner of Oxford that he reverted to the venerable English pastime of "writing to the Times" about the "remarkable occurrence." Unlike so many letters written to the Times, Professor Turner's letter was taken up by the press on both sides of the Atlantic, reprinted and headlined and garbled until a small but respectable portion of the earth's inhabitants had been instructed that the Einstein theory had led scientists to believe that other suns than ours (i. e., some stars) had planetary systems of their own, which might well harbor life.

The point of what Dr. Jeans had to say and which Professor Turner admired was this: that by virtue of the theory of relativity it was estimated that the sun and other stars were not millions of years old, but millions of millions of years. Dr. Jeans hypothecated that our planetary system was produced by the collision or close approach of another star to the sun. Knowing the distance of the stars from each other, their speed of travel, and having an estimate of the length of life belonging to stars and to our sun in particular, Dr. Jeans calculated the mathematical chance of the happening of such an accident as he believed produced our planetary system. The chance was so small as to make the event seem impossibly improbable.

Then, suddenly, Dr. Jeans revised his estimates of the lifetimes of the stars by many millions of years. This greatly improved the possibility of such an event's happening.

So, Dr. Jeans' mathematics no longer allows him to say that the chance of there being other planetary systems is inconceivably small. So far as his calculations go, there may be planets belonging to other stars, and if planets, why not life?

Of course, Dr. Jeans did not confine his consideration of relativity to the hypothetical existence or nonexistence of other planetary systems. His other conclusions include: 1) that the universe is slowly expanding; 2) that stars, in giving off heat and light, diminish in mass (weight), that the sun, for example, loses about four million tons of weight a second; 3) that, as a star becomes smaller, its speed increases.

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