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BEATRICE WEBB She, the cleverer

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verything in its power to develop the olonies and aid the Dominions to delop themselves. This streak of Imrialism, which once called forth scorn om Labor, was again manifested when e Government announced that it had > intention of surrendering the Sudan Egypt (TIME, July 7).

The Sudan, apart from its strategical aportance to Anglo-Indian communicaons, is abundantly watered by the tribtaries of the River Nile. Its great lains are, by a combination of this fact ad their geographical position, emiently suited to the raising of cotton. his caused that veteran Socialist-publist, Sidney Webb, and his wife to be>me parties to the Government's Imerialist designs.

Mr. Webb, President of the Board of 'rade and Member of the British Cablet, recently affirmed the Government's tention not to quit the Sudan. To a Lanchester audience, he spoke of the reat possibilities of the economic deelopment of that region and fired the nagination of his audience by referring "COTTON: SUDANESE WHITE OLD." He said that the Government as making great efforts to increase le cotton production of the Commonealth, not only in the Sudan but in ther British-African possessions and in dia. He said that a Nation could rosper by the "smell of the market" id to make the odor appetizing he anounced that he was setting up an inairy "into conditions of industry, parcularly with reference to the industries orking for the export trade."

It must be noted that in Europe each

nation is striving to develop itself as far as possible by increasing its supply of raw materials, with a view to becoming economically self-sufficient. The nations following this policy most vigorously are France and Britain.

Sidney Webb, a picturesque little man with a big beard, once a civil servant, was, with Bernard Shaw and Graham Wallace, one of the leading lights in the Fabian Society-organization of Socialism which has done much to develop the Socialist idea in Britain along eminently sound economic lines, and is responsible in no little part for the moderation displayed by British Socialists today. The members of this Society founded the celebrated London School of Economics, which is now one of the most important centres of economic teaching in the world.

Beatrice Potter was also an authority on Socialist economics before she married Sidney Webb in 1892. It is said that she married for her husband's ideas, but there seems to be no doubt that she is the cleverer of the two. She also had some money.

These two people were soon to become famous, chiefly for their exhaustive book, The History of Trade Unionism, which has been well received by all shades of political thought as an authoritative work. Their most recent book, The Decay of Capitalist Civilization, did indeed meet with severe criticism and is unquestionably faulty-although a highly illuminative book. Again, they are probably the greatest authorities on municipal affairs in Britain and certainly the greatest Socialisteconomists of their time. It is said of them that they have such a mastery of detail that they can quote from memory the export and import figures for any commodity in any given year.

Labor Belabored

In an unusually perspicuous article, excepting the vagaries of style considered essential to The Saturday Evening Post, Isaac F. Marcosson, famed cosmic journalist, discussed Britain's Labor régime.

"What has the Labor Government done. . . ?' [he asked].

"Nothing; but they have done it nicely,' was the reply."

Unemployment. Discussing the gentle inactivity of Labor,* the Post journalist says that unemployment is likely to be "the Nemesis of the new order."

*Admittedly, the Labor Government has not scored a success in its domestic policies, but in the conduct of foreign affairs, Mr. Marcosson's adverse criticism is not fair. Before Labor could do anything it had to create a favorable atmosphere and most of its first six months' term of office was consecrated to this necessary prerequisite to an active foreign policy.

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But two months ago he was forced to exclaim in the House of Commons: "In regard to pledges and their fulfilment, why should not I confess that we are a little innocent in this matter? If we are without experience, things which seemed very simple to carry out become very complicated and difficult when we become members of a Cabinet responsible for them."

This seems solid foundation for Mr. Marcosson's contention that the Government has pursued a policy of "masterly inactivity," expressed, for one thing, in conspicuous failure to solve the unemployment problem-there are still 1,000,000 men out of work. .. A unique situation summed up in the phrase, Labor without labor."

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tains the Housing Scheme is expected to come up during the Autumn session of the House of Commons and not a few political critics have forecast the defeat of the Government. But such prophecies are premature; the Opposition may think it wiser to let the Government remain "in office," rather than risk a referendum to the people on the Housing Scheme, which is popular, and which might result in the Labor being returned "to power."

"Society." What is to be the ultimate effect of office and society-splashing on the Laborites? Said the cosmic sage,

"It will constitute a permanent hangover for various of the horny-handed who have mounted to ministerial and other eminence. It is summed up in the sentence-Life will never be the same again. I must except a man of the type of Ramsay MacDonald, who brought a real cultural background to the post of Premier.

The truth of the matter is that not only do some of the Socialists like the trimmings and social by-products of power but they will miss them once they retire from public life. Incidentally, they have cultivated expensive tastes-that is, expensive as compared with the former mode of life. A story is told of a certain high Labor official who is said to have exclaimed during one of the many crises that the Government has faced: 'If I go out, who will pay my tailor?"

The journalist proceeded to quote one of the many stories current in London about Laborites and their wives in Society. To a peer's residence was invited a "high Labor personage" and his wife.

"After dinner the wife of this particular Labor person went to her hostess and said that she was leaving, whereupon the lady of the house said: 'You must not think of going. There is to be a reception later on and many interesting people are coming.'

"No,' retorted the Labor wife. 'We must be off. My shoes are tight, my stays are tight and my husband is tight.'

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circles upon the release of their leader, and mildly wondered if it would lead to more violent trouble.

Others referred to the Tailteann games (Irish Olympics) and stated that their success, which was doubted, is now assured.

Most interest attaches to the future of the Constitutional Republican Party, which has, since last year's election, held aloof from the Dail. Will de Valera take his position as head of the Party? Will he lead his Party to the Dail and fight constitutionally for the establishment of an Irish Republic? His first words were awaited.


Closely following in the footsteps of Manitoba, the Province of Saskatchewan clambered down from the water wagon on which both had The clambered so recently as 1920. majority in favor of the descent was stated to be "overwhelming."

The "dry" provinces are: Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Ontario, the latter of which is to wage a furious battle in the Fall to decide the vexing question of prohibition. As almost onethird of the entire population of Canada lives in Ontario, the outcome of the fight is not without moment to wets and drys alike. The Drys were reported to be preparing a desperate defense against the Wets, who were organizing a violent attack on the Drys.

The wet Provinces: Quebec, Manitoba, British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Yukon, Northwest Territories.



In the Autumn, passengers on the principal German express trains will be able to telephone any number in Germany or to be telephoned from any point in the country. This is to be made possible by the installation of wireless outfits on the trains. The procedure is for the passenger to call up a German city and ask to be connected with the desired number. Persons wishing to call a passenger must call up the central exchange, ask for the train and, when connected, ask for the passenger, who will then be paged.

In the Prussian Diet fair fraus and fräuleins stopped a fight among the

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Almost six months have fled since the Spanish Dictator, Captain-General Primo Rivera, exiled for criticizing his august régime the venerated littérateur, Don Miguel de Unamuno. And so, willy-nilly, off went the poet-philoso pher, erstwhile Rector of Salamanca University, to God-forsaken Puerto Cabras in the isle of Fuerteventura in the horrid, torrid zone.

From this barren isle, which lies off the north-west coast of Africa and forms a unit of the Canary Isles, Don Miguel was in the habit of sending forth to the outside world violent protests against the cavalier manner in which Primo had treated him and also against the arbitrary rule of him that is called Primo.

In Britain, Portugal, France, Belgium, Holland, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, growls of protest swelled to a swirling roar of indignation. Even in the U. S voices were not silent. A Unamuno let

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er was recently sent to the press, accompanied by a hot letter from Judge Peter J. Hamilton of Porto Rico. Don Unamuno's letter, in part: "I have been xiled here, having been given twentyfour hours to abandon my house, without judicial writ, not even of a military udge; without any proceeding and without telling me why."

Then came a royal pronunciamento of amnesty (TIME, July 14). Don Miguel was free, free to go back to Spain.

Last week, however, news came from Paris that Unamuno had been rescued by Le Quotidien, Paris Radical journal, which had fitted up a ship to go to Fuerteventura. After an adventurous voyage the ship, under command of M. Henri Dumay, directeur of the Progrès Civique, arrived at its destination and effected, under terrible risks, the rescue.

The question rose as to whether Don Miguel escaped before the amnesty was granted or whether he left after being notified of his liberty, as the Spanish Government declared he was. Le Quotidien declared, however, that the exiled man was rescued before the glad news was conveyed to him. The argument seems puerile: the poet-philosopher* is free, is going to Paris; there to work "among the free men of France for light and liberty."

CZECHO-SLOVAKIA Following Father

Jan Garrigue Masaryk, son of Dr. Thomas Garrigue Masaryk, President of the Czecho-Slovakian Republic, like his father is to marry an American girl. According to a despatch from Prague, capital of Czecho-Slovakia, the President's son has asked Mrs. Robert Leatherbee,† 'daughter of Charles Richard Crane, onetime millionaire-President of the Crane Valve Company. No official announcement was made; that is to come later at Vary Karlovy (Karlsbad) at a reception to be given by the President.

The prospective bride married Robert Leatherbee of Boston in 1907; in January of this year they were divorced

*Don Miguel de Unamuno was born nearly 60 years ago. and is a scion of an old Basque family. The Basques speak a language foreign to Spaniards; they are passionately fond of freedom and independence as witness their history; in battle, whether of deeds or words, they are brave and tenacious.

Don Miquel is neither a great student nor a great critic of philosophy, but is himself a philosopher dealing with his own material"naked humanity and its secret passions and hidden dreams, its obscure gropings and faltering hopes." Probably his greatest work is Del Sentimento Tragico de la Vida. 1912, even the King spoke of him as "my friend Unamuno."


†The announcement in the U. S. press ignor. antly referred to her as "Miss Wetherbee Crane."

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has been experiencing much opposition both within and without Parliament. Ever since the 70 Croatian Agrarians consented to sit in the Assembly, in April of this year, the old Premier's position has become more and more difficult, and it is not surprising that he has decided to refer the issues to the country, albeit reluctantly.

The chief matter to be settled is whether or not Croatia is to have "autonomy." Under the able leadership of Raditch, "Stormy petrel of the Balkans," the Croatians have persistently demanded their freedom and the Serbs have with equal persistence denied it to them. In the last election the Croatians secured 70 seats in the Skupshtina; this year they may do better. If they should win, another section of Yugo-Slavia (South Slavia) must be granted its freedom.

But elections are somewhat of a farce in the Balkans, and they are probably conducted with more dishonesty in Yugo-Slavia than in any other part of that unhappy peninsula.

Nikola Pashitch, who is part Bulgarian, recently celebrated his 80th birthday. For some 55 years he has devoted himself to the service of his country. In 1881 he conceived the idea of a Greater Serbia, became cofounder with the Greek leader, Eleutherios Venizelos, of the Balkan League, and with him hatched many a scheme for extending the frontiers of Serbia and Greece. With the signing of peace in 1918 his dreams were realized. Serbia grew into the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (Kraljevina Srba, Hrvata, i Slovenaca), but he found himself faced with opposition from Montenegrins and Croatians, who strongly objected to this arbitrary disposition, to some extent upon religious grounds. Old Serbia is preponderantly Orthodox Catholic; Croatia and Montenegro preponderantly Roman Catholic.

With all his faults and ambitions Pashitch is a picturesque old man and has earned for himself by his labors the title: "Grand Old Man of Serbia." He hopes to live to see prosHe perity brought to the Balkans. seems to have a good chance, for his father lived to the grand old age of 103.

Last year a young Serbian bank clerk tried to assassinate him (TIME, July 9, 1923). To make a repetition of this act more difficult, he now rides about Belgrade, capital of YugoSlavia, in an automobile with opaque glass windows.

NIKOLA PASHITCH Protected by opaque glass windows


An "Accident"

In the domain of Shah Muhammed Hasan Mirza, until April Valiahd (Crown Prince) of Persia, when his brother Ahmed was dethroned (TIME, Apr. 7), the plebs were adverse to having pictures taken of their religious observances, particularly when there were any women round.

It so happened that a crowd of Persians were giving vent to their spleen in holding meetings of hostility to the Bahaists, religious sect. Allegedly before a sacred fountain in Teheran, capital of Persia, one of these meetings was taking place. Along came U. S. Vice Consul Major Robert W. Imbrie and another American by the name of Melin Seymour, in a carriage. Before the fountain they stopped and took some pictures. Immediately the crowd rushed upon the Americans, crying out that they were Bahaists. They dragged them from the carriage, cut them, beat them. In vain did native servants of missionaries explain that the Americans were not Bahaists. The police were powerless to stop the infuriated mob. Four hours later, Vice Consul Imbrie was dead; Seymour was taken to a hospital in a critical condition.

The tragedy was the culmination of recent anti-foreign demonstrations aimed principally at the British. At the temporary funeral of the Vice

Consul, the American Church in Teheran was packed full. There were present the Serdar Sepah (Reza Khan), Premier of Persia, and members of his Cabinet, the Court Minister of Ceremonies, all the members of the Persian Parliament, representatives of all the foreign legations (except Russia) and most of the European colony. Mrs. Imbrie is to bring her husband's body back to the U. S. in the near future. Hundreds of arrests were made by the Persian police in connection with the murder.

The Persian Government instructed its Chargé d'Affaires in Washington to express to the Government of the U. S. its deepest regrets over the "unfortunate accident" and to state that everything would be done to bring the guilty persons to justice. The message indicated, however, that "the Imbrie and Seymour accident was due to their own carelessness in going to a sacred place and persisting in taking pictures. The police and army forces which went to protect them, when they were attacked by the mob, received serious injuries. Three policemen were mortally wounded and one of the soldiers died a few hours later as a result of injuries received by him."

The U. S. State Department announced that pending an enquiry, begun under the direction of Under Secretary Joseph Grew, Acting Secretary of State in the absence of Charles E. Hughes, no formal action will be undertaken to obtain redress by the U. S. Government.



Colonel Merian C. Cooper, quondam U. S. War aviator, quondam Colonel in the Polish Air Service, quondam prisoner of war in Bolshevikland, now an explorer of note, had much to say upon the great oil fight which has sporadically raged in Persia under various guises for many a long year:

"Russia is determined to have the concessions in the five Northern Persian departments which were controlled by Russian interests before the war. An Armenian who is a Russian subject and the holder of a large interest in these pre-war concessions sold his interests to English investors. At the same time the Sinclair interests have practically tied up the Persian Government in a new concession in the same district. Russia, however, refuses to recognize either of these concessions as valid and is demanding that the rights be given her. And certainly she appears to be in the strongest position. The moderation of the treaty she made with Persia

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fter the invasion of 1920 and the fact hat she has chased the English out f the Northern Provinces have given er the greatest prestige there and she using her best diplomatic efforts to ake advantage of this.

"It is also the Russian aim to preent American capital from building a ailroad across Northern Persia. Engand, too, is fighting the Americans in

is, and the British Government is usng the loan made to Persia in wartime 5 a very effective weapon."



The Island Empire of the West Britain), once a protectionist Naon, has thought it indispensable to s interests to become the greatest ee-trade Nation in the world. The sland Empire of the East, whose eographical position is analogous to hat of the British Commonwealth of lations, has been tempted from the roadway of free-trade into the sidetreets of protection, emulating, in us respect, the U. S.

Last week the Imperial Diet passed Government Bill raising the tariff n 250 luxury-articles by an addional 100% ad valorem duty.

The bill, according to the Governent, is intended to curb Japanese ppetites for foreign-made luxuries.

hey must now consume their own ixuries, or pay highly for those imorted into the country.



Floods at Canton in the extreme outh and at Kalgan in the extreme North caused much damage. In Canon, the Chu-Kiang river overflowed nd serious apprehension for the afety of the city was entertained. At Kalgan, a commercial city on the Mongolian border, 700 lives were lost nd over $1,000,000 worth of damage yas done.

American Jews are to aid their Chinese brethren,* in the Jewish olony of Kvaifêng Fu, to preserve

The Jews found their way to China in 163 and were allowed to open a synagogue K'ai-feng Fu in 1164, since when they ave enjoyed the protection of the authorities. ersecution of the Jew is relatively unknown China; but they nevertheless keep very uch to themselves, most probably because ey abhor the Chinamen's pet food, the pig. hey are known to the Chinese as "the sect { those who take out the sinew," which refers their peculiar method of preparing meat in rder to make it kosher.

Judaism, said a despatch from Shanghai.

The diplomatic conundrum, posed by the Chinese Government when it agreed to accept an Ambassador from Russia, was in process of being solved. The Chinese Government wrote to foreign governments and asked them what they were going to do about it, which was a virtual invitation to them to raise the rank of their representation from Ministers to Ambassadors. Replies were awaited.

Chinese in the employ of foreigners in Sha-mien (foreign section of Canton), went on strike because of the British Consulate's new requirement that all Chinamen employed in Shamien shall be equipped with passes bearing their signature and photograph if they leave or enter that quarter after 9 p. m. The Chinese declared that the regulations place them on the same footing as criminals. Twenty-six unions walked out in sympathy with the grief-stricken Chinamen from Sha-mien.

LATIN AMERICA Revoluting Brazil

The heavy hand of the censor having fallen upon Brazil (see THE PRESS), news from that "revoluting" country was a tangled mass of conflicting rumors, in which the truth was all but inextricable.

The communiqués issued by the Brazilian Government stated that victory was in sight: that a great battle was raging in which the defeat of the rebels was momentarily expected; that the rebel cause was doomed; that strong reinforcements had been sent to the São Paulo front and a decisive engagement planned; that the great assault was certain to crush the rebels; that the attack was about to begin.

Rumors from the rebel side were based upon the usual journalistic "trustworthy information." This information was exclusively to the effect that the rebels were gaining; that they were stronger than was supposed; that they awaited the Federal's attack with serene contempt; that they were entirely confident that they could hold the city of São Paulo against their enemy until further orders; and much more of this kind of


It seems pretty well established that the cause of the revolt is ancient. The State of São Paulo is the home

of the rich coffee planters, known as the "Yankees of Brazil," because of their enterprise and wealth. This State has an area of 112,312 square. miles and is therefore larger than all the New England States with Pennsylvania added.

Away back in 1889 Emperor Dom Pedro II of Brazil, reformer and pacifist, lost his throne by decreeing the release of hundreds of thousands of slaves belonging to the coffee planters without compensation. At the same time his pacifism alienated the militarists and his refusal to grant them the rights they demanded caused them to join the planters; since that time the two (planters and militarists) groups have remained together.

The situation leading up to the present revolt is similar. President Artur da Silva Bernardes is a reformer. To improve the nation's finances, he cut the Army appropriations, and, unheard-of thing, he introduced the income tax to Brazil. A section of the Army became peeved at the cut in their appropriations, and the rich planters, who suffered most from the hated income tax, became the President's intractable enemies, the more so since he was also a vigorous opponent of peonage (system of quasi-feudalism) which they were anxious to have recognized.

Thus, after much hostility, embittered by personal feelings and actions, the revolt broke out in São Paulo, richest State of Brazil, and battle is now being waged between "liberalism" in power and "reactionism" out of power.

NEW BOOKS Days of the Roi Soleil

THE LETTERS OF MADAME-Edited by Gertrude Scott Stevenson - Appleton ($5.00).

Elizabeth Charlotte of Bavaria, Princess Palatine, Duchesse d'Orléans, known at the Court of Louis XIV as "Madame," lived through most of the long reign of the Roi Soleil, which was fittingly commemorated many years later by Voltaire's Louis Quatorze.

This was an age of letter-writing among the ladies of the period. Most of them wrote about the trivialities of Court life and paid floods of compliments to the King and the "reigning mistress;" few ventured upon criticisms. Those letters of de Scudéry, de Sévigné, de Grignan or de Maintenon were ob

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